BRS GROSS ANATOMY PDF
1 LWBKC01_pindd 1 2/23/11 AM 2 BRS Gross Anatomy 2. Metaphysis □ Is a part of the diaphysis, the growth zone between the diaphysis. Gross Anatomy EIGHTH EDITION DESIGN SERVICES OF # Cust: LWW resourceone.info 1 Au: Chung Pg. No. i C/M/Y/K 06/09/14 BRS Gross Anatomy. Pages · High-yield gross anatomy / Ronald W. Dudek, Thomas M. Louis. For High-Yield Gross Proliferation BRS Pathology.
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BRS Gross Anatomy – 8th edition. Succeed in your anatomy course and the USMLE Step 1 exam with BRS Gross Anatomy, 8e. Written in the. BRS Gross Anatomy. S4carliSle. MUSCULAR SYSTEM. I. MUSCLE. □ Consists predominantly of contractile cells, produces the movements of various parts of. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 11, , Nancy L Halliday and others published DOWNLOAD PDF BRS Gross Anatomy (Board.
The Illustration Program Illustrations play a critical role in helping students visualize anatomic structures and help identify their functional and clinical characteristics. Some illustrations have been rearranged or redrawn, and new ones have been added. In addition, a second color was added. The new two-color art program promotes recall, clarifies difficult concepts, and enhances understanding.
More radiograms, angiograms, computed tomograms, and magnetic resonance images are included in the text and in the review test section to aid in the study of anatomic structures and their relationships. It is the authors' intention to invite feedback, constructive criticisms, and valuable suggestions from students and colleagues who choose this book as an aid to learning and teaching basic and clinical anatomy.
Kyung Won Chung Harold M. Chung Acknowledgments We wish to express our sincere thanks to the many students, colleagues, and friends who have made valuable suggestions that have led to the improvement of the 6th edition.
We are also indebted to John M. Chung, M. Chapter 1 Introduction Studies of gross anatomy can be approached in several different ways including systemic, regional, or clinical anatomy. Systemic anatomy is an approach to anatomic study organized by organ systems, such as the respiratory, digestive, or reproductive systems, which relates structure to function.
Regional anatomy is an approach to anatomic study based on regions and deals with structural relationships among the parts of the body such as the thorax and abdomen, emphasizing the relationships among various systemic structures such as muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
Anatomy is best learned by emphasizing its connection to clinical medicine, and thus clinical anatomy emphasizes the practical application of anatomic knowledge to the solution of clinical problems that are important in and have real pertinence to the practice of medicine. In this introductory chapter, the systemic approach to the study of anatomy is used. In subsequent chapters, the clinical and regional approaches to the study of anatomy are used because many injuries and diseases involve specific body regions, and dissections and surgical procedures are performed region by region.
In addition, clinical correlations are presented throughout the text.
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Skeletal System I. Bones Are calcified connective tissue consisting of cells osteocytes in a matrix of ground substance and collagen fibers. Serve as a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus and act as levers on which muscles act to produce the movements permitted by joints. Contain internal soft tissue, the marrow , where blood cells are formed.
Are classified, according to shape, into long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid bones; and according to their developmental history into endochondral and membranous bones.
Long bones Include the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, and phalanges. Develop by replacement of hyaline cartilage plate endochondral ossification. Have a shaft diaphysis and two ends epiphyses. The metaphysis is a part of the diaphysis adjacent to the epiphyses. Diaphysis Forms the shaft central region and is composed of a thick tube of compact bone that encloses the marrow cavity.
Metaphysis Is a part of the diaphysis, the growth zone between the diaphysis and epiphysis during bone development. Epiphyses Are expanded articular ends , separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate during bone growth, and composed of a spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone. Short bones Include the carpal and tarsal bones and are approximately cuboid shaped.
Are composed of spongy bone and marrow surrounded by a thin outer layer of compact bone. Flat bones Include the ribs, sternum, scapulae, and bones in the vault of the skull. Have articular surfaces that are covered with fibrocartilage. Grow by replacement of connective tissue. Irregular bones Include bones of mixed shapes such as bones of the skull, vertebrae, and coxa. Contain mostly spongy bone enveloped by a thin outer layer of compact bone.
Sesamoid bones Develop in certain tendons and reduce friction on the tendon, thus protecting it from excessive wear.
Are commonly found where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the limbs, as in the wrist and the knee i. Parathyroid hormone causes mobilization of calcium by promoting bone resportion, while calcitonin suppresses mobilization of calcium from bone.
Osteoid is the organic matrix of bone prior to calcification. Osteomalacia is a gradual softening of the bone due to failure of bone to calcify because of lack of vitamin D or renal tubular dysfunction. Osteopenia is a decreased calcification of bone or a reduced bone mass due to an inadequate osteoid synthesis.
Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures of the hip, vertebra, and wrist.
It occurs when bone resorption outpaces bone formation, since bone constantly undergoes cycles of resportion and formation remodeling to maintain the concentration of calcium and phosphate in the extracellular fluid. Signs of osteoporosis are vertebral compression, loss of body height, development of kyphosis, and hip fracture.
Osteopetrosis is an abnormally dense bone, obliterating the marrow cavity, due to defective resportion of immature bone. Joints Are places of union between two or more bones. Are innervated as follows: The nerve supplying a joint also supplies the muscles that move the joint and the skin covering the insertion of such muscles Hilton's l a w. Are classified on the basis of their structural features into fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial types. Fibrous joints synarthroses Are joined by fibrous tissue, have no joint cavities , and permit little movement.
Sutures Are connected by fibrous connective tissue i. Are found between the flat bones of the skull. Syndesmoses Are connected by fibrous connective tissue. Occur as the inferior tibiofibular and tympanostapedial syndesmoses.
Cartilaginous joints Are united by cartilage and have no joint cavity. Primary cartilaginous joints synchondroses Are united by hyaline cartilage. Permit no movement but growth in the length of the bone.
Include epiphyseal cartilage plates the union between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of a growing bone and spheno-occipital and manubriosternal synchondroses. Secondary cartilaginous joints symphyses Are joined by fibrocartilage and are slightly movable joints. Include the pubic symphysis and the intervertebral disks. Are characterized by four features: Plane gliding joints Are united by two flat articular surfaces and allow a simple gliding or sliding of one bone over the other.
Occur in the proximal tibiofibular, intertarsal, intercarpal, intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal, sternoclavicular, and acromioclavicular joints.
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Hinge ginglymus joints Resemble door hinges and allow only flexion and extension. Occur in the elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal joints. Pivot trochoid joints Are formed by a central bony pivot turning within a bony ring.
Allow only rotation movement around a single longitudinal axis. Occur in the superior and inferior radioulnar joints and in the atlantoaxial joint.
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Condylar ellipsoidal joints Have two convex condyles articulating with two concave condyles. The shape of the articulation is ellipsoidal. Allow flexion and extension and occur in the wrist radiocarpal , metacarpophalangeal, knee tibiofemoral , and atlanto-occipital joints.
Saddle sellar joints Resemble a saddle on a horse's back and allow flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and circumduction but no axial rotation. Occur in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb and between the femur and patella. Ball-and-socket spheroidal joints Are formed by the reception of a globular ball-like head into a cup-shaped cavity and allow movement in many directions.
Allow flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, medial and lateral rotations, and circumduction and occur in the shoulder and hip joints. It results from wear and tear of the joints; commonly affects the hands, fingers, hips, knees, feet, and spine; and is accompanied by pain and stiffness.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease primarily of the joints. It is autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the synovial membranes and articular structures, leading to deformities and disability.
There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis, and its most common symptoms are joint swelling, stiffness, and pain. Muscular System I. Muscle Consists predominantly of contractile cells and produces the movements of various parts of the body by contraction.
Occurs in three types: Has two attachments, an origin which is usually the more fixed and proximal attachment , and an insertion which is the more movable and distal attachment.
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BRS Gross Anatomy pdf
Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: Kyung Won Chung Pages: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Language: English ISBN If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5.
You just clipped your first slide!You may also be interested in the following ebook: Kyung Won Chung Pages: Metaphysis Is a part of the diaphysis, the growth zone between the diaphysis and epiphysis during bone development. An interactive online question bank makes it easy for you to create personalized practice tests to gauge your understanding. Book details Author: Short bones Include the carpal and tarsal bones and are approximately cuboid shaped. Serve as a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus and act as levers on which muscles act to produce the movements permitted by joints.