RIVER OUT OF EDEN PDF
River Out of Eden continues this mission and brings to an extraterrestrial climax the story of the repercussions that can ensue when the phenomenon of. How did the replication bomb we call ”life” begin and where in the world, or rather , in the universe, is it heading? Writing with characteristic wit. Nearly a century and a half after Charles Darwin formulated it, the theory of evolution is still the subject of considerable debate. Oxford scientist Richard Dawkins.
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the Author is aware, has not until the present time been furnished with o. desirable to include The Art of Soap-making Investment Strategies Of Hedge Funds. DOWNLOAD in River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life (Science Masters Series) EPUB Click button below to download or read this book. River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life, Richard Dawkins. Basic Books, New York, NY. pages. ISBN: $ Show all authors.
But if the names of the branches had been garbled by the 6th century BC, perhaps the description of the layout of this river may be a little more reliable - in brief, it was a long river running through a garden that eventually parted into four branches.
So let us run with that idea and see where it takes us to. The possibility exists, therefore, that the Book of Genesis was referring to Egypt and to the Nile, and not to Mesopotamia at all. This is a suggestion that gives us some further interesting possibilities, but the prospect of finding a comprehensive explanation and a location for Eden and its integral Adam and Eve story seemed impossible, as the narrative and genealogies from this early part of the Bible initially seem too fragmented and confusing to provide a verifiable history.
However, if Eden was in Egypt, and if Eden contained a famous garden and a famous first lady and first man then there may well be a good explanation for this story, and a comparable description of it in the historical record.
Fig 2. In antiquity, there were four branches. The Garden of Eden should therefore be located somewhere along the eastern banks of the river Nile.
And if the Garden of Eden was in Egypt then we may well have a direct Egyptian counterpart of it, for we know that there was a Garden of Aden Aten located in Middle Egypt. That garden was created by Pharaoh Akhenaton for his god, the Aton. And yet there is a further similarity here, for the name for the Aton can also be spelt as Adon.
The similarity here is beginning to look interesting. Furthermore, if we spell the name of the Egyptian Eton or Edon with an aleph instead of an ayin, then we might well derive a word like Aton or Adon Nda, which just happens to be one of the many names for the Israelite god in Joshua Psalms among many other verses.
Does anyone really believe that this is a coincidence? And so we can be fairly certain that one of the many guises of the Israelite god had an Egyptian flavour; which should not be very surprising to readers, since that is where the Israelites came from. The Israelites were from Egypt, not Babylon, and so any absorption of language and creed by the Israelites would have naturally had an Egyptian flavour.
And since the Israelites are reputed to have left Egypt on their Exodus just after the Amarna era of Pharaoh Akhenaton, and since the Israelites were among the first monotheists, just like Pharaoh Akhenaton, perhaps we can confidently surmise that they had picked up some Atonist influences while in Egypt - including one of the many names for their supposedly singular god.
It would seem that the information in these ancient records is often correct, you just have to be very careful about how you read it. However, this is not simply an assumption in isolation, for this interpretation gives us a strong similarity with the accounts of Manetho, the 3rd century BC Egyptian historian. Manetho said of a similar location that: The king These he cast into the stone-quarries to the east of the Nile, there to work segregated from the rest of the Egyptians.
Among them, Manetho adds, there were some of the learned priests, who had been attacked by leprosy. Manetho Fr 54 Again we need to read this paragraph critically and laterally, for Manetho did not want to directly record who these people really were.
Pharaoh Akhenaton oversaw a revolution in artwork in Egypt, using techniques and styles that were borrowed from Minoan Crete.
It is highly likely that this artwork was based upon a real garden at Amarna - the Garden of Aten or Garden of Eten. Unfortunately, most of these frescos were destroyed by locals in the last two centuries, as often happens in this region.
[PDF] River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life (Science Masters Series) Popular Online
But if all of this is so, then this might give us a very different view of the Genesis narrative. Dawkins shows that this approach is misguided, as the numbers of ancestors and descendants seem to grow exponentially as generations are added to the lineage tree. In just 80 generations, the number of ancestors can exceed a trillion trillion. This simple calculation does not take into account the fact that every marriage is really a marriage between distant cousins which include second cousins, fourth cousins, sixteenth cousins and so on.
The ancestry tree is not really a tree , but a graph. Dawkins prefers to model ancestry in terms of genes flowing through a river of time. An ancestor gene flows down the river either as perfect replicas of itself or as slightly mutated descendant genes. Dawkins fails to explicitly contrast ancestor organism and descendant organisms against ancestor genes and descendant genes in this chapter.
But the first half of the chapter is really about differences between these two models of lineage. While organisms have ancestry graphs and progeny graphs via sexual reproduction , a gene has a single chain of ancestors and a tree of descendants. Given any gene in the body of an organism, we can trace a single chain of ancestor organisms back in time, following the lineage of this one gene, as stated in the coalescent theory.
Because a typical organism is built from tens of thousands of genes, there are numerous ways to trace the ancestry of organisms using this mechanism.
But all these inheritance pathways share one common feature. If we start with all humans alive in and trace their ancestry by one particular gene actually a locus , we find that the farther we move back in time, the smaller the number of ancestors become. The pool of ancestors continues to shrink until we find the most recent common ancestor MRCA of all humans alive in via this particular gene pathway.
In theory, one can also trace human ancestry via a single chromosome, as a chromosome contains a set of genes and is passed down from parents to children via independent assortment from only one of the two parents. But genetic recombination chromosomal crossover mixes genes from non-sister chromatids from both parents during meiosis , thus muddling the ancestry path.
Mitochondrial DNA, therefore, can be used to trace matrilineal inheritance and to find the Mitochondrial Eve also known as the African Eve , the most recent common ancestor of all humans via the mitochondrial DNA pathway.
The main themes of the third chapter are borrowed from Dawkins' own book, The Blind Watchmaker. This chapter shows how the gradual, continuous and cumulative enhancement to organisms via natural selection is the only mechanism which can explain the complexity we observe all around us in nature.
Dawkins adamantly refutes the "I cannot believe so and so could have evolved by natural selection" argument of Creationists , calling it the Argument from Personal Incredulity.
Creationists often claim that some features of organisms e.
Some say, "half of an X will not work at all. Do you actually know the first thing about orchids, or wasps, or the eyes with which wasps look at females and orchids? What emboldens you to assert that wasps are so hard to fool that the orchid's resemblance would have to be perfect in all dimensions in order to work? Dawkins goes on to illustrate his point by demonstrating how scientists have been able to fool creatures big and small using seemingly dumb triggers.
For instance, stickleback fish treat a pear-shape as a sex bomb a supernormal stimulus. Gulls' hard-wired instincts make them reach over and roll back not just their own stray eggs, but also wooden cylinders and cocoa tins. Honeybees push out their live and protesting companion from their hive, when the companion is painted with a drop of oleic acid. Furthermore, a turkey will kill anything which moves in its nest unless it cries like a baby turkey.
If the turkey is deaf, it will mercilessly kill its own babies. As part of this, Dawkins emphasises the gradual nature of evolution. For example, some creatures such as the stick insects possess the most amazing degree of camouflage , but in fact any sort of camouflage is better than none. There is a gradient from perfect camouflage to zero camouflage.
A percent camouflage is better than 99 percent. A 50 percent camouflage is better than 49 percent. A 1 percent camouflage is better than no camouflage. A creature with 1 percent better camouflage than its contemporaries will leave more descendants over time an evolutionary success , and its good genes will come to dominate the gene pool.
Not only can we classify the degree of insect camouflage using a gradient, we can also study all aspects of the surrounding environment as gradients. For instance, a 1 percent camouflage may not be distinguishable from no camouflage under bright daylight.
But as light fades and night sets in, there is a critical moment when the 1 percent camouflage helps an insect escape detection by its predator, while its companion with no camouflage is eaten. The same principle can be applied to the distance between prey and predator, to the angle of view, to the skill or the age of a creature, etc. In addition to demonstrating how gradual changes can bring about features as complex as the human eye , Dawkins states that computer simulation work by Swedish scientists Dan Nilsson and Susanne Pelger although it is not a computer simulation but simple mathematical model shows that the eye could have evolved from scratch a thousand times in succession in any animal lineage.
In Dawkins' own words, "the time needed for the evolution of the eye It is a geological blink. This chapter is Dawkins's take on the meaning of life or the purpose of life.
Dawkins quotes how Charles Darwin lost his faith in religion, "I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidae with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of Caterpillars. Conversely, a lack of water is associated with being away from the will of God. In Genesis we see Hagar temporarily being cast into the desert, only to have a mysterious well show up to save her.
What is signicant is that this well and its water is connected with God being with the lad Ishmael : Genesis - And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs.
And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bow shot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child.
And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar?
Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation. And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink.
And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. Yeshua makes a connection between being in oppostion to Him and "dry" places -- those without God's rest: Luke ,24 - He that is not with me is against me: and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.
When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out. In the following passages we have mention of a sin committed by Israel with the "mixed multitude. Although water still has spiritual properties in the time between Genesis 2 and Revelation 21, the River of Eden itself is said to be "dried up" during the time of Israel's exile in that it is not fully functioning as seen in Genesis and Revelation.
This causes a "disconnect" between the En Sof, the Shekinah and mankind. When Israel comes out of exile at the time of Messiah, and following the Millennium, the river of Eden resumes its uninterrupted flow and the Tree of Life is "replanted" into the re-established Eden on earth as in Revelation III, XL, For this reason proselytes will no longer be admitted in the days of the Messiah.
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II, 1. They caused the Zaddik to be left parched and desolate by the loss of the first Temple, which is the Shekinah in heaven, and by the loss of the second Temple, which is the Shekinah on earth. XV, It is interesting to note that in this section above it states that there will be no more proselytes admitted, and no more "mixed multitude," insinuating that the door is closed -- those who are truly of God will be permanently separated from those who are not.
This parallels the book of Revelation which states: Revelation - He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. It would seem that the full return of the River of Eden is at the end of the Millennium when sin is no more.
The fountain mentioned in Zechariah however, is opened during the Millennium for purification, as during the year period there is still sin and sin sacrifice occuring. The following verse associates the theme of Jubilee with the River of Eden, and the end times, something we have discussed earlier in this study: Soncino Zohar, Vayikra, Section 3, Page 58a - Mark now that in future generations the Torah will be forgotten, and there will be none to close and open.
Alas for that generation! There will be no generation like the present until the Messiah comes and knowledge shall be diffused throughout the world.
3 The Garden of Eden.pdf - Bible Story 3 THE GARDEN OF EDEN...
It is written: "A river went forth from Eden" Gen. II, It has been laid down that the name of that river is Jubilee, but in the book of Rab Hamnuna the Elder it is called Life, because life issues thence to the world.
We have also laid down that the great and mighty Tree in which is food for all is called the Tree of Life, because its roots are in that Life. We have learnt that that river sends forth deep streams with the oil of plenitude to water the Garden and feed the trees and the shoots. Jacob is connected to the River of Eden and the idea of his bringing together the unification of the Name of God. This was so because Jacob inherited the cream of all more than the other patriarchs, he being perfect in all, and he gave all to Joseph.
This was fitting, because the Righteous One takes all and inherits all, and all blessings are deposited with him. He first dispenses blessings above, and all the limbs of the body are disposed so as to receive them, and thus is brought into being the "river which goes forth from Eden".A 1 percent camouflage is better than no camouflage.
These commandments are known as Chukim. And the obvious alternative location can be gleaned from some of the opening verses in the Book of Genesis, which say: And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four branches. One thing that may be of note is that Adam may very well have given them these names. Most recent common ancestor and Coalescent theory. The commandments regarding purification covered many areas - from the High Priest at Yom Kippur to a woman after giving birth.
Yes, Akhenaton and Nefertiti did indeed float through their beautiful palaces at Amarna in a state of near nakedness, and scene after scene portrays the royal couple in either see-though diaphanous robes or being completely naked.
From the starting point of the Replicator Threshold , we may eventually reach the higher thresholds of Consciousness , Language , Technology , and Radio.
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