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Lei 10826 Pdf

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Chinese adolescents engaged in more cyber aggression perpetration and were victimized more by cyber aggression when compared to Japanese adolescents.

No country of origin differences were found for peer attachment. However, uninvolved adolescents reported higher levels of peer attachment when compared to the other groups. These results suggest that there should be concern about cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in these countries, especially in India, where cyber aggression research has been slow to develop.

Introduction Most adolescents have spent their lives completely enmeshed in a digital world, with various opportunities and information at their fingertips. Technology usage has many benefits for adolescents, allowing them to quickly communicate with friends and family and to access a wealth of information quickly.

Despite such benefits, adolescents also experience risks associated with their technology usage. Cyber aggression is one risk, and it has received attention from researchers, educators, parents, and the general public. Research on cyber aggression is increasing, but research focused on these behaviors in other countries has been slower to develop, particularly in China, India, and Japan. Although the literature has been advancing on cyber aggression, moving from frequency rates to the behavioral characteristics and consequences, little attention has been given to the role of peer relationships in these behaviors.

Furthermore, poor peer attachment is related positively to cyber aggression involvement. However, little attention has been given to examining country of origin and cyber aggression involvement differences in peer attachment. Cyber Aggression Involvement and Culture This study utilizes the terminology of cyber aggression, which is a broader form of cyberbullying.

These behaviors are directed toward others who find such behaviors offensive and unwanted, and such behaviors can occur through email, chat programs, text messages, gaming consoles, social networking sites, blogs, and discussion boards. Unlike cyberbullying, Grigg [3] argues that aggressive cyber behaviors do not always include repetition. This component is central to the traditional bullying and cyberbullying definitions.

Therefore, measures of cyberbullying focus on repetition while cyber aggression measures do not include the repetition component. This literature review uses both terminologies in order to accurately describe the terminology and methodology of the studies.

In this literature, face-to-face aggression, face-to-face victimization, and cyber victimization are all found to be associated positively with cyber aggression and cyberbullying perpetration [2,4—8]. Other research implicates peer rejection, a lack of empathy, beliefs about anonymity, and narcissism as predictors of cyber aggression and cyberbullying perpetration [2,9—11].

Research aimed at understanding cyber aggression and cyberbullying involvement is important, as these behaviors relate to adjustment difficulties, specifically depression, anxiety, and loneliness [12—14]. In addition, cyber aggression and cyberbullying involvement is linked to poor academic performance, increased absences, and more truancy [1,15—17].

Researchers have classified aggression involvement into different categories including the uninvolved neither perpetrator nor victim , cybervictims, cyberbullies, and cyberbully-cybervictims both perpetrator and victim [13].

Cyber aggression and cyberbullying research is even more important as research indicates that this phenomenon is not only found in one country, though much of the research has been conducted in the United States.

The available research suggests that cyber aggression is a global concern. Of these studies, researchers have identified cyber aggression and cyberbullying involvement in Australia [12], Belgian [18], Germany [19], Ireland [20], Italy [21], Spain [22], Sweden [23,24], and Turkey [25].

Research on cyber aggression and cyberbullying involvement has been slower to develop in Asia, with findings revealing that perpetration and victimization occurs in some countries and areas, including China [26], Korea [27], Singapore [28], and Taiwan [16].

Examining cyber aggression involvement in Asia is imperative as the top four countries according to internet usage include China, India, and Japan, as well as the United States [29]. China ranks as number one, followed by the United States, India, and Japan. Understanding where a country ranks in terms of internet usage is important as access to the internet and the more time spent online are both risk factors associated with cyberbullying perpetration and victimization [30,31].

Although some research has examined cyberbullying involvement in China, this research has focused on frequency rates, demographic variables, and lower academic achievement as factors linked to the perpetration of these behaviors [26,32]. Few empirical investigations exist concerning cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in India and Japan.

In one study, Japanese adolescents reported cyberbullying, but their levels of involvement were lower than adolescents from the United States and Austria [33,34]. Studies conducted in India focus on cyber gender harassment, a form of cyber harassment involving similar behaviors as cyberbullying, except that this behavior occurs among adults instead of children and adolescents [35].

Taken together, research from China, India, and Japan indicate that cyber aggression and cyberbullying occur among adolescents in these countries, and that their high levels of internet consumption warrant further investigation.

Collectivistic countries, like China and Japan, promote, prime, and reinforce individuals for behaving consistently with an interdependent self-construal [40]. Individualistic countries, like the United States, reinforce independent self-construal.

India is considered both a collectivistic and an individualistic country, which might place these adolescents at an elevated risk of cyber aggression involvement when compared to adolescents from China and Japan. Barlett and colleagues [33] examined interdependent self-construal as a moderator in the relationship between country of origin i. The results revealed that cyberbullying was highest for young adults from the United States when they endorsed low levels of interdependent self-construal.

These results were not found for Japanese young adults. Based on the previous research on face-to-face aggression perpetration, it might be likely that independent self-construal increases the risk of engaging in cyber aggression [34,40].

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Gender differences in cyber aggression involvement in the United States and in European countries are mixed [2,9,41—43].

The literature on gender differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization is not as mixed in Asian countries. In this research, Chinese boys perpetrate and are victimized by cyberbullying more often than Chinese girls [26,32,44]. Similar patterns were found in Japan as well, with Japanese young adult males perpetrating these behaviors at higher rates than Japanese young adult females [33].

It is unclear whether Japanese males would experience more or less victimization than Japanese females as there has been no research conducted on this topic. In addition, research has not been conducted on gender differences in cyber aggression involvement among Indian adolescents. Given that research on cyber gender harassment conducted in India focuses solely on men harassing women through digital technologies, it might be likely that girls are more at risk for cyber victimization while boys might perpetrate cyber aggression more often than girls [35].

Problems within peer relationships can place adolescents at a higher risk of being involved in conflicts with their peers [37]. Thus, it is not surprising that adolescents with higher rates of victimization and those with behavioral problems are likely to rate their peer relationships as poor, due to these adolescents being less socially integrated in the peer group [45,46].

These adolescents also show less empathy toward their peers and this lack of empathy combined with behavioral problems might exacerbate their aggression directed toward their peers.

When ostracized by the peer group, adolescents often act reactively by using aggression, developing favorable attitudes toward these behaviors [47]. In the literature, higher peer attachment relates to more sympathetic attitudes toward peers, and less delinquency and aggressive behaviors [48].

Peer attachment is also related negatively to face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying as well as victimization by both types of bullying. Some attention has focused on the relationship between peer attachment and cyberbullying categories.

One of the few studies conducted on these associations found that cyberbully- cybervictims have lower levels of peer attachment than uninvolved adolescents [49]. No other research exists concerning differences in peer attachment among cyberbullies and cybervictims. Gender has also been investigated as a factor relating to peer attachment. Societies , 5 Little attention has been given to examining peer attachment among adolescents in China, India, and Japan.

The literature suggests that members of collectivistic cultures are attached to their peers, due to the reinforcement of interdependence and maintaining relationships with others in their society [51]. Therefore, considering that countries, like China, India, and Japan, have collectivistic focuses, it is likely that these adolescents are also attached to their peers.

Given that individualism is endorsed in India as well, these adolescents might experience different levels of peer attachment than adolescents from China and Japan. In the literature, adolescents from the United States had higher levels of peer attachment than adolescents from India [52]. On the other hand, other research indicates that Chinese adolescents who immigrated to Italy have higher rates of peer attachment than Italian adolescents [53].

Considering these contrasting findings, it is difficult to conclude whether Indian adolescents experience higher or lower levels of peer attachment when compared to adolescents from China and India. In addition, there is no literature revealing the role of cyber aggression categories i. Present Study Few investigations have been conducted on cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in China, India, and Japan, especially studies conducted to compare rates across these countries.

In addition, it is unknown whether peer attachment relates to cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. To this end, the first aim of the present study compared rates of cyber aggression involvement in China, India, and Japan, while controlling for face-to-face bullying perpetration and victimization, individualism, and collectivism. It was hypothesized that Indian adolescents would report higher levels of cyber aggression involvement when compared to Chinese and Japanese adolescents, given the emphasis on both collectivism and individualism in India [35].

Although China and Japan are both collectivistic societies, China is a little less collectivistic and has higher rates of internet consumption, which might contribute to adolescents in this country being more at risk for cyber aggression involvement [29]. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Chinese adolescents would report higher levels of cyber aggression involvement than Japanese adolescents. Chinese and Japanese boys were expected to engage in more cyber aggression perpetrators than girls from these countries.

In addition, Chinese boys were also expected to experience more cyber victimization when compared to Chinese girls. Due to the research on cyber gender harassment in India, it was expected the girls would experience more cyber victimization, whereas boys would be more likely to be the perpetrators of cyber aggression [35].

The second aim of the present study was to examine differences in cyber aggression involvement categories i. Therefore, three-way interactions were examined among gender, country of origin, and cyber aggression involvement. Uninvolved adolescents were expected to have the highest peer attachment, despite their country of origin. No other hypotheses were made regarding the interaction of cyber aggression involvement classifications and gender.

Methods 5. Participants Participants were adolescents age range 11—15 years old; In China, data was collected from two schools, with one located in Beijing and the other in the An Hui Province. Adolescents from India were from six schools in the Karnataka state of India.

Japanese adolescents were recruited from two schools located in a suburb of Tokyo. All data was collected in the Fall of , except for Japanese adolescents. Japanese schools begin in April, and data was collected in July Procedures and Measures Emails were sent to principals from target schools, describing the purpose of the study, how the school could participate, and what adolescents would be expected to do.

When principals expressed an interest in the study, a meeting was setup with principals and teachers in order to receive their permission for their students to participate in the study.

All principals and teachers agreed to allow students to participant in the study. Consent documents were sent home with adolescents, and then returned to their teachers, except in Japan where consent was obtained from school principals only. On the day of data collection, adolescents provided their assent to participate in the study before completing the surveys. No adolescents refused to participate. This study is part of a larger study on the psychosocial development of adolescents from various countries around the world, with a major focus on understanding the contextual factors which influence their involvement in cyber aggression.

For this study, the following questionnaires were administered, including individualism and collectivism, face-to-face aggression involvement, cyber aggression involvement, and peer attachment. Li and colleagues [55] adapted the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism measure [56] by changing some items to be suitable for adolescents e.

There were sixteen items included in this measure, with eight for individualism e. Participants rated the items on a scale of 1 Absolutely disagree to 9 Absolutely agree. Societies , 5 5. Face-to-Face Aggression Involvement To examine face-to-face aggression involvement, adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning how often they perpetrated face-to-face aggression e.

The items were described as occurring within the current school year. Adolescents rated the eighteen items nine per subscale on a scale of 1 Never to 5 All of the Time. Cyber Aggression Involvement Adolescents indicated how often they perpetrated cyber aggression e. Eighteen items were included on this measure, with nine items per subscale. They rated all items on a scale of 1 Never to 5 All of the Time. Results To examine the hypotheses for this study, two separate sets of analyses were performed.

The first analysis examined differences among adolescents from the three countries regarding their cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. The second analysis investigated the role of cyber aggression involvement in peer attachment, and the differences across the three countries.

Bonferroni corrections were utilized for all post-hoc follow-up analyses. Multi-group factor analysis was performed in Mplus for all four measures.

Measurement invariance was not found among any of the groups. Therefore, the models included cultural values. Interested readers should contact the first author for more information about these additional analyses. Differences in Cyber Aggression Involvement A MANOVA was conducted with cyber aggression perpetration and victimization as the dependent variables, country and gender as the independent variables, and face-to-face aggression involvement perpetration and victimization and cultural values individualism and collectivism as covariates.

An interaction was included between country and gender. Similar main effects were found for cyber aggression perpetration country: Interactions were also significant for cyber aggression involvement perpetration: Indian adolescents perpetration: Cyber aggression involvement was also higher among Chinese adolescents than Japanese adolescents.

Boys reported more cyber aggression involvement than girls in China and India. There were no gender differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Japanese adolescents.

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Table 1. Correlation among all variables for Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents. IND 0. COLL 0. CAP 0. This study is part of a larger study on the psychosocial development of adolescents from various countries around the world, with a major focus on understanding the contextual factors which influence their involvement in cyber aggression.

For this study, the following questionnaires were administered, including individualism and collectivism, face-to-face aggression involvement, cyber aggression involvement, and peer attachment. Li and colleagues [55] adapted the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism measure [56] by changing some items to be suitable for adolescents e.

There were sixteen items included in this measure, with eight for individualism e. Participants rated the items on a scale of 1 Absolutely disagree to 9 Absolutely agree.

Societies , 5 5. Face-to-Face Aggression Involvement To examine face-to-face aggression involvement, adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning how often they perpetrated face-to-face aggression e. The items were described as occurring within the current school year.

Adolescents rated the eighteen items nine per subscale on a scale of 1 Never to 5 All of the Time. Cyber Aggression Involvement Adolescents indicated how often they perpetrated cyber aggression e. Eighteen items were included on this measure, with nine items per subscale.

They rated all items on a scale of 1 Never to 5 All of the Time. Results To examine the hypotheses for this study, two separate sets of analyses were performed. The first analysis examined differences among adolescents from the three countries regarding their cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. The second analysis investigated the role of cyber aggression involvement in peer attachment, and the differences across the three countries.

Bonferroni corrections were utilized for all post-hoc follow-up analyses. Multi-group factor analysis was performed in Mplus for all four measures. Measurement invariance was not found among any of the groups. Therefore, the models included cultural values. Interested readers should contact the first author for more information about these additional analyses. Differences in Cyber Aggression Involvement A MANOVA was conducted with cyber aggression perpetration and victimization as the dependent variables, country and gender as the independent variables, and face-to-face aggression involvement perpetration and victimization and cultural values individualism and collectivism as covariates.

An interaction was included between country and gender. Cyber aggression involvement was also higher among Chinese adolescents than Japanese adolescents. Boys reported more cyber aggression involvement than girls in China and India. There were no gender differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Japanese adolescents. Table 1. Correlation among all variables for Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents.

Lei 10.8262003

IND 0. COLL 0. CAP 0. FAP 0. The first number is the correlation for Chinese adolescents. The second number is the correlation for Indian adolescents. The third number is the correlation for Japanese adolescents. Societies , 5 Table 2. Means and standard deviations of cyber aggression perpetration and victimization for China, India, and Japan. Means within a column sharing the same subscript letter were found to be significantly different.

An ANOVA was conducted with parental attachment as the dependent variable, and country, gender, and group as the independent variables. Face-to-face aggression involvement, individualism, and collectivism were included as covariates. Three two-way interactions were included between country and groups, country and gender, and gender and groups. A three-way interaction was also included among country, gender, and groups.

The main effect of country and the interactions were not significant. Cybervictims had lower levels of peer attachment than cyberaggressors and uninvolved adolescents. Cyberaggressors-cybervictims had the lowest peer attachment when compared to cybervictims, cyberaggressors, and uninvolved adolescents. Discussion The purposes of this study were twofold. The first aim was to investigate the conjoint influence of country of origin and gender on cyber aggression involvement among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents.

The second aim was to examine the combined effects of country of origin, gender, and the cyber aggression involvement classifications on peer attachment. Results from the present study provide further evidence that cyber aggression is an issue impacting adolescents across the world. The findings of the present study contribute greatly to the body of literature on cyber aggression involvement because cultural values and face-to-face aggression involvement were included as covariates.

Such findings might be supported by the literature, suggesting that Indian culture promotes and rewards both individualistic and collectivistic behaviors [40]. Given their stronger tendency toward individualism than adolescents in China or Japan, adolescents from India might be more at risk for cyber aggression involvement, which is further supported from the literature linking more face-to-face bullying and victimization among adolescents from individualistic countries e.

This finding is difficult to reconcile with the literature, considering that both countries highly value collectivism and that collectivism is usually associated with less bullying involvement [40]. Access to the internet and frequency of usage is a risk factor associated with cyber aggression involvement, which might indicate that Chinese adolescents are more at risk than Japanese adolescents [30,31].

Such findings are also aligned with other work in Japan, revealing that Japanese adolescents rarely reported being involved in cyberbullying [34]. Understanding cyber aggression involvement in Asia is better understood by focusing on country of origin and gender differences, which reveal complex patterns. The significant two-way interaction between country of origin and gender suggests that boys reported more cyber aggression involvement in China and India than girls in these countries.

The findings from India are difficult to compare with the literature since no research has been conducted on cyber aggression involvement in this country.

No gender differences were found for cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Japanese adolescents. This result is not consistent with the literature. For instance, Barlett et al. Such differences might reflect developmental differences in the samples. Concerning peer attachment, country of origin was not significant. Thus, adolescents in China, India, and Japan did not differ in their levels of peer attachment.

Such findings might reflect the focus on collectivistic values within their countries, which emphasize interdependence and possibly positive peer relationships [40].

Gender was significant, indicating that girls reported more peer attachment when compared to boys, no matter their country of origin. This finding is consistent with a recent meta-analysis on gender differences in peer attachment [50].

In addition, uninvolved adolescents reported greater peer attachment when compared to cyberaggressors-cybervictims, cybervictims, and cyberaggressors, which is supported by the literature [53]. Furthermore, cyberaggressors-cybervictims had the worst levels of peer attachment when compared to cybervictims and cyberaggressors.

Unlike Burton and colleagues [53], the present study also found that cybervictims had lower levels of peer attachment than cyberbullies. However, this finding is supported by the literature on face-to-face bullying Societies , 5 involvement [59—61]. The interaction among country of origin, gender, and cyber aggression involvement was not significant. Such a finding might suggest that collectivism serves some type of protective function. In their review of the ecological contexts of bullying, Huang and colleagues [37] suggested that the macrosystem, particularly the emphasis on collectivism versus individualism, might mitigate the negative effects associated with face-to-face bullying involvement among Chinese children and adolescents.

Limitations and Future Directions Even though the present study provided much needed information concerning cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in China, India, and Japan, there are a few limitations that should be noted and addressed in future research.

First, this study relied on self-reports to assess face-to-face and cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. A multiple informant approach is needed in this research as it reduces the biases associated with self-reports.

In addition, recent research has demonstrated the strength of utilizing peer-nominations to assess peer-based cyber aggression involvement [2,11]. Second, this study utilized a concurrent research design to assess cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. Thus, it is impossible to understand the temporal ordering of peer attachment and cyber aggression involvement, and future research should focus on utilizing longitudinal designs.

Conclusions The present study provided a much needed examination of the differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents as well as the differences in the cyber aggression involvement classifications for peer attachment.

It is also among a few studies to control for face-to-face aggression involvement and cultural values when examining these differences, which is a methodological improvement and an important direction for researchers interested in the role of culture in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization.

Despite the differences found in the study, these findings suggest that more research should be conducted on cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in China, India, and Japan. This is incredibly important for cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in India as Indian adolescents had the highest levels of these behaviors and victimization when compared to Chinese and Japanese adolescents.

Societies , 5 Author Contributions Michelle F. Wright developed the study proposal, analyzed data, and wrote and edited the manuscript.

Ikuko Aoyama coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript. Shanmukh V. Kamble coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript. Zheng Li coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript.

Shruti Soudi coordinated data collection, and collected data. Li Lei coordinated data collection. Chang Shu coordinated data collection.

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Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Ybarra, M. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention.

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Limitations and Future Directions Even though the present study provided much needed information concerning cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in China, India, and Japan, there are a few limitations that should be noted and addressed in future research.

Qingdao , China. Abd El-Hamid 2 , M. Ikuko Aoyama coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript.

Characteristic Analysis of Electrochemical Active Biofilms. CircRNAs are involved in intracellular RNA regulatory networks and have been implicated in disease, making them potential biomarkers and, perhaps, therapeutic targets Chen et al. The second aim was to examine the combined effects of country of origin, gender, and the cyber aggression involvement classifications on peer attachment.