COMPUTER GLOSSARY PDF
Computer Glossary - Free tutorials and references for SOAP, XML-RPC, Web PDF. Portable Document Format, a format presented by Adobe Acrobat that. In , when IBM publicly introduced the first mass produced, electric computer, they never would have imagined that computers would advance to what they. Android It is a linux based operating system designed Primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computer.
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Computer Glossary p1. This is an information box to display short and snappy findings to your learners. The information box should always be accompanied by . Dictionary of computer and Internet terms / Douglas A. Downing,. Michael A. Covington, Melody Mauldin Covington. — 10th ed. p. cm. ISBN COMPUTER BASICS - TERMINOLOGY. Application – A computer program that does specific tasks such as word processing or spreadsheets. Bit – Represents a .
D Data The word data has been derived from latin word 'datum' means facts. It is a collection of facts and figures which are not in directly usable form. Database A collection of data files integrated and organised into a single comprehensive file system which is arranged to minimise duplication of data and to provide convenient access to information within that system to satisfy a wide variety of user needs.
Data Abstraction A data abstraction is a simplified view of an object that includes only features one is interested in while hides away the unnecessary details. Data Dictionary The document that contains clear definitions of the data that will be used in setting up database management systems.
Data Processing Converting data into information, is called data processing. Data Flow Diagrams A data flow diagram DFD is a graphical representation of the 'flow'of data through an information system. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of data processing structured design.
Data Type A data type is a defined kind of data, that is, a set of possible values and basic operations on those values. Debugging Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware, thus making it behave as expected Degree The number of fields associated with the database table or relation Desktop Publishing Desktop Publishing also known as DTP combines a personal computer, page layout software and a printer to create publications on small economic scale.
Device Driver A device driver, often called a driver for short, is a computer program that enables another program, typically, an operating system to interact with a hardware device. Difference Engine A difference engine is a historical, now obsolete, mechanical special-purpose computer designed to tabulate polynomial functions. Difference engine was created in by Charles Babbage. The machine used for the decimal numbers system and was powered by cranking a handle.
Direct Access Direct access is the capability of the computer equipment to obtain data from a storage device. Disk Operating System DOS An operating system which contains the disk oriented commands and uses disk devices for permanent storage. Directory In computing, a directory is an entity in a file system which contains a group of files and other directories.
A directory contained inside another directory is called a sub-directory of that directory. Together, the directories form a hierarchy or a tree structure. Dot Matrix Printer A Dot Matrix Printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter.
Domain Name A unique name that identifies a particular website and represents the name of the server where the web pages reside. It refers to the number of dots in a one inch line. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution. Download It refers to the act of transmitting data from a remote computer on the internet or other network to one's own computer. Drag-and-Drop In computer graphical user interfaces, drag and drop is the action of clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to a different location or onto another virtual object.
Dual Core The pentium dual core brand was used for mainstream X architecture microprocessor from Intel. Dumb Terminal A computer terminal with no processing or programming capabilities, generally used for simple data entry or retrieval tasks.
E-Commerce Electronic commerce is a type of industry where buying and selling of product or services is conducted over electronic systems such as the Intranet and other computer network.
Editing The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging and reformation. EDO Extended Data Output RAM This form of dynamic RAM speeds access to memory locations by working on a simple assumption—the next time memory is accessed, it will be at a contiguous address in a contiguous chunk of hardware.
It retains its contents even when the power is turned off. Electronic Data Processing EDP A data processing through equipment that is predominantly electronic such as digital computer. E-mail Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail is a method of composing, sending, storing and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
Encapsulation It is a mechanism that associates the code and the data it manipulates into a single unit and keeps them safe from external interference. Encryption In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that hackers cannot read it, but the authorised users can access it. End User Any individual who uses the information oefierated by a computer based system. Entity An entity is something that has certain attributes or properties which may be assigned values.
Escape Key A key that permits the user to leave one segment of a program and move to another. Excel Excel allows you to create spreadsheets much like paper ledgers that can perform automatic calculations. MS- Windows. Execution Time The total time required to executela program on a particular system. Extranet A technology that permits the users of one organisation's intranet to enter portions of another organisation's intranet in order to conduct business transactions or collaborate on joint projects.
F Fax It stands for 'Facsimile machine'. It is used to transmit a copy of a document electronically. Field The attributes of an entity are written as fields in the table representation. File A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name. The FAT file system is a legacy file system which is simple and robust. File Manager The file manager is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems File Server A computer on a network that stores the Programs and data files shared by the users of the Firewall A security system usually consisting of hardware and software that prevents unauthorised persons from accessing certain parts of a programme database or network.
Firmware Firmware is a technology which has the combination of both hardware and software. It provides necessary instructions for how the device communicates with others computer hardware. Flash Memory It is a type of non-volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Floating-point Numbers Signed numbers held in a traction exponent format.
Floppy disk A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible i. Flowcharts Flowcharts are the means of visually representing the flow of data through an information processing system, the operations an performed within the system and the sequence in which they arc performed. Foreign Key A field in a database table. The language was designed at IBM for scientific computing. The components were very simple and provided the programmer with low-level access to the computer's innards.
Format To set margins, tabs, font or line spacing in layout of a document. Frame The basic packages of information on a network channel Frequency The number of oscillations of a signal per unit of time. It is usually expressed in cycles per second cps or hertz Hz.. Freeware A form of software distribution where the author retains copyright of the software but makes the program available to others at no cost.
Function Key A special key on a computer keyboard or a terminal devices keyboard that is used to perform specjic functions.
These keys are programmable so that a software product can put the function keys to specific uses. Many keyboards have function keys labelled from F1 to Fl0. Gateway A device that is used to joint together two networks having different base protocols. Gigabyte A gigabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one billion bytes Gigahertz GHz A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit.
One gigahertz is equal to 1 billion cycles per second. Glitch A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash. Gopher A protocol used for locating and transferring information on the internet. It is an internet search tool that allows users to access textual information. Graphic Interchange Format GIF A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.
Graphical User Interface A Graphical User Interface or GUI is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text. Groupware It is a software that allows networked individual to form groups and collaborate on documents, programs or database. H Hacker A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems. Hard Disk A hard disk is a non-volatile data storage device that stores data on a magnetic surface layered onto disk platters.
Hardware The mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical components that comprises a computer system such as CPU, monitor, keyboard and mouse, etc. High-Level Programming Languages A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more user-friendly. Hit A single request for information made by a client computer from a web server Home Page A starting point or a doorway to the website. It refers to the web page that identifies a website and contains the hyperlink to other web page in the website.
Host Computer A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the internet. Every host computer has its own unique host name Hub A network device that connects multiple computers on a LAN, so that they can communicate with one another. Hyperlink An image or portion of text on a web page that is linked to another web page. Hybrid Computer Hybrid computers are made by taking the best features of the analog computer and digital computer. A simple example of this type is the computer used in hospitals.
I Icon A symbol such as picture or a folder that represents a certain function on your computer. When the user clicks on the icon, the appropriate function is executed. Impact Printers Impact printers transfer the image onto paper through a printing mechanism that strikes the paper called ribbon. Examples of impact printers are dot matrix printers and daisy wheel printers.
Information Information is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose. Ink-Jet Printer In an ink-jet printer. Individual nozzles in the printing head produce high resolution characters. Input In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it.
This information is given to the computers through an input device such as keyboard, mouse, scanner etc. Instant Messaging IM A chat program that lets people communicate over the internet in real time. Instruction A command or order given to a computer to perform a task. Instruction Cycle Fetching and decoding operations of the machine cycle. Interface A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.
Intelligent Terminal Intelligent terminals are those which necessarily have processing power and non-volatile data storage space. Interpreter A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line. It ensures that data on a network goes where it is supported to go e.
IEEE The equipment which accepts data signals after transmission. IEEE A physical or logical relationship among data elements, designed to support specific data manipulation functions. A structured software design technique wherein the architecture of a system is derived from analysis of the structure of the data sets with which the system must deal. IEEE A diagram that depicts a set of data elements, their attributes, and the logical relationships among them.
Contrast with data flow diagram. See: entity-relationship diagram. The process may include format checks, completeness checks, check key tests, reasonableness checks and limit checks. ANSI A collection of interrelated data, often with controlled redundancy, organized according to a schema to serve one or more applications. The data are stored so that they can be used by different programs without concern for the data structure or organization. A common approach is used to add new data and to modify and retrieve existing data.
See: archival database. The degree to which a database is protected from exposure to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction.
Program code statements which can never execute during program operation. Such code can result from poor coding style, or can be an artifact of previous versions or debugging efforts. Dead code can be confusing, and is a potential source of erroneous software changes. See: infeasible path. Myers Determining the exact nature and location of a program error, and fixing the error. Myers A test coverage criteria requiring enough test cases such that each decision has a true and false result at least once, and that each statement is executed at least once.
Syn: branch coverage.
Contrast with condition coverage, multiple condition coverage, path coverage, statement coverage. IEEE A table used to show sets of conditions and the actions resulting from them. ANSI Pertaining to an attribute, value, or option that is assumed when none is explicitly specified. A standard setting or state to be taken by the program if no alternate setting or state is initiated by the system or the user. A value assigned automatically if one is not given by the user.
See: anomaly, bug, error, exception, fault. See: failure analysis. ANSI A character used to indicate the beginning or the end of a character string. Syn: separator. Retrieve the information content from a modulated carrier wave; the reverse of modulate.
Contrast with modulate. Converting signals from a wave form [analog] to pulse form [digital]. Contrast with modulation. A facet of reliability that relates to the degree of certainty that a system or component will operate correctly. IEEE The process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component. See: architectural design, preliminary design, detailed design. IEEE A document that describes the design of a system or component. Syn: design document.
Contrast with specification, requirements. See: software design description. IEEE The design decomposition of the software item; e. A methodology for planning experiments so that data appropriate for [statistical] analysis will be collected. IEEE The period of time in the software life cycle during which the designs for architecture, software components, interfaces, and data are created, documented, and verified to satisfy requirements.
IEEE A requirement that specifies or constrains the design of a system or system component. IEEE A process or meeting during which a system, hardware, or software design is presented to project personnel, managers, users, customers, or other interested parties for comment or approval.
Computer Terms Dictionary – A To Z Computer Meanings PDF Download
Types include critical design review, preliminary design review, system design review. See: specification, design. IEEE Standards that describe the characteristics of a design or a design description of data or program components. The application of code audit, inspection, review and walkthrough techniques to source code and other software documents usually by an individual [often by the person who generated them] and usually done informally.
IEEE 1 The process of refining and expanding the preliminary design of a system or component to the extent that the design is sufficiently complete to be implemented. See: software development process.
ANSI A systematic approach to software creation that defines development phases and specifies the activities, products, verification procedures, and completion criteria for each phase.
See: incremental development, rapid prototyping, spiral model, waterfall model. Syn: coding standards. IEEE Pertaining to the detection and isolation of faults or failures.
For example, a diagnostic message, a diagnostic manual. IEEE Analysis of the allocation of software requirements to separate computer systems to reduce integration and interface errors related to safety. Performed when more than one software system is being integrated. See: testing, compatibility.
Contrast with analog. Output related devices which translate a computer's digital outputs to the corresponding analog signals needed by an output device such as an actuator. Specialized circuitry or a dedicated microprocessor that transfers data from memory to memory without using the CPU. IEEE A graph in which direction is implied in the internode connections.
Syn: digraph. Circular rotating magnetic storage hardware. Disks can be hard [fixed] or flexible [removable] and different sizes. Hardware used to read from or write to a disk or diskette.
An operating system program; e. A floppy [flexible] disk. ANSI The aids provided for the understanding of the structure and intended uses of an information system or its components, such as flowcharts, textual material, and user manuals. NIST A description of required documentation indicating its scope, content, format, and quality. Selection of the level may be based on project cost, intended usage, extent of effort, or other factors; e.
NIST A management document describing the approach to a documentation effort. The plan typically describes what documentation types are to be prepared, what their contents are to be, when this is to be done and by whom, how it is to be done, and what are the available resources and external factors affecting the results.
NIST Technical data or information, including computer listings and printouts, in human readable form, that describe or specify the design or details, explain the capabilities, or provide operating instructions for using the software to obtain desired results from a software system.
See: specification; specification, requirements; specification. ISO The unwanted change of the value of an output signal of a device over a period of time when the values of all input signals to the device are kept constant. A program that links a peripheral device or internal function to the operating system, and providing for activation of all device functions.
A set of security programs that protect a computer from outside interference or access via the Internet. A structure for containing electronic files. In some operating systems, it is called a directory. Software created by people who are willing to give it away for the satisfaction of sharing or knowing they helped to simplify other people's lives. It may be free-standing software, or it may add functionality to existing software.
File Transfer Protocol, a format and set of rules for transferring files from a host to a remote computer. An Internet search tool that allows users to access textual information through a series of menus, or if using FTP, through downloads.
Graphical User Interface, a system that simplifies selecting computer commands by enabling the user to point to symbols or illustrations called icons on the computer screen with a mouse. Software that allows networked individuals to form groups and collaborate on documents, programs, or databases. A person with technical expertise who experiments with computer systems to determine how to develop additional features. Hackers are occasionally requested by system administrators to try and break into systems via a network to test security.
The term hacker is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with cracker. A hacker is called a white hat and a cracker a black hat. The physical and mechanical components of a computer system, such as the electronic circuitry, chips, monitor, disks, disk drives, keyboard, modem, and printer. The main page of a Web site used to greet visitors, provide information about the site, or to direct the viewer to other pages on the site.
Hypertext Markup Language, a standard of text markup conventions used for documents on the World Wide Web. Browsers interpret the codes to give the text structure and formatting such as bold, blue, or italic. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, often used in intracompany internet sites. Passwords are required to gain access. Text or an image that is connected by hypertext coding to a different location.
By selecting the text or image with a mouse, the computer jumps to or displays the linked text. A system for organizing text through links, as opposed to a menu-driven hierarchy such as Gopher. Most Web pages include hypertext links to other pages at that site, or to other sites on the World Wide Web.
Symbols or illustrations appearing on the computer screen that indicate program files or other computer functions. A device, such as a keyboard, stylus and tablet, mouse, puck, or microphone, that allows input of information letters, numbers, sound, video to a computer. A chat application that allows two or more people to communicate over the Internet via real-time keyed-in messages. The interconnections that allow a device, a program, or a person to interact.
Hardware interfaces are the cables that connect the device to its power source and to other devices. Software interfaces allow the program to communicate with other programs such as the operating system , and user interfaces allow the user to communicate with the program e.
Computer terms, dictionary, and glossary
An Internet Protocol address is a unique set of numbers used to locate another computer on a network. The format of an IP address is a bit string of four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be from 0 to i. Within a closed network IP addresses may be assigned at random, however, IP addresses of web servers must be registered to avoid duplicates.
An object-oriented programming language designed specifically for programs particularly multimedia to be used over the Internet. Java allows programmers to create small programs or applications applets to enhance Web sites.
A programming language used almost exclusively to manipulate content on a web page.
Since development is not restricted to a single corporation more programmers can debug and improve the source code faster. Small, lightweight, portable battery-powered computers that can fit onto your lap. They each have a thin, flat, liquid crystal display screen. A script that operates a series of commands to perform a function. It is set up to automate repetitive tasks. An operating system with a graphical user interface, developed by Apple for Macintosh computers.
Current System X. Operating system for increased performance and stability. Temporary storage for information, including applications and documents.
The information must be stored to a permanent device, such as a hard disc or CD-ROM before the power is turned off, or the information will be lost. Computer memory is measured in terms of the amount of information it can store, commonly in megabytes or gigabytes.
The horizontal strip across the top of an application's window. Each word on the strip has a context sensitive drop-down menu containing features and actions that are available for the application in use.
An abbreviation for Megahertz, or one million hertz.
One MHz represents one million clock cycles per second and is the measure of a computer microprocessor's speed. For example, a microprocessor that runs at MHz executes million cycles per second. Each instruction a computer receives takes a fixed number of clock cycles to carry out, therefore the more cycles a computer can execute per second, the faster its programs run.
Megahertz is also a unit of measure for bandwidth. A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed. A device that connects two computers together over a telephone or cable line by converting the computer's data into an audio signal. Modem is a contraction for the process it performs: A small hand-held device, similar to a trackball, used to control the position of the cursor on the video display; movements of the mouse on a desktop correspond to movements of the cursor on the screen.
Compact audio and video file format. The small size of the files makes them easy to download and e-mail. Format used in portable playback devices.
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Software programs that combine text and graphics with sound, video, and animation. A multimedia PC contains the hardware to support these capabilities. Computer programs whose original source code was revealed to the general public so that it could be developed openly. Software licensed as open source can be freely changed or adapted to new uses, meaning that the source code of the operating system is freely available to the public. A set of instructions that tell a computer on how to operate when it is turned on.
It sets up a filing system to store files and tells the computer how to display information on a video display. Most PC operating systems are DOS disc operated system systems, meaning the instructions are stored on a disc as opposed to being originally stored in the microprocessors of the computer. Data that come out of a computer device. For example, information displayed on the monitor, sound from the speakers, and information printed to paper. Printed Circuit board, a board printed or etched with a circuit and processors.
Power supplies, information storage devices, or changers are attached. Personal Digital Assistant, a hand-held computer that can store daily appointments, phone numbers, addresses, and other important information.
Most PDAs link to a desktop or laptop computer to download or upload information. Portable Document Format, a format presented by Adobe Acrobat that allows documents to be shared over a variety of operating systems. Documents can contain words and pictures and be formatted to have electronic links to other parts of the document or to places on the web. Intel's fifth generation of sophisticated high-speed microprocessors.New software developers usually iron out all the bugs before releasing the software for sale.
Contrast with modulation. It is bigger and much more powerful. Cd-Rom Drive: Compact disk-read only memory An optical storage device that is read only. Floating-point Numbers Signed numbers held in a traction exponent format.
Hardware used to read from or write to a disk or diskette. Email Server: It is similar to HTML coding for web pages. Short for Web-log.
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