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BASIC PERSPECTIVE DRAWING PDF

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In Perspective Drawing You Draw What You See, Not Your Idea or Mental Image of the Subject, 15 Applications of the Basic Cube and Brick Shapes, This books (Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach, 6th Edition [PDF]) Made by John Montague About Books Paperback. Pub Date. THE THEORY AND PRACTICE. OF PERSPECTIVE. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page


Basic Perspective Drawing Pdf

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ILLUSTRATING NATURE: How To PAINT AND DRAW PLANTS AND ANIMALS, Dorothea. Barlowe and Sy Barlowe. (X). PAINTING GARDENS, Norman. Perspective Drawing. For Artists & Perspective, in the vision and visual perception, is: the way . Our basics in that Type of Perspective are: • Horizon Line. Read Download Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach |PDF books PDF Free Download Here: resourceone.info?book.

Check out our many other free graphgrid paper styles from our main page here. Feel free to copy the grids in this manual.

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Types of Perspective Drawings Explained With Illustrations

First make a straight line with an small x at each end. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Danii Orjuela. Juan Ordonez. Gold plus Egipcian God of Sun. Robert Leston. Anonymous ZRsuuxNcC.

Michael Arvie Timbol Ignacio. Francisco Pereira. And don't get too attached to them—they're meant to be changed. Still life drawings offer a great opportunity to learn and practice a variety of drawing skills, including developing form, applying shading, and using perspective. Still life compositions traditionally depict a carefully arranged grouping of a number of household objects, such as fruit, vegetables, glassware, or pottery—all of which offer a wide range of textures, sizes, and shapes.

But you don't have to restrict yourself to traditional items; use your artistic license to get as creative as you want! The following lessons will guide you through the basics of drawing still lifes, from designing the composition to blocking in the basic shapes and adding the final details for depth and texture. S tudy your subject closely, and lightly sketch the simple shapes.

Notice, for example, that the pear is made up of two circles— one large and one small. Once the basic shapes are drawn, begin shading with strokes that are consistent with the subjects' rounded forms, as shown in the final drawings.

Drawing the Pear Start with two circles for the pear; next place the stem and the water drop. Begin shading with smooth, curving lines, leaving the highlighted areas untouched. Then finish shading and refine the details. Drawing the Peach First draw the general shapes in step i.

Then, in step 2, place guide- lines for the texture of the pit and the cavity on the slice. Begin shading the skin of the peach with long, smooth strokes to bring out its curved surface in step 3. Use a sharp 2B pencil to create the dark grooves on the pit and the irregular texture on the slice. Finish with lines radiating outward from the seed and the top of the slice.

Smooth the sketch lines into curves, and add the indentation for the stem. Then begin light shading in step 3. Continue shading until the cherry appears smooth. Use the tip of a kneaded eraser to remove any shading or smears that might have gotten into the high- lights. Then fill in the darker areas using overlapping strokes, changing stroke direction slightly to give the illusion of three-dimensional form to the shiny surface.

Water Drops Detail Use the arrow directions shown above as a guide for shading the cherry according to its contour. Leave light areas for the water drops, and shade inside them, keeping the values soft. Pools of Water Detail Sketch the outline shape of the pool of water with short strokes, as you did with the cherry. Shade softly, and create highlights with a kneaded eraser. Rendering the Chestnuts To draw these chestnuts, use a circle and two intersecting lines to make a cone shape in steps 1 and 2.

Then place some guidelines for ridges in step 3. Shade the chestnuts using smooth, even strokes that run the length of the objects. These strokes bring out form and glossiness. Finally add tiny dots on the surface. Make the cast shadow the darkest part of the drawing.

T hese strawberries were drawn on plate- finish Bristol board using only an HB pencil. Block in the berry's overall shape in steps 1 and 2 to the right. Then lightly shade the middle and bottom in step 3, and scatter a seed pattern over the berry's surface in step 4. Once the seeds are in, shade around them. Drawing Guidelines Draw a grid on the strawberry; it appears to wrap around the berry, helping to establish its seed pattern and three-dimensional form.

Sketch a grid for the surface pattern. Developing Highlights and Shadows It's important to shade properly around the seeds, creating small circular areas that contain both light and dark. Also develop high- lights and shadows on the overall berry to present a realis- tic, uneven surface.

Indicate the shaded areas by lightly drawing circles around the seeds as guides. L ike the strawberry, a prickly pineapple has an involved surface pattern. The pineapple below was done on plate-finish Bristol board using an HB pencil for the main layout and Practice drawing other light shading, as well as a 2B for darker areas. Drawing the Pineapple Sketch the primary shape in step 1, and add block-in lines for the pineapple's surface pattern in steps 2 and 3.

Use a sharp 2B to draw subtle tex- ture lines at various angles on each pineapple "section," using the stroke and lift technique; begin at the edge, stroke toward the middle, and lift the pencil at the end of the stroke. Finally shade the cast shadow smoother and darker than the fruit surfaces, and add drops of juice for an appealing effect.

C ompare the highly textured surface pattern of the pinecone with the strawberry and pineapple on pages Using an HB pencil, position the pinecone with light guidelines in step 1.

Then indicate the tree trunk and pine needles in step 2, and add a grid for the pattern on the pinecone. Establishing Detail Draw the shapes of the spiked scales, which change in size from Sketch a one end of the cone to the other. In step 4, begin shading the cone and surrounding the surface pattern objects. Make the cast shadow appear to follow the curve of the tree root. Working with Negative Space Develop the grass in step 5 by drawing the negative spaces; instead of drawing individual pine needles and blades of grass, fill in the shadows between them.

By shading around the negative spaces, the grass shapes will automatically emerge from the white of the paper. See page 13 for more on negative space. Tree Texture Guidelines To render the bark and Tree Texture Shading Short, rough strokes give the Pinecone Scale Shading Develop each pinecone knothole of the gnarled tree trunk, first lightly draw in impression of texture, whereas long, smooth strokes scale separately, following the arrows on the diagram the texture design.

Then, when you're happy with the provide interest and contrast. Use a combination of the above for the direction of your strokes. Keep the hatched general appearance, proceed with the shading.

The pewter-and-glass candlestick, painting, and paintbrushes were arranged on a table; then a quick sketch was made to check the composition, as shown in step 1. Blocking In the Composition When setting up a still life, keep rearranging the items Developing Shape and Form In step 2, place all the guidelines of your subjects; then until the composition suits you.

If you're a beginner, you might want to keep the number of begin shading with several layers of soft, overlapping strokes in step 3. Gradually develop objects to a minimum—three to five elements is a good number to start with. Flame Detail A candle flame isn't difficult to draw. Just make a simple outline, keep all shading soft, and make the wick the darkest part. Be sure to leave white area in the candle top to suggest a glow.

B y varying your techniques, you become a more versatile artist. Therefore this drawing was drawn more loosely than the previous one. Begin with an HB pencil, lightly drawing in the basic shapes within the floral arrangement. Sketching Loosely This rendering was finished using a loose, sketchy technique. Sometimes this type of final can be more pleasing than a highly detailed one. Establishing the Shading The sketch above shows shading strokes for the flower petals and leaves.

Try not to add too much detail at this stage of your drawing. Blending the Cast Shadows As shown in the close- up above, the cast shadow needs the smoothest blending. Position the shadows using the side of an HB pencil; then blend softly with a paper stump.

T his drawing was done on Bristol board with a plate smooth finish. Use an HB pencil for most of the work and a 2B for the dark shadows. A flat sketch pencil is good for creating the back- ground texture. Starting Out In step 1, sketch the basic shapes of the glass, liquid, and flowers.

Perspective Drawing.pdf - Drawing 1 Professor Jules Floss...

In step 2, add more details, and begin shading the glass and: Take your time, and try to make the edges clean. Note the pattern of lights and darks that can be found in the cast shadow. Placing Highlights Use the arrows below as a guide for shading. Remember to keep the paper clean where you want your lightest lights.

These highlights help to suggest light coming through the glass stem, creating a transparent look. Finalizing Highlights and Shadows Use the finished drawing as your guide for completing lights and darks.

If pencil smudges accidentally get in the highlights, clean them out with a kneaded eraser.

Then use sharp-pointed HB and 2B pencils to add final details. M any beginning artists believe a rose is too difficult to draw and therefore may shy away from it. But, like any other object, a rose can be developed step by step from its most basic shapes.

Stroke from inside each petal toward its outer edge. Establishing Guidelines Use an HB pencil to block in the overall shapes of the rose and petal, using a series of angular lines. Make all guidelines light so you won't have trouble removing or covering them later. Use what is known as a stroke and lift technique. For this technique, you should draw lines that gently fade at the end.

Just press firmly, lifting the pencil as the stroke comes to an end. Following Through Continue adding guidelines for the flower's interior, following the angles of the petal edges. Make the cast shadow the darkest area of your drawing. Step One The gardenia Gardenia. T his morning glory and gardenia are great flowers for learning a few simple shading techniques called "hatch- ing" and "crosshatching. With straight lines, block in an them farther apart for lighter values.

Cross-hatch strokes are irregular polygon for the made by first drawing hatch strokes and then overlapping overall flower shape and them with hatch strokes that are angled in the opposite direc- add partial triangles for leaves. Then determine tion. Examples of both strokes are shown in the box at the the basic shape of each bottom of the page.

Step One took carefully Morning at the overall shape of a Glory morning glory and lightly sketch a polygon with the point of an H B pencil. From this three-quarter view, you can see the veins that radiate from the center, Step Two As you draw so sketch in five curved each of the petal shapes, lines to place them.

Then pay particular attention to roughly outline the leaves where they overlap and to and the flower base. Accurately reproducing the pattern of the petals is one of the most impor- tant elements of drawing a flower.

Once all the shapes are laid in, Step Two Next draw refine their outlines. You can also change the pressure of the pencil on the paper to vary the Step Three Again, line width, giving it a little using the side and blunt personality. Then add the point of an HB pencil, stamens in the center. Lift the pencil at the end of each petal stroke so the line tapers and lightens, and deepen the shad- ows with overlapping strokes in the opposite direction called cross- hatching with the point of a 2B pencil.

Step Three Now you are ready to add the shading. With the round- ed point and side of an HB pencil, add a series of hatching strokes, fol- lowing the shape, curve, and direction of the sur- faces of the flower and leaves. For the areas more in shadow, make darker strokes placed closer together, using the point of a soft 2B pencil. I f you look carefully, you will see that although the roses resem- ble one another, each one has unique features, just as people do.

If you make sure your drawing reflects these differences, your roses won't look like carbon copies of one another. Block in only the outlines and a few major petal shapes, without get- ting involved in the details. Then sketch in the stems 7 and the shape of the rib- bon. Step Two Once you've Step Three Now begin to Step Four Sometimes established the general define the shapes more keeping the shading fairly outlines, begin developing precisely, adding detail to minimal and light shows the secondary shapes of the innermost petals, refin- how effective simple draw- each flower—the curves ing the stems, and devel- ings can be.

These are the ele- bon. Vary the thickness of demonstrated in more ments that make each rose each line to give the draw- detail.

Here use hatched unique, so pay careful ing more character and strokes and place only attention to the shapes at life. Don't shade at all in enough shading on each this stage of the drawing. T here are several classes of tulips with differently shaped flowers. The one below, known as a parrot tulip, has less of a cup than the tulip to the right and is more complex to draw. Use the layout steps shown here before drawing the details.

Creating Form Look for the rhythm of line in this next tulip. It begins with three simple lines in step 1, which set its basic direction. Step 2 demonstrates how to add lines to build the general flower shape.

Step 3 adds more to the shape and begins to show the graceful pose of the flower.

Step 4 shows more detail and leads to shading, which gives the flower its form. Just a few shading strokes here enhance the effect of overlapping petals. Add petal angles in step 2.

Then draw in actual petal shapes, complete with simple shading. C arnation varieties range from deep red to bicolored to white. They are very showy and easy to grow in most gardens. They are also fun and challenging to draw because of their many A dark background allows the overlaying petals. Shade them solid, variegated, or with a light or flower to pop off the page. Replicating Patterns and Shapes The front view above shows the complex pattern of this type of carnation.

Step 1 places the basic shapes seen within the flower.

From here, begin drawing the actual curved petal shapes. Once they are in place, shade the flower. The crinkled petals evolve from drawing irregular edges and shading unevenly in random areas. Establishing the Basic Shapes Develop the overall shape of the side view, including the stem and sepal. Begin drawing the intricate flower details in step 2, keep- ing them light and simple.

P eonies grow in single- and double-flowered varieties. They are a showy flower and make fine subjects for flower drawings. The background strokes follow the direction of the petals and blend outward from the center. Developing the Peony This exercise should be drawn on vellum-finish Bristol board. On this surface, shading produces a bit more texture than the smoother plate finish. Begin the exercise by drawing and positioning the major flower parts in step l. In step 2, begin shading the petals and surrounding leaves.

Start shading in earnest in step 3, and establish the background pattern.

Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach. John Montague

American flowering dogwood. T here are different varieties of dogwood. Below is an oriental type called the "kousa dogwood," and at the right is the American flowering dogwood. Both of their flowers vary from pure white to delicate pink. Follow the steps closely to draw them. L ilies are very fragrant, and the plants can grow up to 8 feet tall. Use the steps below to develop the flower, which you can attach to the main stem when drawing the entire plant, as shown at the bottom of the page. Bud Detail The lily bud in step 1 above starts out com- pletely closed.

Step 2 illustrates the two angles you should shade to give the bud form. It also shows how to transform the bud so it appears slightly opened. Add these types of buds to your lily plant, paying attention to how they attach to the stems.

Shading lines like these illustrate a technique called crosshatching and give the petals form. T here are many primrose varieties with a wide range of colors. This exercise demonstrates how to draw a number of The unopened primrose buds begin with small, flowers and buds together.

Take your time egg-like shapes. Forming the Primrose Blossom Draw a main stem first, and add smaller ones branching outward. Keep them in clusters, curving out in different directions from the. Developing the Leaves These steps show three shad- ing stages of leaves. In step 1 at the far right , lightly out- line leaf shape. Begin shading in step 2, sketching where the leaf veins will be.

Then shade around those areas, leav ing them white, to bring out the veins. When you reach step 3, clean up the details, and add a few darker areas along some of the veins. H ibiscus grow in single- and double-flowered varieties, and their colors include whites, oranges, pinks, and reds—even blues and purples. Some are multi- or bicolored. The example Hibiscus Bud Detail Try drawing a few buds, and attach them to stem here is a single-flowered variety. Planning Your Drawing Even though the hibiscus has a lot of detail, it isn't difficult to draw.

Steps leading up to the finished drawing must be fol- lowed closely to get the most out of this exercise. Step 1 shows the overall mass, petal direction, and basic center of the flower. Consider the size of each flower part in relation to the whole before attempting to draw it.

Shading Before shading the petals in step 2, study. Add the details of the flower center, and block in the stem and leaves.

H ybrid tea roses have large blossoms with greatly varying colors. When drawing rose petals, think of each fitting into its own place in the overall shape; this helps position them correctly. Begin lightly with an HB pencil, and use plate-finish Bristol board. Making Choices The block-in steps are the same no matter how you decide to finish the drawing, whether lightly outlined or completely shaded. For shading, use the side of a 2B pencil and blend with a paper stump.

Using the paper stump in small circle movements will let you blend small areas to a smooth finish. F loribunda roses usually flower more freely than hybrid tea roses and grow in groups of blossoms.

The petal arrangement in these roses is involved; but by studying it closely you'll see an overlapping, swirling pattern. Outline the overall area of the rose mass in step l. Once this is done, draw the swirling petal design as shown in steps 2 and 3.

Begin fitting the center petals into place in step 4. Use the side of an HB to shade as in step 5, being careful not to cover the water drops.

They should be shaded separately. The downward shading lines follow the angle of the leaf surface, and the pattern suggests veining. Use a kneaded eraser to pull out highlights. Pompon chrysanthemum. T he two varieties of chrysanthemums on this page are the pompon and the Japanese anemone. The Japanese anemone grows four inches or more across and produces flowers with irregular outlines that, in some cases, resemble forms of anemone sea life.

Follow the steps for each flower type, trying to capture the attitude and person- ality of each flower and petal formation. It's best to draw this exercise on plate- finish Bristol board using both HB and 2B pencils.

Smooth bond paper also provides a good drawing surface. Observe the difference in texture between the top of the Japanese anemone blossom below Side view and its sides. The voluminous, bushy effect is achieved with many short, squiggly lines drawn in random directions, in contrast to the sloping lines of the lower petals.

Japanese anemone chrysanthemum. Short squiggly lines. Their petal arrangement is challenging to draw.

Develop the drawing outline with a 2B pencil, then add an inter esting background using a flat sketch pencil with random strokes and varying pressures. The unopened bud resembles a miniature pumpkin.

Draw in the ereases first to make shading easier. Shade darker near the creases to make them appear indented into the leaf.

Drawing Petals Follow the arrows when developing the petals. Work from the center outward, allowing each new petal to be overlapped by the previous one. Step 2 shows most of the petals in place, Applying Shading A flat sketching pencil is best for shading the broad portions of the but notice that changes to leaves. Use the corner of the lead to draw the outlines and indicate veining. To create a their position may occur more interesting "sketchy" look, leave some parts unshaded rather than finishing them off when you shade.

T he bearded iris is probably the most beautiful of the iris varieties. Its col- ors range from deep purples to blues, lavenders, and whites. Some flowers have delicate, lightly colored petals with dark veining. They range in height from less than a foot to over three feet.

Beginning to Shade Follow the arrow directions in step 3 for blending and shading strokes; these strokes make the petal surfaces appear solid.

Darken shadowed areas using the point of a 2B. Using Guidelines Step 1 above shows the block-in lines for a side view of the iris, whereas step 1 below shows a frontal view. Whichever you choose to draw, make your initial outline shapes light, and use them as a general guide for draw- ing the graceful curves of this flower's petals.

Good, clean block-in lines are helpful for shading an involved subject. Take your time, and plan ahead to save correction time. It just has more flowers and shading steps. Once again, we must first draw the overall layout of the flowers before attempting any shading. Drawing the Petals Sketch the ridge lines in the petals; they are necessary for accurate shading.

Develop the shading in stages, filling in the grooved areas first. Then make the whole flower slightly grayer by adding what is known as a "glaze" over it.

To glaze, use the side of an H B lead very lightly, shading with smooth, even strokes over completed sections of the drawing. To make petal surfaces appear even smoother, blend them with a Dark shading under the paper stump. The more detail you add, the more time a drawing will f take. Don't become discouraged.

Create highlights by molding a kneaded eraser into a sharp wedge, "drawing" with it in the same direction as the shading.

C reating a good still life composition is simply arranging the elements of a drawing in such a way that they make an eye- pleasing, harmonious scene. It's easy to do once you have a few guidelines to follow. The most important things to keep in mind are: Like everything else, the more you study and practice forming pleasing compositions, the better you'll become.

Begin by choosing the items to include, and then try different groupings, lighting, and backgrounds.

Test out the Composing with Photos Dynamic compositions rarely "just happen"—most arrangements in small, quick thumbnails, like the ones shown are well planned, with objects specifically selected and arranged in an appealing manner to create good flow and depth. Taking snapshots of your arrangements below. These studies are invaluable for working out the best pos- will help you see how your setups will look when they're drawn on a flat surface. Step One From your thumbnail sketches, choose a horizontal format.

Notice that the tureen is set off-center; if the focal point were dead center, your eye wouldn't be led around the whole drawing, which would make a boring composition.

Then lightly block in the basic Horizontal Format The "landscape" format is a traditional one, perfect for shapes with mostly loose, circular strokes, using your whole arm to keep the lines free. Here, as in any good composition, the overlap- ping vegetables lead the viewer's eye around the picture and toward the focal point—the tureen. Even the tile pattern points the way into the picture and toward the focal point. Vertical Format In this "portrait" format, the carrot tops add height to the composition and counterbalance the arc of vegetables in the foreground.

The tip of the head of garlic and the angle of the beans lead the viewer into the composition and toward the focal point. In the background, only a sug- gestion of shadows are drawn, and the vertical tiles are not clearly defined. This adds to the upward flow of the entire composition and keeps the view- er's attention focused on the tureen. Step Two Next refine the shapes of the various elements, still keeping your lines fairly light to avoid creating harsh edges.

Then, using the side of an HB pencil, begin indicating the cast shadows, as well as some of the details on the tureen. Step Three Continue adding details on the tureen and darkening the cast shadows. Then Step Four Next build the forms of the other vegetables, using a range of values and shad- start shading some of the objects to develop their forms.

You might want to begin with the ing techniques. To indicate the paper skins of the onion and the garlic, make strokes that bell pepper and the potato, using the point and side of an HB pencil. For the rough texture of the potato, use more random strokes. Step Five When you are finished developing the light, middle, and dark values, use a 2B pencil for the darkest areas in the cast shadows the areas closest to the objects casting the shadows.

T he shiny surface of a highly polished, silver creamer is perfect for learning to render reflective surfaces. For this exercise, use plate-finish Bristol board, HB and 2B pencils, and a kneaded eraser molded into a point.

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Begin by lightly drawing in the basic shapes of the egg and creamer. Step One Begin by lightly blocking in the basic shapes of the egg and the creamer. Don't go on to the next step until you're happy with the shapes and the composition.

Step Two Once the two central items are in place, establish the area for the lace, and add light shading to the table surface. Next position the reflection of the lace and egg on the cream- er's surface. Begin lightly shading the inside and outside surfaces of the creamer, keeping in mind that the inside is not as reflective or shiny. Then start lightly shading the eggshell. Step Three At this stage, smooth the shading on the egg and creamer with a paper stump.

Then study how the holes in the lace change where the lace wrinkles and then settles back into a flat pattern. Begin drawing the lace pat- tern using one of the methods described on the opposite page. You might often find objects for your still life drawings In the most unexpected places. Combine objects you believe aren't related, and they might surprise you by creating an appealing still lift.

Interestingly the egg's position in the reflection is completely different than its actual position on the table because in the reflection we see the back side of the egg.

Foot and Spout Details These two close-up drawings show detail on the creamer's spout and feet. These are not as shiny as the rounded bowl. Re-create this matte finish by blending the edges and making the concave shadow patterns darker and sharper. Lace Pattern Detail The drawings above show two approaches for creating the lace pat- shadows, along with subtle shadows cast within most of the holes. Make the holes in the tern. You can draw guidelines for each hole and then shade inside them left , or you can foreground darker than those receding into the composition, but keep them lighter than the lightly shade in the shape of each hole right.

Either way, you are drawing the negative darkest areas on the creamer. After this preliminary shading is completed, add details of shapes. Once the pattern is established, shade over the areas where you see dark and light spots on the lace.

T his exercise was drawn on vellum-finish Bristol board with an HB pencil. Vellum finish has a bit more "tooth" than the smoother plate finish does, resulting in darker pencil marks. The simplest items in your kitchen can be gathered up into an inviting scene.

Paying Attention to Detail In the close-up examples below, the guidelines show the distorted wine level, which is caused by the bot- tle's uneven curves. An artist must make important observations like this in order to create natural, true-to-life drawings. Blocking In the Composition Begin lightly sketching the wine bottle, bread loaf, knife, and cutting board, rough- ing in the prominent items first, then adding the remaining elements in step 2.

Continue refining the shapes in step 3, and then indicate the place- ment for the backdrop. Placing Highlights and Shadows tightly outline where the high- lights will be so you don't accidentally fill them in with pencil. Now add shadows with uniform diagonal strokes.

Use vertical strokes on the sides of the cutting board.

For the crust, use longer, flowing strokes that wrap around the bread's exte- rior. Finish with angled lines on the crust for additional texture. Glass Detail To draw a finished look of shiny glass, follow steps 1 through 3 showing the bottle's spout. Draw in shapes for the light and dark areas, then evenly shade over all areas that don't contain highlights. Finally fill in the darkest areas and clean out any highlights with a pointed kneaded eraser.

The myriad breeds and species of animals that exist throughout the world offer endless possibilities for drawing subjects. Whether it's an adorable puppy, a slithering snake, or a galloping horse, an animal subject provides a wide range of shapes, lines, and textures to challenge and inspire you.

And drawing animals isn't difficult at all—just follow the simple, step-by-step instructions in the follow- ing lessons. As you learn to draw by starting with basic shapes and progressing through finished renderings, you'll also discover various shading techniques and finishing touches that will bring your ani- mal drawings to life.

And with just a little practice, you'll be able to create your own artwork featuring all your favorite animal subjects. A nimals are fascinating subjects, and you can spend many hours at the zoo with your sketchpad, studying their movements, their body structures, and their coat tex- Studying the Head When drawing the head, pay special attention to the giraffe's most distinctive features.

Emphasize tures. See pages for more on drawing animals from the narrow, tapered muzzle and the heavy-lidded eyes, adding life. And because pencil is such a versatile tool, you can long, curved eyelashes. To easily sketch a rough-coated goat or finely stroke a smooth make sure the knobbed horns haired deer.

Of course, you don't have to go to the zoo to don't look "pasted on," draw find models; try copying the drawings here, or find a them as a continuous line from the forehead, curving back wildlife book for reference, and draw the animals that where they attach to the head.

Working Out the Structure To draw the full body, make sure the proportions are correct. Begin by placing circles for the midriff, shoulders, withers, and haunches. Then use the body width as a guide for the other parts: Smooth Coat Shade the Rough Coat Using the undercoat with the side of a side of your pencil, shade in blunt 2B and pick out ran- several directions. With your dom coat hairs with a sharp pencil, use different strokes HB pencil.

Then shade in the spots strokes in the direction the to make short, overlapping with a round-tip HB, making hair grows, lifting the pencil strokes, lifting the pencil at your strokes darker in the shad- at the end of each stroke.

For example sheep, horses, and giraffes all have hooves and a similar body structure, but a bighorn sheep has curled horns and a shaggy coat, a horse has a smooth coat and a single-toe hoof, and a giraffe has an elongated neck and legs and boldly patterned markings.

Focusing on these distinguishing characteristics will make your drawings believable and lifelike. Creating a Portrait To capture this horse's likeness, focus on its features: Use a sharp-pointed pencil for the outline and details, and the flat side of the lead for shadows. Then go back over the shad- ing with the point to accentuate the underlying muscles, leaving large areas of white to suggest a smooth, glossy coat. Depicting Hair To show the texture of this bighorn's coat, use the point of a 2B to apply long, wavy strokes on the body.

Then draw short, wispy tendrils on the legs and underbelly. Focusing on Feet Horses have solid, single-toed hooves, whereas giraffes, sheep, and other ruminants have split cloven hooves. Notice that the horse's hoof is angled a little more than the giraffe's and that the giraffe's toes are not perfectly symmetrical. Showing Action Drawing from pictures of animals helps you study their movements frozen by the camera.

Seen from the corner, one wall of a house would recede towards one vanishing point while the other wall recedes towards the opposite vanishing point.

Two-point perspective exists when the painting plate is parallel to a Cartesian scene in one axis usually the z-axis but not to the other two axes. If the scene being viewed consists solely of a cylinder sitting on a horizontal plane, no difference exists in the image of the cylinder between a one-point and two-point perspective.

Two-point perspective has one set of lines parallel to the picture plane and two sets oblique to it. Parallel lines oblique to the picture plane converge to a vanishing point, which means that this set-up will require two vanishing points. All three axes are oblique to the picture plane; the three vanishing points are at the zenith, and on the horizon to the right and left. Three-point perspective is often used for buildings seen from above or below. In addition to the two vanishing points from before, one for each wall, there is now one for how the vertical lines of the walls recede.

For an object seen from above, this third vanishing point is below the ground. For an object seen from below, as when the viewer looks up at a tall building, the third vanishing point is high in space. Three-point perspective exists when the perspective is a view of a Cartesian scene where the picture plane is not parallel to any of the scene's three axes.

Each of the three vanishing points corresponds with one of the three axes of the scene. One, two and three-point perspectives appear to embody different forms of calculated perspective, and are generated by different methods. Mathematically, however, all three are identical; the difference is merely in the relative orientation of the rectilinear scene to the viewer.

Four-point perspective[ edit ] Four-point perspective with vanishing points both above and below the picture Four-point perspective, also called infinite-point perspective, is the curvilinear see curvilinear perspective variant of two-point perspective. This perspective can be used with either a horizontal or a vertical horizon line: in the latter configuration it can depict both a worm's-eye and bird's-eye view of a scene at the same time. Like all other foreshortened variants of perspective one-point to six-point perspectives , it starts off with a horizon line, followed by four equally spaced vanishing points to delineate four vertical lines.

The vanishing points made to create the curvilinear orthogonals are thus made ad hoc on the four vertical lines placed on the opposite side of the horizon line.

The only dimension not foreshortened in this type of perspective is that of the rectilinear and parallel lines perpendicular to the horizon line — similar to the vertical lines used in two-point perspective. One-point, two-point, and three-point perspective are dependent on the structure of the scene being viewed. These only exist for strict Cartesian rectilinear scenes. By inserting into a Cartesian scene a set of parallel lines that are not parallel to any of the three axes of the scene, a new distinct vanishing point is created.

Therefore, it is possible to have an infinite-point perspective if the scene being viewed is not a Cartesian scene but instead consists of infinite pairs of parallel lines, where each pair is not parallel to any other pair. Zero-point perspective[ edit ] In its usual sense, zero-point perspective is not truly "zero-point".

Rather, because vanishing points exist only when parallel lines are present in the scene, a perspective with no vanishing points "zero-point" perspective occurs if the viewer is observing a non-linear scene containing no parallel lines. This is not to be confused with elevation , since a view without explicit vanishing points may still have been drawn such that, there would have been vanishing points had there been parallel lines, and thus enjoy the sense of depth as a perspective projection.

On the other hand, parallel projection such as elevation can be approximated by viewing the object in question from very far away, because projection lines from the point of view approaches parallel when the point of view POV approaches infinity. This may account for the confusion over zero-point perspective, since natural scenes often are viewed from very far away, and the size of objects within the scene would be insignificant compared to their distance to the POV.

Any given small objects in said scene would thus mimic the look of parallel projection. Foreshortening[ edit ] Two different projections of a stack of two cubes, illustrating oblique parallel projection foreshortening "A" and perspective foreshortening "B" Andrea Mantegna , The Lamentation over the Dead Christ Foreshortening is the visual effect or optical illusion that causes an object or distance to appear shorter than it actually is because it is angled toward the viewer.

Additionally, an object is often not scaled evenly: a circle often appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid. Although foreshortening is an important element in art where visual perspective is being depicted, foreshortening occurs in other types of two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional scenes. Some other types where foreshortening can occur include oblique parallel projection drawings.

Foreshortening also occurs when imaging rugged terrain using a synthetic aperture radar system. Methods of construction[ edit ] Several methods of constructing perspectives exist, including: Freehand sketching common in art Graphically constructing once common in architecture Using a perspective grid Computing a perspective transform common in 3D computer applications Mimicry using tools such as a proportional divider sometimes called a variscaler Copying a photograph Rays of light travel from the object to the eye, intersecting with a notional picture plane.

Determining the geometry of a square floor tile on the perspective drawing One of the most common, and earliest, uses of geometrical perspective is a checkerboard floor. It is a simple but striking application of one-point perspective. Many of the properties of perspective drawing are used while drawing a checkerboard. The checkerboard floor is, essentially, just a combination of a series of squares. Once a single square is drawn, it can be widened or subdivided into a checkerboard. Where necessary, lines and points will be referred to by their colors in the diagram.

To draw a square in perspective, the artist starts by drawing a horizon line black and determining where the vanishing point green should be. The higher up the horizon line is, the lower the viewer will appear to be looking, and vice versa.

The more off-center the vanishing point, the more tilted the square will be. Because the square is made up of right angles, the vanishing point should be directly in the middle of the horizon line.

A rotated square is drawn using two-point perspective, with each set of parallel lines leading to a different vanishing point. The foremost edge of the orange square is drawn near the bottom of the painting. Because the viewer's picture plane is parallel to the bottom of the square, this line is horizontal. Lines connecting each side of the foremost edge to the vanishing point are drawn in grey. These lines give the basic, one point "railroad tracks" perspective.

The closer it is the horizon line, the farther away it is from the viewer, and the smaller it will appear. The farther away from the viewer it is, the closer it is to being perpendicular to the picture plane.

A new point the eye is now chosen, on the horizon line, either to the left or right of the vanishing point.

The distance from this point to the vanishing point represents the distance of the viewer from the drawing. If this point is very far from the vanishing point, the square will appear squashed, and far away. If it is close, it will appear stretched out, as if it is very close to the viewer. A line connecting this point to the opposite corner of the square is drawn. Where this blue line hits the side of the square, a horizontal line is drawn, representing the farthest edge of the square.

The line just drawn represents the ray of light traveling from the farthest edge of the square to the viewer's eye. This step is key to understanding perspective drawing.Using Circular Strokes Loose, circular strokes are great for quickly recording simple subjects or for working out a still life arrangement, as shown in this example.

Shading creates different values and gives the illusion of depth and form. To adjust the left and right vanishing points use the left and right vanishing point widgets. Another thing to consider is the weather: Step Two Use uniform pencil strokes to indicate the layers of fur around the head, chest, and back. Then create the the basic shapes using a circle for the head and ovals for full outline of the cat's body, adding its four legs.

Continue creating the texture of the kitten's coat by making deliberate strokes of different lengths in the varying directions of fur growth. These aren't finished drawings by any means, so you can keep them rough. This word design was done after those exercises. The voluminous, bushy effect is achieved with many short, squiggly lines drawn in random directions, in contrast to the sloping lines of the lower petals.