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Assignment. From your observations, draw simple, generalized line diagrams that illustrate the diagnostic features of the following list of tissue types. Be sure to . Nature-cells of meristems divide continuously & help in increasing the length girth of the plant. These cells show the following characteristics: 1. The cells of. Tissue and Cell is devoted to original research on the organization of cells, subcellular and .. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in.

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UNSW Histology Slides by Tissue. Original Anatomy teaching slide set (revised ). Links: File:UNSW Histology Slide Set by Developmental Changes in Cell and Tissue Water Relations Parameters in Storage Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (M), or click on a. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for.

The periosteum and its neighboring muscle fasciae exhibit a varying composition and architecture of both collagen and elastin fibers.

The thickness of the reflected fiber correlates to its contrast intensity, which varies as a function of the angle between the fiber and the laser beam Particularly in regions where muscle fascicles are in close association with the periosteum, collagen fibrils can be seen linking the periosteum to the perimysium, another indicator of direct force transfer Fig.

Though collagen is much less evident in the muscle per se, SHIM enables visualization of thin collagen fibers in the fasciae bordering muscle groups, perhaps providing mechanical support and stability during muscle distension. Based on these observations, we envision the muscle fascia as a continuous bounding layer of collagen fibers spanning superficial and deep muscle layers to the periosteum and finally, bone.

Imaged in the transverse section of the long bone sample, the TPEM visualized elastin components of the periosteum resemble a dynamic layer enveloping bone. The elastin signal is also detected in muscle tissue structures, providing architectural information for fibers within muscle fascia, perimysium and blood vessels.

With regards to muscle, distinct muscle groups can be seen connected via elastin coils resembling springs Fig.

In some ROIs multiple such coils formed a loosely woven webbed structure. These spatially varying features likely reflect the local mechanical environment of the tissue, e.

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Blood vessels, identified through the strong elastin signal of the vessel walls containing procion red filled channels, present abundantly in association with the periosteum Fig. Some blood vessels transect the periosteal layer to form the Volkmann canals, which insert into cortical bone and connect with the axially aligned Haversian channels.

This multifunctional physiological tapestry comprises the fibrous weave of elastin and its higher order architecture into tissue fabric, bridging structures and vascular channels, highlighting the emergent structures which underlie the smart mechanical and permeability properties of the periosteum. Imaging the periosteum using SHIM and TPEM enables high resolution mapping of elastin and collagen fibers and their higher order architectures in context of surrounding tissue compartments.

As a next step in our bottom-up approach we used the z-stacks from our novel microscopy protocol to create scaled up 3D models, which accurately represent the composition and spatial architecture of the image sequences and the tissue itself Fig.

Scale-up of nature’s tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials

The masks were converted to STL files and combined to create a composite 3D model comprising collagen, elastin and vascular components Fig. For example, although nylon monofilament Nyl suture weaves exhibit a lower elastic modulus In contrast to both nylon and silk weaves, elastane Ela warp weaves are highly elastic, and exhibit little resistance to tension 2. Interestingly, the weft yarns of the elastane warp weaves show the capacity to modulate strain distribution during axial loading, perhaps due to their low elastic modulus.

Such scaled up, mechanically functional textiles lend themselves for use in the safety and transport sector. Ongoing studies are implementing these approaches at the microscale using engineered collagen and elastin and other biological structural proteins, for rapid implementation in the medical sector 30 , Figure 4 a Stereographs of woven swatches consisting of various warp and weft combinations x Other contemporary rapid prototyping techniques have been applied to manufacture tissue engineering scaffolds including electrospinning of nanoscaffolds 32 , 33 , 3D organ printing 34 and integrative weaving of porous cartilage scaffolds Developments in electrospun nanofiber scaffolds enable the creation and manipulation of scaffolds at the cellular length scale, although this manufacturing process is not yet amenable to customization of the architecture, geometry and mechanical attributes needed to mimic the composite and sophisticated material properties of the periosteum or other similarly complex tissues.

To date, integrative weaving has not yet captured the detailed fiber arrangement of biological tissues.

Hence, to our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind, where natural woven architectures are mapped and replicated in scaled-up models to develop novel advanced materials and functional textiles. Both approaches have been reduced to practice and the intellectual property has been protected patent pending 30 , Tests are underway to optimize the degree to which emergent properties are compromised by using the latter technique. Figure 5: Recursive weaving and spinning concept.

Used with permission after Heterogenous strain map at one point in time is depicted in color using digital image correlation and high resolution imaging using high definition television lens. The dashed line in this view is orthogonal to the middiaphyseal imaging carried out using second harmonic imaging of collagen and elastin per Fig.

Adapted with permission 30 , All methods were carried out in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulation of this IACUC.

To visualize and quantify bone perfusion, 0. Immediately after euthanasia, the femur, periosteum and surrounding muscle layer were resected and prepared for fixed, undecalcified histology using standardized protocols To relate tissue fabric organization to prevalent mechanical loading histories, the major and minor centroidal axes of the bone cross-sectional area 28 , 29 were calculated using a macro in Image J NIH Image J 2 v1.

Major and minor centroidal axes CA represent cross-sectional geometric properties, i. Prior studies showed that these reference points can be calculated in an automated way, reducing the possibility for bias while allowing for direct relation of outcome measures to loading patterns in age and treatment matched cohorts.

The major and minor CAs were marked on the outer edges of the mounted bone specimens and served as reference points for high-resolution microscopy Figs 1 and 3a—d. The forward propagated second harmonic collagen signal was collected in the transmitted Non-Descanned-Detector using a — nm bandpass filter.

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The two-photon excitation of elastin was excited at nm and collected in the photo-multiplier tube PMT using a — nm emission filter.

This filter was used to segment away autofluorescence that was observed in the green channel that did not completely correspond to elastin architecture. For the procion red signal, a nm excitation was collected in the PMT using a — nm emission.

A tiled scan was collected at the four quadrants correlating to the major and minor centroidal axes in the previously mentioned 3 channels, plus brightfield. The epithelium in all animals is derived from the ectoderm and endoderm , with a small contribution from the mesoderm , forming the endothelium , a specialized type of epithelium that composes the vasculature.

By contrast, a true epithelial tissue is present only in a single layer of cells held together via occluding junctions called tight junctions , to create a selectively permeable barrier.

This tissue covers all organismal surfaces that come in contact with the external environment such as the skin , the airways, and the digestive tract. It serves functions of protection, secretion , and absorption, and is separated from other tissues below by a basal lamina. Main article: Connective tissue Connective tissues are fibrous tissues made up of cells separated by non-living material, which is called an extracellular matrix.

This matrix can be liquid or rigid. For example, blood contains plasma as its matrix and bone's matrix is rigid. Connective tissue gives shape to organs and holds them in place.

Tissue (biology)

Blood, bone, tendon, ligament, adipose, and areolar tissues are examples of connective tissues. One method of classifying connective tissues is to divide them into three types: fibrous connective tissue, skeletal connective tissue, and fluid connective tissue.

Main article: Muscle tissue Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue.

Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause motion , either locomotion or movement within internal organs. Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle , found in the inner linings of organs ; skeletal muscle , typically attached to bones, which generate gross movement; and cardiac muscle , found in the heart , where it contracts to pump blood throughout an organism.

Main article: Nervous tissue Cells comprising the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as nervous or neural tissue. In the central nervous system, neural tissues form the brain and spinal cord. In the peripheral nervous system, neural tissues form the cranial nerves and spinal nerves , inclusive of the motor neurons.We require the full mailing address and contact information telephone, fax and e-mail address for EACH author.

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The ultimate decision regarding assignment of manuscripts is left to the discretion of the Editors-in-Chief. A: Any container that is slightly larger than the organism specimen being cleared is suitable. This information will remain confidential while the paper is being reviewed and will not influence the editorial decision.

In the peripheral nervous system, neural tissues form the cranial nerves and spinal nerves , inclusive of the motor neurons.

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