TEACHING STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS IN INCLUSIVE SETTINGS PDF
The seventh edition of Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings explores the most recent changes in the ways students with. Teaching Students With Special Needs In Inclusive Settings Myeducationlab By Tom E Smith. Edward A Polloway James R Patton Carol A Dowdy pdf download. PDF | Inclusive classrooms are becoming the norm in schools, fulfilling the teach science to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms, .. respondents reported feeling more comfortable in a setting where there are no.
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Canada. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings, Fifth Canadian Edition, 5/e More than 11 million students have used our learning technologies worldwide. Over the past Download Flyer (PDF, 2 Pages, KB) . Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Corporate author: UNESCO Office Bangkok and Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. by Tom E C Smith; James R Patton; Edward A Polloway; Carol Ammons Dowdy; Laureen J McIntyre.
Advanced Search Find a Library. Showing all editions for 'Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings' Sort by: Like this lesson Share Teaching students with disabilities in an inclusive setting is a complex task that requires full cooperation and participation from teachers. While many teachers are reluctant to try inclusion, it is critical that we shift our mindset and allow access to general curricula to every student, regardless of their abilities or limitations.
This lesson will outline what an inclusive classroom looks like, along with the benefits and challenges that come with it.
Separate Is Not Equal Not too long ago, students with disabilities were rarely seen in public schools. If they received an education, it was in a separate school away from their regular peers.
Following the Civil Rights Movement, equality for all people, including those with disabilities, became a hot topic. Through education and advocacy, the mindset of separating people who are different has shifted.
We now understand that separate is inherently unequal. Legislators have written into law the necessity of including students with all ranges of disabilities in regular schools and classrooms with their regular peers. Research supports the positive outcomes of inclusive settings over separate classrooms. Put simply, special edu- cation should be best-practice intervention for all.
A more formal definition of best teaching practice is offered in Box 1. This is often not an easy task, as both special and general education requirements have increased. Individually or in groups with other students receiving special education, either at home or in a medical or mental health setting.
Medical or mental health professionals provide overarching care in hospital settings , with educational services delivered by special education and related services professionals. Number of Students Residential School Where? MOST Who?
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Special Education teacher s direct services, with services delivered by special education, related services professionals, and specially trained day school and residential staff. Classroom with other students who have special needs, in a separate school facility. Special Education teacher s direct services, with services delivered by special education, related services professionals, and specially trained staff. Special Education Classroom Where?
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Classroom with other students who have special needs, within a maximum age range determined by state regulations. Special Education teacher s direct services, with services delivered by special education and related services professionals. Resource Room Where? General Education Classroom with Consultation Where?
General Education Classroom Where? Figure 1. In the following sections, we highlight the qualities of best practices across three curricular areas: English language learning, mathematics, and science. We then discuss cross-content best practices. Best Practice in English Language Learning The ability to acquire competence in the English language is critical for success in American schools. Pupils who have clear understanding and competence in spo- ken and written English are likely to be successful in most other curricular areas.
Yet reading, writing, and conversing in English are highly complex tasks at which a distressingly high proportion of our students continue to fail. Fortunately, broad Box 1. Practices may be considered evidence based or best practices when they are supported by a sufficient number of well-controlled, experimental, or quasi- experimental research studies Odom et al.
In Box 1. Best Practice in Mathematics Like literacy instruction, mathematics education has undergone substantial changes in recent years. Best Practice in Science It would be highly unlikely that science education would remain dormant at a time when rapid knowledge growth was occurring across the curriculum.
Indeed, sub- stantial curricular adaptations have been recommended by professional science education organizations e. As with literacy and math education, science educators have proposed an inquiry-based approach to science education that focuses on learning important concepts and principles within and across re- spective disciplines e.
Cross-Discipline Best Instructional Practice In addition to recommendations provided by discipline-specific professional or- ganizations, educational researchers have provided valuable insights into best teaching practice across the curriculum. These re- searchers have examined the curricular and instructional conditions that promote the most effective and efficient learning of complex academic content for all pupils enrolled in inclusive educational settings. Several specific teaching strategies with strong empirical bases have generated from these efforts—all of which can be used across a range of academic content areas.
Moreover, these strategies appear to work not only for those with diverse needs i. Big ideas are fundamental principles and concepts that are reflected across the curriculum and that provide the basis for more generalized learning. Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock extended this emphasis by noting that clear and con- cise learning goals provide direction for learning yet permit flexibility to person- alize accommodations for individual students.
Well-planned objectives set criteria for performance that are clearly communicable to students, families, and others, and are designed so that the goals can be built into instructional feedback systems for students. Defining characteristics of big ideas are offered in Box 1.
Second, teachers should use nonlinguistic representations to help pupils learn content. Information is typically conveyed linguistically in most classrooms. These varied visual and sometimes tactile displays illustrate key concepts and their relationships. Researchers refer to this as the use of conspicuous strategies. Research by Marzano, Pickering, et al. In addition to seeing the important relationships among important big ideas within the curriculum, students must also link their newly acquired knowledge to existing understandings i.
Instruction should be designed so that teaching materials provide access to the prior knowledge that we are encouraging them to use. Further, it is important that teachers—both special and general educators—systematically teach students to identify similarities and differences in concepts through various activities, including comparing, classifying, and using more complex analyses. University of Oregon researchers also recommend the use of mediated scaffold- ing. These strategies provide students with instructional supports e.
It is equally important that teachers gradually re- duce support mechanisms i. A fifth recommended instructional strategy is strategic integration of academic content both within and across the curriculum. When learning new tasks or infor- mation, students must know and practice the steps that are needed to complete the tasks.
Moreover, to become proficient in completing newly acquired skills, stu- dents need sufficient practice. Strategic review provides pupils with opportunities to practice the steps needed to successfully complete assigned tasks. Strategies are modeled initially by teachers who overtly display step-by-step procedures and then provide ample opportunities for pupils to apply these strategies in meaningful learn- ing activities.
Skill practice across relevant activities enables students to apply strategies whenever they encounter similar tasks. The importance of strategic in- tegration for students with special needs is highlighted in a quotation in Box 1.
Judicious review, a sixth instructional strategy, gives students multiple addi- tional opportunities to practice what they have learned and to receive constructive feedback on their performance. This strategy ensures that knowledge and skills are retained over time and can be applied in different situations. In addition to forming these six research-based instructional strategies, special educators have played a significant role in the development of differentiated in- struction, a concept that has taken hold nationwide as part of ongoing school re- form movements see, e.
Differentiated instruction refers to the modification of instruction and curricular content, processes, and products in response to individual student needs and abilities. In differentiated classrooms, teachers fashion instruction around essential concepts and principles, as well as around the diverse needs and skills of individual pupils. Did it really seem to work when we gave stu- dents who skipped school three additional days out of school on suspension?
Does it really make sense to withhold positive attention from youngsters who rarely re- ceive any positive attention outside of school? Is simply telling noncompliant and disruptive students that they should behave better the most effective way we have for getting them to do so? Such questions, advice, policies, and practices have been evident in education for far too long. Not only have these perspectives and practices been ineffective, but in many cases they have been downright harmful.
These ideas are summarized in Box 1. Recognize That Behavior Is Learned Special educators recognized early on that most, if not all, human behavior was learned, typically through the complex interactions that occurred among individ- uals and their immediate learning environments. This concept was particularly important for special educators because many of their pupils had noticeable behavioral differences that set them apart from their peers and often resulted in negative educational outcomes e.
Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings
The ability to change pupil behavior in a more socially appropriate manner empowered spe- cial educators to provide relief and support for children with behavioral difficul- ties, as well as for their teachers and caregivers. The special education and applied psychology literatures provide numerous examples of the wide range of behavior problems that have been improved through systematic behavioral interventions e.
Identify Socially Important Goals Special educators have also contributed significantly to the selection of functional or socially important behavioral goals: skills that will most likely help students succeed in school and society.
Historically, the term discipline has become synony- mous with punishment in our schools see Box 1. Consequently, the goals of many traditional classroom and behavior management approaches were to suppress misbehavior and produce quiet and docile yet atten- tive students.
Indeed, the picture of a classroom of children sitting straight up in their desks with their feet firmly on the floor and staring attentively at the teacher was the hallmark of good classroom management for many educators.
While there is nothing inherently wrong with quiet, seated pupils who pay attention, research has found this to be an insufficient educational outcome. Instead, students must be actively involved in their own learning, and they must acquire more socially re- sponsible behaviors if they are to succeed in school and life. They must, for ex- ample, learn to treat themselves and others with respect, cooperate with peers and adults, and try to do their best academically. Good behavior management simply replaces inappropriate behavior with more responsible social actions.
Box 1. The word discipline is actually a derivative of the word disciple, or follower of a positive image or way. Most often, discipline has been equated with pun- ishment, and many educators have assumed that in order to develop good discipline one must rely on negative consequences such as reprimands, loss of privileges, or exclusion.
Very well done. Rather than waiting until Christmas to smile—or withholding positive attention from students who rarely receive it at home—effective educators catch pupils being good early and often throughout the school year. Moreover, they use a ratio of three or four positive comments to each reductive consequence e. When one notices pupils being good it is very important to recognize their behavior or what they are doing rather than making more global positive state- ments.
A ratio of three or four positive comments to each reprimand not only creates a more positive learning environment but also provides frequent opportunities for students to be recognized for the many good things that they do during the school day.
In school, the key lies in finding positive consequences that are natural and meaningful for students, that require little time to use, and that are relatively in- expensive. The extensive research of Marzano, Pickering, et al. Notably, they advise teachers to provide recognition for effort and ac- complishments while teaching students to discriminate between their effort and personal results.
Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings
Be Proactive and With-It Special educators also emphasize a proactive rather than reactive approach to be- havior management.The literature expounds on the pedagogical and curriculum factors, inappropriate assessment procedures, teacher training barriers to effective teaching and learning, unqualified and underqualified teachers, lack of support for teachers, and inappropriate teaching and learning methods and support material.
Snell, M. While there is nothing inherently wrong with quiet, seated pupils who pay attention, research has found this to be an insufficient educational outcome. Educational Research Review, v.
Heron, N. A speech-language pathologist should be the one to assess and determine deficits in these two areas. As with literacy and math education, science educators have proposed an inquiry-based approach to science education that focuses on learning important concepts and principles within and across re- spective disciplines e.
The word discipline is actually a derivative of the word disciple, or follower of a positive image or way. Classroom management that works: Research- based strategies for every teacher.
New York: Guilford Press.
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