ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION EBOOK
Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation eBook & Notes - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Electrical and Electronics. Measurements and Instrumentation. Prithwiraj Purkait. Professor. Department of Electrical Engineering and. Dean, School of. Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation - Kindle edition by R S Sedha. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement - Kindle edition by Rohit Khurana. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether Choosing appropriate measuring instruments. 9. 2 INSTRUMENT. Text book Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements David A bell 2nd edition .pdf. Wajeeh Rehman. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable.
Its purpose is to generate the electron beam and control its intensity and focus. Between the electron gun and the fluorescent screen are two pair of metal plates - one oriented to provide horizontal deflection of the beam and one pair oriented ot give vertical deflection to the beam.
These plates are thus referred to as the horizontal and vertical deflection plates. The combination of these two deflections allows the beam to reach any portion of the fluorescent screen. Wherever the electron beam hits the screen, the phosphor is excited and light is emitted from that point.
This coversion of electron energy into light allows us to write with points or lines of light on an otherwise darkened screen.
Measurement and Instrumentation
The signal applied to the verical plates is thus displayed on the screen as a function of time. The horizontal axis serves as a uniform time scale. The linear deflection or sweep of the beam horizontally is accomplished by use of a sweep generator that is incorporated in the oscilloscope circuitry. The voltage output of such a generator is that of a sawtooth wave as shown in Fig. Application of one cycle of this voltage difference, which increases linearly with time, to the horizontal plates causes the beam to be deflected linearly with time across the tube face.
When the voltage suddenly falls to zero, as at points a b c , etc The horizontal deflection of the beam is repeated periodically, the frequency of this periodicity is adjustable by external controls.
To obtain steady traces on the tube face, an internal number of cycles of the unknown signal that is applied to the vertical plates must be associated with each cycle of the sweep generator.
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Thus, with such a matching of synchronization of the two deflections, the pattern on the tube face repeats itself and hence appears to remain stationary. The persistance of vision in the human eye and of the glow of the fluorescent screen aids in producing a stationary pattern. In addition, the electron beam is cut off blanked during flyback so that the retrace sweep is not observed.
In general, the instrument is operated in the following manner. The signal to be displayed is amplified by the vertical amplifier and applied to the verical deflection plates of the CRT. A portion of the signal in the vertical amplifier is applied to the sweep trigger as a triggering signal. The sweep trigger then generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the triggering signal.
This pulse turns on the sweep generator, initiating the sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave is amplified by the horizontal amplifier and applied to the horizontal deflection plates. Usually, additional provisions signal are made for appliying an external triggering signal or utilizing the 60 Hz line for triggering.
Also the sweep generator may be bypassed and an external signal applied directly to the horizontal amplifier. CRO Controls : The controls available on most oscilloscopes provide a wide range of operating conditions and thus make the instrument especially versatile.
Since many of these controls are common to most oscilloscopes a brief description of them follows. Focus: Focus the spot or trace on the screen. Intensity: Regulates the brightness of the spot or trace. Sensitivity: Selects the sensitivity of the vertical amplifier in calibrated steps. Variable Sensitivity: Provides a continuous range of sensitivities between the calibrated steps.
Modern Instrumentation for Scientists and Engineers
Normally the sensitivity is calibrated only when the variable knob is in the fully clockwise position. Selecting dc couples the input directly to the amplifier; selecting ac send the signal through a capacitor before going to the amplifier thus blocking any constant component.
Calibrated position is fully clockwise. Position: Controls horizontal position of trace on screen. Horizontal Variable: Controls the attenuation reduction of signal applied to horizontal aplifier through Ext. Coupling: Selects whether triggering occurs at a specific dc or ac level.
Source: Selects the source of the triggering signal. LINE - 60 cycle triger Level: Selects the voltage point on the triggering signal at which sweep is triggered. It also allows automatic auto triggering of allows sweep to run free free run. The lower jack is grounded to the case. Horizontal Input: A pair of jacks for connecting an external signal to the horizontal amplifier.
The lower terminal is graounted to the case of the oscilloscope.
External Tigger Input: Input connector for external trigger signal. Out: Provides amplitude calibrated square waves of 25 and millivolts for use in calibrating the gain of the amplifiers. Sensitivity is variable.
Range of sweep is variable. Operating Instructions: Before plugging the oscilloscope into a wall receptacle, set the controls as follows: a Power switch at off b Intensity fully counter clockwise c Vertical centering in the center of range d Horizontal centering in the center of range e Vertical at 0.
Turn power on. Do not advance the Intensity Control. Allow the scope to warm up for approximately two minutes, then turn the Intensity Control until the beam is visible on the screen.
Set the signal generator to a frequency of cycles per second. Connect the output from the gererator to the vertical input of the oscilloscope.
Establish a steady trace of this input signal on the scope. Adjust play with all of the scope and signal generator controls until you become familiar with the functionof each.
The purpose fo such "playing" is to allow the student to become so familiar with the oscilloscope that it becomes an aid tool in making measurements in other experiments and not as a formidable obstacle. Note: If the vertical gain is set too low, it may not be possible to obtain a steady trace.
Measurements of Voltage: Consider the circuit in Fig. This book offers such basic knowledge and provides guidance on how to obtain the relevant skills. The kinds of topics dealt with are operating principles, the performance of analog and digital components and circuits, and the precise characteristics of electronic measuring systems.
Throughout the book, every endeavor is made to impart a critical attitude to the way in which such instruments should be implemented. Contents: 1. Measurement systems - 2. Signals - 3. Networks - 4.
Mathematical tools - 5. Models - 6. Frequency diagrams - 7. Passive electronic components - 8. Passive filters - 9.
PN diodes - Bipolar transistors - Fieldeffect transistors - Operational amplifiers - In the third edition of some minor corrections have been made to the previous edition.
One expresses the static behavior of the block, that is, the value it has after all transient time varying effects have settled to their nal state. Traditionally, signal generators have been embedded hardware units, but since the age of multimedia-PCs, flexible, programmable software tone generators have also been available.
The author first introduces the fundamentals-including main terms and definitions, methods of estimating accuracy and uncertainty, and standards of electrical quantities-and the classical methods of measurement. Plug line cord into a standard ac wall recepticle nominally V. What is calibration? Allow the scope to warm up for approximately two minutes, then turn the Intensity Control until the beam is visible on the screen.
Helfrick, A. The meter will not indicate the correct voltage when used to measure non-sinusoidal signals.
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