Education Classical Physics Pdf


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An increasing number of people who think seriously about physics peda- Classical mechanics deals with the question of how an object moves when it. These notes were written during the Fall, , and Winter, , terms. They are indeed lecture notes – I literally lecture from these notes. They combine. present classical mechanics as physics, not as applied mathematics. Although velocity, we say that the acceleration is an invariant in classical mechanics.

Classical Physics Pdf

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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Gregory's Classical Mechanics is a major new textbook for undergraduates in mathe- matics and physics. It is a thorough, self-contained and highly readable. of classical physics, concentrating on topics most important to modern physics, some of Some of the most important ideas in physics are conservation laws.

What Is the Theory of Relativity? Albert Einstein's theory of relativity is one of the most important discoveries of the contemporary age, and states that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers. As a result of this discovery, Einstein was able to confirm that space and time are interwoven in a single continuum known as space-time.

As such, events that occur at the same time for one observer could occur at different times for another. Discovered by Max Plank in , quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behaviour of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level. The nature and behaviour of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics. Plank discovered that energy exists in individual units in the same way that matter does, rather than just as a constant electromagnetic wave.

Thus, energy was quantifiable. The existence of these units, called quanta, act as the basis of Plank's quantum theory. Nuclear Physics Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that deals with the constituents, structure, behaviour and interactions of atomic nuclei. This branch of physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. It is used in power generation, nuclear weapons, medicines, magnetic resonance, imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, and more.

Who Discovered Nuclear Physics? The history of nuclear physics as a distinct field from atomic physics begins with the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in The discovery of the electron one year later indicated that the atom had an internal structure.

With this, studies began on the nuclei of atoms, thus nuclear physics was born. Nuclear physicists examine only the nucleus, not the atom as a whole.

Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

Source 4. Atomic Physics Atomic physics is a branch of physics that deals with the composition of the atom apart from the nucleus. It is mainly concerned with the arrangement and behaviour of electrons in the shells around the nucleus.

Thus, atomic physics mostly examines electrons, ions, and neutral atoms. One of the earliest steps towards atomic physics was recognizing that all matter is comprised of atoms.

The true beginning of atomic physics is marked by the discovery of spectral lines and the attempt to explain them. This resulted in an entirely new understanding of the structure of atoms and how they behave.

This conflict between these two contradictory views has been largely accepted by generations of physicists even though there has been NO significant progress in QM since the original work done before Unfortunately, only a few of these assumptions were challenged by the developers of QM. We show that most of these assumptions are still generating confusions in the interpretation of QM and blocking further progress in the understanding of the microscopic domain.

Several of these flawed assumptions were introduced to support the use of continuum mathematics especially calculus as a model of nature.

This research proposes that it is the attempt to preserve continuum mathematics, which drives much of the mystery and confusion behind all attempts at understanding quantum mechanics.

The introduction of discrete mathematics is proposed to help analyze the discrete interactions between the quintessential quantum objects: Canada spsi99 telus. It is part of a multi year theoretical physics research investigation into those many areas of physics known as electromagnetism.

This paper now reaches one of the primary goals of this research programme: The next paper [3] also included a summary of the first attempts to understand this new discrete form of electricity, which was referred to as Classical Electron Theory. A theory of large numbers of electrons interacting locally and remotely was also presented in this paper Mesoscopic Electrodynamics that reproduced the macroscopic results of Maxwell's mathematics without using any continuum concepts and only needing the hypothesis of two-electron interactions.

Later papers in this programme continually exposed the attempts throughout the 20th Century to accommodate the discrete facts of the electron with the foundational continuum concepts underpinning Maxell's field theory perhaps, attempting to salvage years of mathematics. The fourth paper [4] focused on the finite temporal separations that are a primary feature of remote electron interactions.

This enabled the theory to be extended to all distances and relative velocities. This also showed that the in famous Lorentz transformations were a necessary constraint on the mathematics of instantaneous local field theories and did not require a massive revision in the commonsense views of the reality of space and time, which are usually offered to the non-mathematical members of the public. The fifth paper [5] replaced the venerable instantaneous Coulomb electrostatic interaction with a pair-wise, ray-like form of the dynamic EM impulse, whose magnitude diminished linearly with increases in temporal separation.

Quantizing both the dynamical and kinematical activity between two electrons introduced light-quanta in a physical rather than mathematical manner. This also led to the natural emergence of positive electrons that become a complementary fundamental particle to the usual negatively charged electron. These two entities become the only natural material objects needed in this fundamental theory of nature. It is important to always remember that a light-quantum is not an energy packet but the quantum of interaction.

This review follows the historical sequence of major experimental observations, such as the energy spectrum of heated matter, the way in which crystals reacted anomalously to heat specific heats , the bizarre results now referred to as the photoelectric effect, and the problems of explaining the stability of atoms and nuclei, particularly the mystery of discrete atomic spectra.

Additional assumptions that are rarely discussed are also examined because it is the firm belief of the present theory that it is in the area of false assumptions that answers are most likely to be found. It includes Classical Mechanics the study of the motion of massive objects and Electromagnetism the study of macroscopic electrical bodies and magnets. Around , it was the development of new technologies, which exposed new phenomena of nature. These led to the invention of modern quantum theory, when these new experiments could not be explained by the theories of classical physics.

We will show that the contradictions of QM were already buried deep in the foundational ideas of classical physics. This paper will not review the triumphs of classical physics. It does review the major anomalies that forced a realization that the concepts and techniques that had worked so well for years could no longer work for certain phenomena that had begun to emerge by and continued to appear as experimentalists tested more of the new predictions of these new theories.

The approach taken here will again be historical and this section focuses on experiments, as these experiential facts cannot be denied and form the solid foundation of physics as an empirical science; the same cannot be said for its theories, as science historian Thomas Kuhn has well described [8].

In classical mechanics, it was always assumed that a given property e.

However, the study of the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics has shown that our measurement of any object involves interactions between the measuring apparatus and the object that inevitably affect it, in some way; at the scale of atomic particles, this effect is necessarily large.

On the everyday macroscopic scale, the effect can be made small. The problem for any individual is how to properly characterize a part of reality of which one has no direct sense experience.

The conventional interpretations of the atomic world are based on the Positivist philosophy popular in the first half of the 20th Century. This philosophy dismissed as meaningless everything that could not be measured scientifically. Our accounts of the quantum domain must then be based on interactions of macro domain instruments and sense organs with physical events, and only those interactions give us some but not all of the information we seek.

The logical consequence of this old form of human arrogance was that nothing existed in the world unless a human observed it happening or could observe its consequence; thus, trees never fell in ancient forests that subsequently burned down before humans walked the earth. This rationalist myth was the basis for medieval theology.

Werner Heisenberg made a brave attempt [9] in to defend his own so-called Copenhagen Interpretation: We can say that physics is a part of science and as such aims at a description and understanding of nature. Any kind of understanding, scientific or not, depends on our language, on the communication of ideas.

Every description of phenomena, of experiments and their results, rests upon language as the only means of communication. The words of this language represent the concepts of daily life, which in the scientific language of physics may be refined to the concepts of classical physics.

These concepts are the only tools for an unambiguous communication about events, about the setting up of experiments, and about their results. As soon as the physicist gave up this basis, he would lose the means of unambiguous communication and could not continue in his science. Some of these were critical to introducing discrete concepts that resulted in quantum theory. Unfortunately, this conceptual realization was too weak to threaten the assumption that calculus was still the best mathematical representation of discrete reality, as now exposed in the microscopic domain.

In , Wilhelm Wien measured the complete energy spectrum of a blackbody, as a function only of the frequency of the radiation produced. He found that the frequency at which the maximum energy is radiated increases as the temperature increases; this spectral distribution was independent of the type of material forming the hot body.

Their theories predicted that the heat emitted at high frequencies in the ultra-violet or UV would become infinite: In , Max Planck created his own theory that fitted the recent experimental results at all measured frequencies, thus avoiding the UV Catastrophe.

Planck's radical hypothesis was the critical step that introduced the quantum era into modern physics, much to Planck's later chagrin as he was a devoted believer in classical physics, particularly Maxwell's theory of EM radiation. Planck's hypothesis was driven by mathematical necessity. The French experimentalists, Dulong and Petit had shown that this value was independent of temperature for most solids at room temperature; diamond was a rare exception.

Dewar's invention in of techniques for liquifying hydrogen allowed scientists to investigate matter at extremely low temperatures, where experiments showed that the heat capacity of all materials goes to zero as the absolute temperature goes to zero while, as temperatures rise, its value gradually approaches the Dulong-Petit limit.

This was another embarrassment for theoretical classical physics. He invented a very simplified model of a crystalline solid by replacing each atom with 3 harmonic oscillators one for each direction and also assumed that these atoms or oscillators were only 'lightly' interconnected, i.

He also simplified his model by assuming all the oscillators could only vibrate at the same single frequency f. Like Planck, he assumed that the energy of each oscillator E could only take on discrete values; i. Each solid was characterized by its own so-called Einstein temperature, TE.

Physics: Definition and Branches

In this model, the specific heat incorrectly goes exponentially fast to zero at low temperatures. Debye improved on this by with a solid model including sound waves. Hertz's student, Philipp Lenard, soon replicated this effect using the recently discovered electrons; but in , he proved that the electrodes themselves were emitting extra electrons when he again focused UV light on metal foils.

By , he had discovered that the energies of the ejected electron where completely independent of the incoming light intensity but depended linearly on the frequency of this light. In fact, Lenard found that there was a minimum frequency, below which no electrons were ejected for a given type of metal foil. However, increasing the intensity of the light of a given frequency did increase the number of ejected electrons but only when the frequency exceeded the minimum. These quanta were proposed to obey an energy exchange law, similar to Planck's blackbody formula: They accelerated electrons in a mercury-filled tube and found that at certain kinetic energies the current dropped suddenly.

At low voltages, the accelerated electrons acquired only a modest amount of kinetic energy, so when they interacted with the mercury atoms in the tube, they participated in purely elastic collisions. Quantum mechanics predicts that an atom can only absorb energy when the collision energy exceeds that required to lift an orbital electron into a higher energy state.

With purely elastic collisions, the total amount of kinetic energy in the system remains the same. Higher voltages increased the observed current, until the accelerating potential reached 4. The lowest energy electronic excitation a mercury atom can participate in requires 4. When the voltage reached 4. Consequently, an inelastic collision occurs transferring energy from a free electron to the mercury atom. With the loss of all its acquired kinetic energy in this way, the free electron can no longer contribute to the measured current.

This experiment demonstrated that the electronic structure of atoms required relatively large finite energies: He wrapped a photographic plate in black paper and placed various phosphorescent salts on it; all results were negative until he used uranium salts that later blackened the plate.

This actually had nothing to do with phosphorescence as the effect persisted even when the mineral was kept in the dark, while other non-phosphorescent salts of uranium and even metallic uranium, also blackened the plate. This new radiation was more complicated: Nonetheless, Ernest Rutherford demonstrated that the intensity of radiation diminished with time according to a simple exponential decay formula, differing only by a single factor later called the half-life for that material and decay mode.

It was soon found that there were three types of radiation, named alpha, beta and gamma, in increasing order of their ability to penetrate matter.

Classical Physics

Gamma radiation was found to be purely high-energy electromagnetic like X-rays while the other two reacted differently to electric and magnetic fields. The alpha rays were found to be positively charged helium nuclei while the beta rays were shown to be high-energy electrons.

Radioactive decay is found only with some elements with an atomic number of 83 bismuth or higher. Alpha decay is only seen with heavy elements that ultimately end with non-radioactive lead.

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Rutherford demonstrated that many of these decay processes actually changed one element into another: It is found to consist of only a very few special frequencies and these are uniquely characteristic of the gas material.

In a complementary manner, cool gases absorb these same frequencies when exposed to a continuous light spectrum. This implies that the atoms in a gas can exist in discrete energy states.

Anders Angstrom measured the frequency lines of hydrogen and found they fitted closely to a numerological formula suggested by Johann Balmer that involved the differences in the inverses of squared integers.

This is now viewed as the most significant achievement of QM but there are major problems with this solution that still exist today. It is the co-existence of these eleven experiments, which challenges physicists to develop a coherent and consistent model of reality.

So far, quantum theorists have created two mathematical schemes one for each set of experiments that work well in their own domain but have long resisted a single, unified interpretation.

He had modified a Crookes tube invented about 20 years earlier that accelerated electrons to include a thin aluminum window, protected by thin cardboard, when he noticed a fluorescent effect on a nearby cardboard screen painted with barium platinocyanide.

He speculated that the tube might be emitting an invisible ray of unknown nature hence 'X' for the unknown. The maximum energy of the produced X-rays is limited by the energy of the incident electron, which is equal to the voltage on the tube times the electron charge, so an 80 kV tube cannot create X-rays with energy greater than 80 keV.

When the high-energy electrons hit the metal target, X-rays are then assumed to be created by two different atomic processes: This process produces an emission spectrum of X-rays at a few discrete frequencies, sometimes referred to as its spectral lines. The spectral lines generated depend on the target anode element used and are called characteristic lines. This process is similar to fluorescence but now at a frequency well above UV.It is mainly concerned with the arrangement and behaviour of electrons in the shells around the nucleus.

This 51 page paper presents a wave-particle model for EMR different to that an earlier paper 'The Butterfly Effect and the Electron' In Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" later called photons to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: Quantum mechanics is derived from the same equation by assuming that the square of total energy consists of square of total momentum, square of the mass, and imaginary part of the energy creation-annihilation rate.

Overall, the reason why CM and QM are interesting is because they both serve as, on the most part, accurate ways of representing reality.

The resolution of this contradiction was presented in our new theory of light [6].

Table of Contents

Hence, knowledge of properties of a given state, in general, allows one to make predictions and move to new conclusions. He speculated that the tube might be emitting an invisible ray of unknown nature hence 'X' for the unknown.

The approach taken here will again be historical and this section focuses on experiments, as these experiential facts cannot be denied and form the solid foundation of physics as an empirical science; the same cannot be said for its theories, as science historian Thomas Kuhn has well described [8].