2ND WORLD WAR PDF
TEACHING MODERN SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN HISTORY. Alternative Educational Materials. WORKBOOK 4. The Second World War. Edited by. KREŠIMIR. A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II highlights the major ground force the stage for a second German attempt at conquest. A worldwide de- pression . Timeline of The Second World War. September 18, Japan invades Manchuria. October 2, –May Fascist Italy invades.
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World War II now had the means and the capability Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II com- industry second to none, which came to dominate. The first world war itself sowed the seeds for Second World War, primarily because of the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. We shall see the causes and consequences of the Second World War (WWII) in this post Print Friendly, PDF & Email. 2: The Failure of League. 3: The Global Depression. 4: Hitler's Foreign Policy. 5 : Appeasement. 6: The Nazi-Soviet Pact. The Causes of the Second World War.
Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Learn more. The Two Groups: The provision for disarming Germany. Saar coal mine to France for 15 years. Polish corridor was given to Poland.
City of Danzing was made free. While West was fighting communism, Germany and Italy started massive militarization. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis While drawing boundaries the interests of minority groups in each of these countries were neglected. Share Integrate Learning With Test-Taking!
Germany soon helped Italy. Under Rommel 's command, by the end of April , the Commonwealth army was pushed back to Egypt again.
At the same time, Japan's progress in China was still not much, although the nationalist and communist Chinese began fighting each other again. During the summer, the Axis quickly captured Ukraine and the Baltic regions, which caused huge damage to the Soviets. Britain and the Soviet Union formed a military alliance between them in July.
This marked the end of the blitzkrieg stage of the war. By December, the Red Army facing the Axis army had received more soldiers from the east. It began a counter-attack that pushed the German army to the west. By November , the Commonwealth counter-attacked the Axis in North Africa and got all the land it lost before. By April , many South East Asian countries: The Japanese navy had many quick victories. But in June , Japan was defeated at Midway.
Japan could not take more land after this because a large part of its navy was destroyed during the battle. The fight on Guadalcanal began in September and involved a lot of troops and ships from both sides. It ended with the Japanese defeat in early On the Eastern Front, the Axis defeated Soviet attacks during summer and began its own main offensive to southern Russia along Don and Volga Rivers in June , trying to take over oil fields in Caucasus and a great steppe.
Stalingrad was in the path of the Axis army, and the Soviets decided to defend the city. By November the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad , however the Soviets were able to surround the Germans during winter  After heavy losses, the German army was forced to surrender the city in February A new Allied offensive , drove the Axis west across Libya a few months later,  just after the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa forced it to join the Allies.
Many German soldiers were lost because of the Soviets' well-created defenses.
After this, the Soviets became the attacking force on the Eastern Front, instead of the Germans. This resulted in the arrest of Mussolini in the same month. Late in Japan conquered some islands in India and began an invasion of the Indian mainland. The Army of India and other forces expelled them in early In early , the Soviet army drove off the German army from Leningrad,  ending the longest and deadliest siege in history. After that, the Soviets began a big counter-attack.
By May, the Soviets had retaken Crimea. With the attacks in Italy from September , the Allies succeeded in capturing Rome on 4 June , and made the German forces fall back. The code name for the invasion was Operation Overlord. The invasion was successful, and led to the defeat of the German forces in France. Paris was freed on August and the Allies continued eastward while the German front collapsed.
Operation Market-Garden was the combined aerial invasion of the Netherlands launched on 17 September The purpose of the invasion was to seize a series of bridges that included a bridge in Arnhem, which spanned the Rhine river. Market was the name for the airborne invasion.
The ground invasion, named Garden, reached the Rhine river, but could not take the Arnhem bridge. Arriving Soviet troops caused uprisings against the German government in Eastern European countries, but these failed to succeed unless helped by the Soviets.
By early , the Soviets attacked many German-occupied countries: Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia and Hungary. Finland switched to the side of the Soviets and Allies. On 16 December , the Germans tried one last time to take the Western Front by attacking the Allies in Ardennes, Belgium , in a battle is known as the Battle of the Bulge. This was the last major German attack of the war, and the Germans were not successful in their attack.
In Italy, the Allies pushed forward, while the Soviets attacked Berlin. The allied western forces would eventually meet up with the Soviets at the Elbe river on 25 April Hitler committed suicide on 30 April , two days after Mussolini's death. German forces in Italy surrendered on 29 April The final battle in Europe was ended in Italy on 11 May In the Pacific, American forces arrived in the Philippines on June And by April , American and Philippine forces had cleared much of the Japanese forces, but the fighting continued in some parts of the Philippines until the end of the war.
The Allies wanted Japan to surrender with no terms, but Japan refused. The surrender documents were formally signed on board the USS Missouri on 2 September , ending the war.
The Allies managed to occupy Austria and Germany. Germany was divided in half. The Allies began denazification, removing Nazi ideas from history, [ source? Germany lost a quarter of the land it had in , with the land given to Poland and the Soviet Union.
The Soviets also took some parts of Poland    and Finland,  as well as three Baltic countries. The United Nations was formed on 24 October ,  to keep peace between countries in the world. In Asia , Japan was put under American occupation. In , Korea was divided into North and South Korea , each claiming to be the legal representative of the Koreans, which led to the Korean War in After the war, decolonization took place in many European colonies.
In most cases, it happened peacefully, except in some countries, such as Indochina and Algeria. Economic recovery was different in many parts of the world.
In general, it was quite positive. The United States became richer than any other country and, by , it had taken over the world's economy. German,  Italian,   and French economies recovered. There is no exact total number of deaths, because many were unrecorded. Many studies said that more than 60 million people died in the war, mostly civilians. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people,  almost half of the recorded number. Mostly, people died because they were sick , hungry to death , bombed, or killed because of their ethnicity.
The Nazis killed many groups of people they selected, known as The Holocaust.
They exterminated Jews , and killed the Roma , Poles , Russians , homosexuals and other groups. Around 7. There were reports that the Germans and Japanese tested biological weapons against civilians  and prisoners of war. Although many of the Axis's crimes were brought to the first international court,  crimes caused by the Allies were not. Other than the Holocaust, about 12 million people, mostly Eastern Europeans, were forced to work for the German economy.
Both treated prisoners of war badly. This was even the case for Soviet soldiers who survived and returned home. Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, many of which were used as labour camps, also caused a lot of deaths. The death rate of Western prisoners was Between and , Roosevelt signed an order which made Japanese Americans go to internment camps. Some Germans and Italians were included too.
The Allies agreed that the Soviet Union could use prisoners of war and civilians for forced labor. Before the war, in Europe, the Allies had a larger population and economy than the Axis. The Allies' economy and population compared with the Axis' lessened with the early Axis victories. However, this was no longer the case after the United States and Soviet Union joined the Allies in The Allies were able to have a higher production level compared with the Axis because the Allies had more natural resources.
Also, Germany and Japan did not plan for a long war and had no ability to do so. As men went off to fight, women took over many of the jobs they left behind. At factories, women were employed to make bombs, guns, aircraft, and other equipment. In Britain, thousands of women were sent to work on farms as part of the Land Army. Others formed the Women's Royal Naval Service to help with building and repairing ships.
By some weapons were made almost entirely by women. In the beginning, women were rarely used in the labour forces in Germany and Japan. In Britain, women also worked in gathering intelligence , at Bletchley Park and other places. The mass evacuation of children also had a major impact on the lives of mothers during the war years. Germany had two different ideas of how it would occupy countries.
The Nazis used their racial policy and murdered a lot of people they thought non-human.
The Resistance, the group of people who fought Germany secretly, could not harm the Nazis much until In Asia, Japan claimed to free colonised Asian countries from European colonial powers.
By , it was able to produce up to 50 million barrels of oil in the Dutch East Indies. The war brought new methods for future wars. The air forces improved greatly in fields such as air transport,  strategic bombing to use bombs to destroy industry and morale ,  as well as radar , and weapons for destroying aircraft.
Jet aircraft were developed and would be used in worldwide air forces. At sea, the war focused on using aircraft carriers and submarines.
Aircraft carriers soon replaced battleships. The British improved weapons for destroying submarines, such as sonar , while the Germans improved submarine tactics. The style of war on the land changed from World War I to be more moveable. Tanks , which were used to support infantry , changed to a primary weapon.
At the start of the war, most commanders thought that using better tanks was the best way to fight enemy tanks. The German idea to avoid letting tanks fight one another meant tanks facing tanks rarely happened. This was a successful tactic used in Poland and France. Even though vehicles became more used in the war, infantry remained the main part of the army,  and most equipped like in World War I.
Submachine guns became widely used. They were especially used in cities and jungles. Other developments included better encryption for secret messages, such as the German Enigma.
Another feature of military intelligence was the use of deception , especially by the Allies. Others include the first programmable computers , modern missiles and rockets , and the atomic bombs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. World War II From top left to bottom right: Commonwealth army in the desert ; Japanese troops burying a Chinese person alive; A German submarine under attack; Soviet forces in the Eastern Front; Soviet troops fighting in Berlin ; Japanese planes readying for take off from an aircraft carrier.
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