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resourceone.infope: application/pdf resourceone.infoher: London, Oxford At The Clarendon Press The Oxford Classical Dictionary. The Oxford classical dictionary PublisherOxford ; New York: Oxford University Press Borrow this book to access EPUB and PDF files. For almost half a century, The Oxford Classical Dictionary has been regarded as the unrivalled one-volume reference work on all aspects of the Graeco-Roman.

Oxford Classical Dictionary Pdf

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The Oxford classical dictionary

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Donor internetarchivebookdrive. Edition 3. External-identifier urn: Extramarc Princeton University Library. Identifier-ark ark: Invoice Isbn X. The same logic of immanence may be the guiding principle of all forms of Greek and Roman philosophy apart from the Skeptics, who refrained from opining on the nature of experience or reality. If this is right, then the distinction between matter and the immaterial is an inadequate one. This does not diminish the power or the attraction of the distinction.

It merely complicates it and makes it more interesting.

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Subscriber: UC - Berkeley Library; date: 01 June materialism Ethics and Ecology Philosophers did not own a copyright on materialism, nor were they the sole inspiration in ancient reflections on matter and materiality.

After all, materiality, like dirt, is an essential ingredient of everyday life: living, breathing, and sensing are part of what it is to live in a body and to move about in the environment of the world; practical activity and practical consciousness just are the conditions of the animal condition that is called human, while materiality names a realm of affordances without which life would be literally senseless.

Only philosophers, theologians, or delusional individuals would deny this. Materialism, when it is waved as a banner, is as much a bludgeon as a tool of explanation.

A good deal of early Greek philosophy, while posing as cosmology or metaphysics, is of an ethical cast, and it derives its power from a reconceived view of nature and the cosmos. The roots of modern ecology lie here. These early philosophies of nature and their later Roman counterparts ceaselessly remind us that the universe is unthinkably immense, that the human perspective is radically limited and partial, that our individual agency is bounded by conditions and determinants that exceed it, and that we are material components of a greater whole—a humiliating if ethically useful prospect.

Many of these philosophies are ready made critiques of representational structures that reach deeply into society, culture, and religion.


Stoic invulnerability to nature is premised on a radical identification with nature, and hence on a radical vulnerability at the level of the individual. And the same can be said of most ancient philosophies of nature, which stand out today for having bravely celebrated the materiality of the universe in all its radical contingency.

To appreciate matter in any form is inevitably to appreciate its obligatory relationship to evanescence. Were it not doomed to decay or to vanish, whether as a constituent or a compound, matter would be immortal and immaterial. Art and Aesthetics Materialist tendencies after Homer continued to flourish elsewhere, especially in art and aesthetics, given the powerful roles that were allotted to experience and the senses in the arts.

This is what might be termed the native sensualism of Greek and Roman aesthetics. Much of our view of ancient aesthetics is influenced by Plato and Aristotle, and for that reason out of touch with the ancient realities. Plato had little patience for aesthetic objects as sources of phenomenal experiences.

The poetry and the visual art from antiquity tell a different story, however.

The Oxford Classical Dictionary

To speak of materialism in art is practically to utter a tautology. Tools for New Approaches Excavating the perspectives that have been crowded out since antiquity, owing to the presumed predominance of Plato and Aristotle who themselves consciously eclipsed competing views , is an ambitious but not impossible task.

Collections of materials such as are found in Lanata, Overbeck, and Pollitt provide rich starting points, as do the countless documents of the rhetorical traditions, which fed into and out of the adjacent traditions in art. Epigraphic and other sources are also richly revealing. How might inherited views of matter have influenced ancient experiences of material objects ruins, topographies, collections, artifacts, cult objects? The question remains an open one, and with it a whole area of study.

Xenophanes may have paved the way with his inquiries into fossils and geology DK 21A33 , although Homer muses about physical ruins to poetic effect too Il. Contemporary approaches phenomenologies of materiality, the new materialisms, posthumanism, ecological and environmental criticism , some of it derived from antiquity and much of it flourishing outside of Classics, could lead the way to a better grasp of classical materialities.

Classical studies are just now catching up with these most recent trends. The last comprehensive philosophical history of materialism was produced by Friedrich Albert Lange in the 19th century, an influential but flawed work that improbably tried to marry Kant with ancient materialism. Some of this work is already underway. The invisibility of ancient materialities has historical and, one might add, material causes.

One of these is the powerful influence of Christianity, which in its hostility to philosophical materialism did much to suppress its influence, although on a practical level Christian materialities flourished despite the stigmas of matter. Classicism, at least since 18th-century Weimar, was premised on the exclusion of matter: matter, like dirt, was always embarrassingly out of place in classical contexts. In this tradition, statues, once unearthed, gleam brightly, clothed in the transparency of light itself.

Texts are Platonic objects, archetypes of meaning and purged of physical contamination. Ideals, whether political, social, or ethical, defy temporal change, being pure abstractions that are unconditioned, and undisgraced, by material contingencies of any kind.

The Immaterialism of Classicism The bias towards the immaterial lies at the foundation of classicism, which in its modern form originated with Winckelmann and Wilhelm von Humboldt, but whose greatest philosophical defense arrived only with Hegel. Judgments like these were from the first attached not only to individual objects from antiquity, but also to antiquity as a whole, with the result that the ancient world threatened to become rarified out of existence in its entirety, a point that was genially mocked by Kierkegaard in The Grecian sky is high and arched, not flat and burdensome; it rises ever higher, does not anxiously sink down; its air is light and transparent, not hazy and close.

Therefore the longings to be found here tend to become lighter and lighter, to be concentrated in an ever more volatile sublimate, and tend not to evaporate in a deadening lethargy.

But this sheer abstractness that it desires becomes ultimately the most abstract, the lightest of all—namely, nothing.

The Concept of Irony, 66 The logic of classical immaterialism, captured here in all its flaws, is unsustainable. The actual allure of Classics lies in its sensible materialities, even when—and for some, most especially when—these suggest their negation.

Hegel confesses as much. The thought recalls Plotinus as quoted above, and it ultimately derives from Plato e. Rapprochements like these are insistent reminders that the past and the present are not abstractions, nor are they inert. A return to matter and materiality as a generative problem in antiquity can help guarantee that the classical past will not disappear into the ether.

Bibliography Althusser, Louis. London: Verso, Bennett, Jane. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Bradley, Mark, and Shane Butler, eds. The Senses in Antiquity. London: Routledge, — Brown, Bill. Other Things.

Chicago: Chicago University Press, Coole, Diana H. New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics. Eagleton, Terry. Posthuman Antiquities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming. Frede, Michael. Edited by Patricia Curd and Daniel W.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, — Goldstein, Amanda Jo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Gordon, Robert L.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art. Translated by T. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Hodder, Ian. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, Holmes, Brooke.

Berlin: De Gruyter, Together with Notes of Schelling's Berlin Lectures. Translated by Howard Vincent Hong and E. Knappett, Carl.Lccn End-of-entry further reading updated throughout, providing a wealth of information on reliable resources. As far as I can see, no reviewer ever complained about this handy search tool, and I, for one, regret its passing. These give some suggestions about why you may not be able to access the site.

Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. The choice of bibliographic references is perhaps poorly judged.