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MUQADMA IBNE KHALDOON IN URDU PDF

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Muqadma Ibne Khaldoon In Urdu Pdf

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Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in to Urdu by Hakeem Ahmd Hussain Elahabadi. Complete . Name: Muqadma Tareekh Ibn-e- Khaldoon 1. Name: مقدمہ تا ریخ ابن خلدون ۱. Author: Allama Abudul Rehman Khaldoon علامہ عبدالرحمٰن خلدون. Language: Urdu. Publisher: Nafees Downlaod PDF files here (Instructions). Internet Explorer: To . Author: Abdur Rehman Bin Ibn Khuldun Publisher: Nafis Academy Pages: Binding: Hardback Description from the publisher: Ibn Khaldun's masterly.

At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessments. Laffer curve[ edit ] Ibn Khaldun introduced the concept now popularly known as the Laffer curve , that increases in tax rates initially increase tax revenues, but eventually the increases in tax rates cause a decrease in tax revenues.

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This occurs as too high a tax rate discourages producers in the economy. Ibn Khaldun used a dialectic approach to describe the sociological implications of tax choice which now forms a part of economics theory : In the early stages of the state, taxes are light in their incidence, but fetch in a large revenue As time passes and kings succeed each other, they lose their tribal habits in favor of more civilized ones. Their needs and exigencies grow Hence they impose fresh taxes on their subjects But the effects on business of this rise in taxation make themselves felt.

For business men are soon discouraged by the comparison of their profits with the burden of their taxes Consequently production falls off, and with it the yield of taxation.

This analysis is very similar to the modern economic concept known as the Laffer curve. Laffer does not claim to have invented the concept himself, noting that the idea was present in the work of Ibn Khaldun and, more recently, John Maynard Keynes. The Muslims achieved a definite advance beyond previous historical writing in the sociological understanding of history and the systematisation of historiography.

The development of modern historical writing seems to have gained considerably in speed and substance through the utilization of a Muslim Literature which enabled western historians, from the seventeenth century on, to see a large section of the world through foreign eyes.

The Muslim historiography helped indirectly and modestly to shape present day historical thinking. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past.

Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data". As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, which was considered something "new to his age", and he often referred to it as his "new science", now associated with historiography.

Rational in its approach, analytical in its method, encyclopaedic in detail, it represents an almost complete departure from traditional historiography, discarding conventional concepts and cliches and seeking, beyond the mere chronicle of events, an explanation—and hence a philosophy of history.

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Khaldun was quite concerned with the effect of raising the standard of evidence when confronted with uncomfortable claims, and relaxing it when given claims that seemed reasonable or comfortable. He was a jurist, and sometimes participated reluctantly in rulings that he felt were coerced, based on arguments he did not respect. Besides al-Maqrizi — , [20] Ibn Khaldun's focused attempt systematically to study and account for biases in the creation of history wouldn't be seen again until Georg Hegel , Karl Marx , and Friedrich Nietzsche in 19th-century Germany, and Arnold J.

Toynbee , a 20th-century British historian. Ibn Khaldun also examines why, throughout history, it has been common for historians to sensationalize historical events and, in particular, exaggerate numerical figures: Whenever contemporaries speak about the dynastic armies of their own or recent times, and whenever they engage in discussions about Muslim or Christian soldiers, or when they get to figuring the tax revenues and the money spent by the government, the outlays of extravagant spenders, and the goods that rich and prosperous men have in stock, they are quite generally found to exaggerate, to go beyond the bounds of the ordinary, and to succumb to the temptation of sensationalism.

When the officials in charge are questioned about their armies, when the goods and assets of wealthy people are assessed, and when the outlays of extravagant spenders are looked at in ordinary light, the figures will be found to amount to a tenth of what those people have said. The reason is simple. It is the common desire for sensationalism, the ease with which one may just mention a higher figure, and the disregard of reviewers and critics.

In the Introduction to the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun directs this criticism towards to famous historians such as Al-Masudi , [12] who is today regarded as the " Herodotus of the Arabs" [21] and whom Ibn Khaldun himself regarded as one of the most famous historians up until his time.

Ibn Khaldun criticizes Al-Masudi for failing to take into account certain logistics , questioning whether Egypt and Syria could have possibly held such a large number of soldiers, or whether an army of that size would be able to march or fight as a unit.

He notes that the whole available territory would have been too small for such a large army, and argues that if "it were in battle formation, it would extend" several times "beyond the field of vision. He argues that the "situation in the present day testifies to the correctness of this statement" since the "past resembles the future more than one drop of water another".

The Muqaddimah states that if the Israelites really did have such a large army, the extent of their empire would have been far larger, as "the size of administrative units and provinces under a particular dynasty is in direct proportion to the size of its militia and the groups that support the dynasty".

Ibn Khaldun argues that it "is improbable that the descendants of one man could branch out into such a number within four generations". He states that Jews have claimed the unrealistically large increase in the Israelite population within several generations was possible because it was a miracle of God, a claim that Ibn Khaldun did not dismiss completely.

He considers such a miracle highly unlikely, but appears to be open to the possibility. He was also a critic of Neoplatonism , particularly its notion of a hierarchy of being.

Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon - (13 Volumes) - with Muqaddimah - [URDU]

The Muqaddimah covers the historical development of kalam and the different schools of Islamic thought, notably the Mu'tazili and Ash'ari schools. Ibn Khaldun, being a follower of the Ash'ari school, criticizes the views of the Mu'tazili school, and bases his criticisms on the views of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari , whom he describes as "the mediator between different approaches in the kalam ".

Ibn Khaldun also covers the historical development of Islamic logic in the context of theology, as he viewed logic as being distinct from early Islamic philosophy , and believed that philosophy should remain separate from theology.

The book also contains commentaries on verses from the Qur'an. We thus know that they are true and come from the world of truth.

He disagreed with the use of reason in the evaluation of a hadith , arguing that "there is no place for the intellect in them, save that the intellect may be used in connection with them to relate problems of detail with basic principles. He states that: the statement concerning the alteration of the Torah by the Jews is unacceptable to thorough scholars and cannot be understood in its plain meaning, since custom prevents people who have a revealed religion from dealing with their divine scriptures in such a manner.

This was mentioned by al-Bukhari in the Sahih. Ibn Khaldun wrote that " Jurisprudence is the knowledge of the classification of the laws of God.

There is rather, change with days and epochs, as well as passing from one state to another It started out from the minerals and progressed, in an ingenious, gradual manner, to plants and animals. The last stage of minerals is connected with the first stage of plants, such as herbs and seedless plants.

The last stage of plants, such as palms and vines, is connected with the first stage of animals, such as snails and shellfish which have only the power of touch. The word 'connection' with regard to these created things means that the last stage of each group is fully prepared to become the first stage of the newest group.

The animal world then widens, its species become numerous, and, in a gradual process of creation, it finally leads to man, who is able to think and reflect. The higher stage of man is reached from the world of monkeys, in which both sagacity and perception are found, but which has not reached the stage of actual reflection and thinking.

At this point we come to the first stage of man. This is as far as our physical observation extends. The Muqaddimah also states in Chapter 6: We explained there that the whole of existence in all its simple and composite worlds is arranged in a natural order of ascent and descent, so that everything constitutes an uninterrupted continuum.

The essences at the end of each particular stage of the worlds are by nature prepared to be transformed into the essence adjacent to them, either above or below them. This is the case with the simple material elements; it is the case with palms and vines, which constitute the last stage of plants, in their relation to snails and shellfish, which constitute the lowest stage of animals.

It is also the case with monkeys, creatures combining in themselves cleverness and perception, in their relation to man, the being who has the ability to think and to reflect.

The preparedness for transformation that exists on either side, at each stage of the worlds, is meant when we speak about their connection. Therefore, the sages rarely turned to them. Animals are the last and final stage of the three permutations.

Minerals turn into plants, and plants into animals, but animals cannot turn into anything finer than themselves. Ibn Khaldun was also an adherent of environmental determinism. He believed that the black skin , practices, and customs of the people of sub-Saharan Africa were due to the region's hot climate, a theory that according to Rosenthal may have been influenced by the Greek geographical ideas expounded by Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos.

The Muqaddimah discusses the history of alchemy, the views of alchemists such as Jabir ibn Hayyan , and the theories of the transmutation of metals and elixir of life. One chapter of the book contains a systematic refutation of alchemy on social, [28] scientific, philosophical and religious grounds.

He argues that some alchemists resort to fraud , either openly by applying a thin layer of gold on top of silver jewelry, or by secretly using an artificial procedure of covering whitened copper with sublimated mercury. Ibn Khaldun states that most alchemists are honest and believe that the transmutation of metals is possible, but he argues that transmutation is an implausible theory since there has been no successful attempt to date.

He ends his arguments with a restatement of his position: "Alchemy can only be achieved through psychic influences bi-ta'thirat al-nufus. Extraordinary things are either miracles or witchcraft They are unbounded; nobody can claim to acquire them.

Yet he argues that men and tribes need to defend themselves from potential attacks, and thus political communities are formed. As a practical politician he had full knowledge of the ways and means to collect the Government revenues. He was of the view that taxation must be equitable and just.

When justice and equity are lacking in taxation policy of a Government, it is inviting its own ruin. At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields small revenue from large assessments. The reason is that the state, which follows the ways of religion, only demands the obligation imposed by the Shariah, namely Zakat, Kharaj and Jizya, which are light in their distribution and these are the limits beyond which one must not go.

But as soon as autocrats assume power and urban life, with a much higher standard of living, makes greater demands, heavier taxes are levied upon farmers, craftsmen and merchants. Production and profits decline, since the incentive has been taken away from all those engaged in the economic life of the state.

Salaries and Allowances: The deductions in services and allowances decrease expenditures of those affected which ultimately affects the incomes of so many others from whom they used to buy things. This involves a decrease in a business activity and monetary transactions and thus leads to diminishing tax revenues of the state. He disapproves such procedures by a state.

It is most destructive to civilization. This involves taking the capital of the people and this making them unable to do the cultural enterprise. Ultimately this proves to be a death blow to the state. Standard of Living: The prosperity and business activity in different cities differ in accordance with the difference in the size of their population.

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As labor is the fundamental source of profit or income, larger the labor, the higher the profit. The extra labor works for luxuries and luxury goods and crafts etc. Production thrives income and expenditure of the inhabitants multiply and more and more population pours into the city.

All the strata of the society in the large city is affected. As profit is the value realized from labor, larger the labor the more will be the value realized from it, which leads to prosperity.

In less populated cities or remote towns, villages and hamlets, people are equally poor because their labor does not pay for their necessities and does not yield them a surplus which they can accumulate as profit.

Even beggars and poor differ in large and small cities. Income and expenditure balance each other in every city. If both are large, the inhabitants are prosperous and the city grows. Ibn-e-Khaldoon concludes that the favorable conditions and much prosperity in civilization are the result of its large size. As is the case in cities, so it is with the countries.

He gave the examples of the populated countries such as Egypt, Syria, India, and China as being more prosperous as compared to the less populated regions which were less prosperous. Apparently it may sound strange today, that more populated countries are poor and less populated ones are advanced.Those who, in general, take property by force, commit an injustice" [29] , and "injustice ruins civilisation.

Hind Pak Diary Read more. For Ibn Khaldun, the role of the State is to establish law and order conducive for economic activities. Gellner, op. He characterized the fulfillment of basic needs as the beginning of civilization. He was of the view that taxation must be equitable and just. He thought that bureaucrats cannot understand commercial activities and they do not have the same motivations as businessmen.

There is rather, change with days and epochs, as well as passing from one state to another Besides al-Maqrizi — , [20] Ibn Khaldun's focused attempt systematically to study and account for biases in the creation of history wouldn't be seen again until Georg Hegel , Karl Marx , and Friedrich Nietzsche in 19th-century Germany, and Arnold J.