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November 7th, - Yes you can download the pdf file of Khasakkinte Ithihasam novel in. Malayalam version. You can also read this novel . Khasakkinte Ithihasam Novel Pdf documents | PDFs Download Khasakkinte itihasam (Malayalam Edition) [O. V Vijayan] on *FREE * shipping on qualifying. ⇰ File formats: ePub, PDF, Kindle, Audiobook, mobi, ZIP. How do I merge two PDF's into one PDF? Can PDF files be edited in ice cream PDF converter?.

Khasakkinte Ithihasam Malayalam Pdf

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Uploaded by: ALFREDIA - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. famous regional work in Malayalam, Khasakkinte Ithihasam authored by the eminent. Download Pdf, Free Pdf Khasakkinte Ithihasam Ov Vijayan Download () online free. free reading epub, pdf. khasakkinte ithihasam malayalam free. Khasakkinte Ithihasam (Malayalam:ഖസാക്കിന്റെ ഇതിഹാസം) is a Malayalam KHASAKKINTE ITHIHASAM PDF - Khasakkinte itihasam ( Malayalam.

Encyclopedia of Literature defines psychoanalytic criticism as: The literary criticism that uses psychoanalytic theory to analyse readers response to literature, to interpret literary works in terms of their authors psychological conflicts, or to recreate authors Psychic life from unconscious revelations in their work.

Encyclopedia of Literature, It is a very widespread psychological type of literary criticism whose premises and procedures were established by Sigmund Freud and which has been practiced since the early development of psychoanalysis itself.

It has developed into a rich and heterogeneous interpretive tradition. Like all forms of literary criticism, psychoanalytic criticism can yield useful clues to the sometime baffling symbols, actions, and settings in a literary work. Psychoanalysis is a group of theories which concern the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious, and psychoanalytic criticism or Applied Psychoanalysis refers to the two related forms of the application of psychoanalysis within literature: first, literature as illustrative of psychoanalytic concepts and, second, psychobiography.

Psychoanalytic criticism can study four aspects of a literary work, namely the author that is, how are the authors psychological conflicts revealed in his or her work , the reader the appeal of the work to the readers in relation to their own ability to work out hidden desires and fears , the construction and the content an in-depth analysis of the characters if they were real people What prompted a writer to write a particular work forms the core of psychoanalytic criticism at the level of the author.

It can be studied under psychobiography. Khasakkinte Ithihasam is the fruit of twelve years of creative labour of O V Vijayan. He wanted it to be a novel with a difference. His stay in the village called Thasrak inspired him.

It was a reflection of the unrest of the times of which the author had a share in his psyche. The work, with its break with traditional form and language and also as a celebration of moral and sexual anarchy, reflects the rebellion in the author. The existential angst of Ravi, the protagonist, can be seen as Vijayans.

The English version The Legends of Khasak, which was published after 25 years, is not a verbatim translation of Khasakkinte Ithihasam. There are omissions made by an author matured by years. The change in his mentality is reflected in these omissions. To pass on to the appeal of the work, The Legends of Khasak was indeed a new experience to the reading public. It was both applauded and criticized for being unconventional. The youth of the era who carried the embers of rebellion within them relished the novelty of the book.

But as a misinterpretation of the Existentialist philosophy, it fostered the birth of a doped and lethargic generation which began to view life as meaningless. It was also criticised as a celebration of sexual anarchy. On the whole, it was a trendsetter in Malayalam fiction. But the author was not happy with the readers response.

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Once in consequence of disappointment he commented that his image of the diademed serpents riding the golden surf of the mirage went unnoticed. Thus, to conclude, the book brought out mixed response. The construction or form of a literary text is the work of the conscious mind. The artists mind, like a blotting paper, absorbs things easily yet intensively.

A connection may come between two apparently unconnected things registered in the artists mind and a metaphor is born. The Legends of Khasak abounds in imagery. The author makes use of a fragment of his own childhood belief that the celestial beings drink the elixir of the Kalpaka fruit and throw the husks to earth.

These dwellers of the sky drank the milk of the Kalpaka fruit, the elixir of immortality, and flung the empty husks down to the earth. If you gazed on the sky long enough, you saw the husks as transparent apparitions. The sky at noon was full of them. The Legends of Khasak, 4 It is a blend of fantasy common in the oral tradition as well as reality. O V Vijayan, in his work Ithihasathinte Ithihasam, says that the husks he counted as a child was the symptom of a genetic eye-disease called swimming spots.

The language of The Legends of Khasak, with its novel images, was indeed a virginal experience for the readers. The comparison of the crescendo of the falling rain to the sexual act, the onset small-pox to the blooming of chrysanthemums , the image of the diademed serpents as a premonition to Ravis temptation to sin with his step-mother are just examples. The content of a work is the outcome of the unconscious part of the mind of the author.

It springs out from the blue. Psychoanalytic criticism on the basis of content analyses the aspects of the text like characters and events. Psychoanalytic criticism offers scope for the in-depth analysis of characters as if they were real people. Ravi, the protagonist of the Legends of Khasak, is a psychologically complex character whose psyche holds a very important key in its darkest depths for the readers to understand the story.

Other psychologically intricate characters are also analysed in this dissertation. Psychoanalytic criticism of this interesting character can take a therapeutic form which is very similar to psychoanalysis itself. It is a literary approach where critics see the text as if it were a kind of dream.

This means that the text represses its real or latent content behind obvious manifest content. The process of changing from latent to manifest content is known as the dream work, and involves operations of condensation and displacement. The critic analyzes the language and symbolism of a text to reverse the process of the dream work and arrive at the underlying latent thoughtsThe raw material for literature is the unconscious wishes of the author and it is called the latent content which is expressed after condensation and displacement as the manifest content which is intelligible.

This dissertation mainly uses Freudian theories of psychoanalysis to probe into the dark vaults of the psyche of the characters in the novel. Freuds concepts of the conscious and unconscious mind, the tripartite model of personality, theories of psychosexual development and the psychology behind guilt are used for a psychoanalytic reading. According to Sigmund Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts: the conscious and the unconscious.

Freud demonstrated that, like an iceberg, the human mind is structured so that its great weight and density lie beneath the surface. Most of our actions are motivated by psychological forces over which we have very limited control.

In The Anatomy of the Mental Personality, Freud discriminates between the levels of conscious and unconscious mental activity. The oldest and best meaning of the word unconscious is the descriptive one; we call unconscious any mental process the existence of which we are obligated to assume because, for instance, we infer it in some way from its effects- but of which we are not directly aware.

If we want to be more accurate, we should modify the statement by saying that we call a process unconscious when we have to assume that it was active at a certain time, although at that time we knew nothing about it.

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In view of this, Freud defines two kinds of unconscious: one which is transformed into conscious material easily and under conditions which frequently arise, and another in the case of which such a transformation is difficult, can only come about with a considerable expenditure of energy, or may never occur at all.

We call the unconscious which is only latent, and so can easily become conscious, the preconscious, and keep the name unconscious for the other. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious.

The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences. That most of the individuals mental processes are unconscious is thus Freuds first major premise.

The second is that all human behaviour is motivated ultimately by what we would call sexuality. Freud designates the prime psychic force as libido, or sexual energy. This has been rejected by a great many professional psychologists, including some of Freuds own disciples.

His third major premise is that because of the powerful social taboos attached to certain sexual impulses, many of our desires and memories are repressed that is, actively excluded from conscious awareness. Starting from these three premises, we may examine several corollaries of Freudian theory which have been useful in this dissertation.

Principal among these is Freuds assignment of the mental processes into three psychic zones. According to Sigmund Freud, personality is composed of three elements known as the id, the ego and the superego which are rough equivalents of the unconscious mind, conscious mind and the conscience respectively.

These work together to create complex human behaviors. The id is the primary component of personality that is the source of all psychic energy. Present from birth, this aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes the instinctive and primitive behaviours.

The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. Id is amoral and asocial. Speaking metaphorically, Freud explains this obscure inaccessible part of our personality as: a chaos, a cauldron of seething excitement [with] no organization and no unified will, only an impulsion to obtain satisfaction for the instinctual needs, in accordance with the pleasure principle.

The Anatomy of the Mental Personality, The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world and functions in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.

As Freud points out in The Dissection of Psychical Personality, To adopt a particular mode of speaking, we might say that the ego stands for reason and good sense The ego operates on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The last component of personality is the superego. It is the aspect of personality that holds all our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong.

It is, as Freud says in The Anatomy of the Mental Personality, the representative of all moral restrictions, the advocate of the impulse toward perfection The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. It is based on the principle of morality and begins to emerge at around the age of five. There are two parts of the superego- the ego ideal and the conscience. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors these behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures.

Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value, and accomplishment. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society these behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments, or feelings of guilt and remorse The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior.

It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces.

A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting. According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego. In The Legends of Khasak. Allah Picha Mollakka the Mullah is a person whose psyche is the reflection of the tug of war between the Freudian super ego and id.

Here, religion is the super ego and his worldliness is the id. Allah-Pitcha teaches religion to the children of the Muslims in Khasak. He would tell the saga of the origin of Khasak to generations of young listeners.

He had immense faith in his religion and believed that God always came to the help of the needy. He says: When we grow bent with age, Allah will come and sit on our backs. The Almighty will straddle the infirm and the destitute, as His hosts stand by in veneration.

The Legends of Khasak, 11 The Mullah was a worldly man who had two wives. He also gets tempted by the effeminate Nizam Ali. He takes the beautiful boy, whom he sees in the Sheikhs valley, to his home. His insistence on having Nizam Alis head shaved on the night of every new moon a religious practice among the Muslims is a secret fear of his sexual urge towards the feminine boys tender serpentine locks.

The serpent is the symbol of libidinal energy which is stored in the id. The Legends of Khasak, 21 The Mullah tries to prevent children from going to school.

He does it as if to protect his religion. He makes his pupil Kunhamina swear by the village deities, Sayed Mian Sheikh and Mariyamma that she would not go to the kafirs school. When he made the girl take an oath on Mariyamma, he was taking no chances. It means that he believed in the deities of the other religions too.

Later, he himself becomes the masalji, or the low paid maintenance person, in Ravis school for his need of money. But he never does full justice to the services required of him. His ego strength is too little.

He cannot find a balance between the demands of his id and superego. It becomes unyielding, and later he becomes too pathetic a figure. Ravi can also be considered to be the symbol of the Freudian ego.

The outer world is the superego and Khasak acts as the id. Ravi wishes to be in Khasak but he does not want to make his once beloved Padma sad. So he promises her that he will go with her, but dies in Khasak. Next we pass on to Freuds stages of psychosexual development, a controversial theory concerning child psychology. Contrary to traditional beliefs, Freud found infancy and childhood a period of intense sexual experience.

He has identified five stages in the psychosexual development of an individual. If for some reason the individual is frustrated in gratifying these needs during childhood, the adult personality may be warped accordingly that is, development may be arrested or fixated.

During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements.

It is a time when the child becomes independent of the care takers. In the novel, Ravi seems to have completed these two stages successfully. He had a loving mother who took care of him. During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. Children also discover the differences between males and females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mothers affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father.

Freud describes Oedipus complex as: the boy deals with his father by identifying himself with him. For a time, these two relationships [the childs devotion to his mother and identification with his father] proceed side by side, until the boys sexual wishes in regard to his mother become more intense and his father is perceived as an obstacle to them; from this the Oedipus complex originatesAn ambivalent attitude to his father and an object-relation of a solely affectionate kind to his mother make up the content of the simple positive Oedipus complex in a boy.

The Ego and the Id, However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. In the Oedipus complex, a boy is fixated on his mother and competes with his father for maternal attention. At some point, the child realizes that there is a difference between their mother and their father.

Around the same time they realize that they are more alike to one than the other. Thus the child acquires gender.

The primitive desire for the one parent may also awaken in the child a jealous motivation to exclude the other parent. Transferring of affections may also occur as the child seeks to become independent and escape a perceived 'engulfing mother '.


A critical aspect of the oedipal stage is loosening of the ties to the mother of vulnerability, dependence and intimacy. This is a natural part of the child becoming more independent and is facilitated by the realization that the mother desires more than just the child.

In the novel, Ravis first loss in his life is the death of his pregnant mother. She was a woman who pampered her child so much. She enriched his imagination with stories. She told him about his inheritance by attributing his features to herself and his father. Her loss made him an orphan, says Ravi. His sense of identity lay so merged with hers and due to her absence, he couldnt get himself away from her influence as in the case with all children in the post-Oedipal stage.

It remained with him.

During Ravis adolescence, the guilt of having cheated his paralysed father by having a sexual relationship with his stepmother urges Ravi to leave home. Ravis relationship with his stepmother can be viewed as an extension of the unresolved Oedipus complex in him. It seems to be a negative one as he later hated or tried to ignore his stepmother.

He never cared for her feelings, and it seems as if he wants to escape the sin by holding her responsible for the act as he was only an adolescent then.. He tries to escape from his father. Apart from guilt complex which will be dealt with later in the dissertation, it can also be viewed as an extension of the castration anxiety. Ravi fears that he would lose the love of his father due to his sin. Hence he flees from his fathers presence.

During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.

Khasakkinte Ithihasam (Malayalam)

The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies, and other interests. Ravi joins college in Thambaram for his Honours in Astrophysics. He falls in love with the girl called Padma.

Being a brilliant student, his theories attract the attention of a Princetonian professor which opens up new vistas for Ravi in America. But he carries within him the guilt. During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage.

If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm, and caring. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas. It can be deduced that Ravi is fixated at the Phallic stage. He has not completed it successfully.

It makes him a disturbed person. He leaves college on the eve of his final examination, unsure about his destination. Seven years of endless journey follows. He wanders like a dry leaf in the wind and ultimately reaches Khasak as a teacher Let us now pass on to the psychology of guilt.

According to Freud, guilt complex is also a psychological disorder. He initially contended that sexual drives produce sense of guilt in the superego, the moral conscience of the mind.

He later maintained, however, that guilt was associated with aggressive impulses. Background[ edit ] Khasakkinte Itihasam was inspired by Vijayan's stay at a village called Thasarak near Palakkad for a year.

His sister O. Usha was appointed as the teacher of a single-teacher school in the village. Most of the characters in the novel were modelled after real-life characters whom Vijayan encountered in Thasarak. In an afterword to the English translation of the novel Vijayan wrote: It had all begun this way: in my sister got a teaching assignment in the village of Thasarak. This was part of a State scheme to send barefoot graduates to man single-teacher schools in backward villages.

Since it was hard for a girl to be on her own in a remote village, my parents had rented a little farmhouse and moved in with my sister. Meanwhile I had been sacked from the college where I taught. Jobless and at a loose end, I too joined them in Thasarak to drown my sorrows Destiny had been readying me for Khasak.

The character Appukkili was originally created by Vijayan for his short story "Appukkili" which was published in Publication[ edit ] Khasakkinte Itihasam was serialised in Mathrubhumi weekly in 28 parts, between 28 January and 4 August It was published as a book by Current Books in The first DC Books edition came in This section contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations.

Vijayan was a political observer and editorial cartoonist for The Hindu and The Statesman. May 22, Yes you can download the pdf file of Khasakkinte Ithihasam novel in Malayalam version. You can also read this novel online in Malayalam language. The links are given below, just click to get access. Khasakkinte Itihasam has been translated into French,. Khasakkinte Ithihasam has ratings and reviews. Free PDF ebooks user's guide, manuals, sheets about Khasakkinte ithihasam malayalam novel pdf ready for download.

The novel took twelve years of. Jun 2, paradigm shift. It is an organic growth.Towards the end of the novel, he becomes Nizam Ali again, the ordinary human being and takes care of the sick Mullah. This has been rejected by a great many professional psychologists, including some of Freuds own disciples. He had a loving mother who took care of him. Allah Picha Mollakka the Mullah is a person whose psyche is the reflection of the tug of war between the Freudian super ego and id.

It reminds him of his father. It is a discoverable fact that certain symbolsrecur again and again in cultures so remote from one another in space and time that there is no likelihood of any historical influence and casual connection among them. Allah-Pitcha teaches religion to the children of the Muslims in Khasak.

He initially contended that sexual drives produce sense of guilt in the superego, the moral conscience of the mind. Its function is to distort.