Business Hagakure The Book Of The Samurai Pdf


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Hagakure is the essential book of the Samurai. Written by. Yamamoto Tsunetomo , who was a Samurai in the early s, it is a book that combines the. Acknowledgement Lapo expresses his gratitude for spelling corrections to: Oliver Oppitz. iii Preface Hagakure is the essential book of the Samurai. Written by. for downloading it from there; the download is very cheap Biology Questions and A.

Hagakure The Book Of The Samurai Pdf

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The original Hagakure contains the teachings of the samurai-turned-priest Jōchō Yamamoto (), and was for generations preserved as moral and. |Hagakure ("In the Shadow of Leaves"') is a manual for the samurai classes consisting of a series of short anecdotes and reflections that give both insight and . Yamamoto Tsunetomo. Hagakure: Book of the Samurai. Trans. William Scott Wilson. Tokyo: Kōdansha International, MLA Atkins, E. Taylor. "Bushidō.

If he should continue to push the matter, one should get angry ; if he continues to push even further, cut him down. Furthermore, the older man should ascertain the younger's real motives in the aforementioned way.

If the younger man can devote himself and pet into the situation for five or six years, then it will not be unsuitable. Above all, one should not divide one's way into two. One 45 should strive in the Way of the Samurai. Hoshino Ryotetsu was the progenitor of homosexuality in our province, and although it can be said that his disciples were many, he instructed each one individually.

Edayoshi Saburoza- emon was a man who understood the foundation of homosex- uality. Once, when accompanying his master to ado, Ryotetsu asked Saburozaemon, "What have you understood of homosex- uality? He replied, "To lay down one's life for another is the basic principle of homosexuality.

If it is not so, it becomes a matter of shame. However, then you have nothing left to lay down for your master. It is therefore understood to be something both pleasant and unpleasant.

Not enduring is bad without exception. According to 46 the person and the rank, though a person has passed the age of forty, if he has no vitality, he will pet no response from others. Recently, a certain person on his way to Edo sent home a detailed letter from the first night's inn.

Though he was a person who neglected such things when he was busy, he excelled other people in being as attentive as this. In the judgment of the elders, a samurai's obstinacy should be excessive. A thing done with moderation may later be judged to be insufficient. I have heard that when one thinks he has gone too far, he will not have erred. This sort of rule should not be forgotten. When one has made a decision to kill a person, even if it will be very difficult to succeed by advancing straight ahead, it will not do to think about going at it in a long roundabout way.

One's heart may slacken, he may miss his chance, and by and large there will be no success. The Way of the Samurai is one of immediacy, and it is best to dash in headlong. When a certain man was going to the sutra readings at the Jissoin in Kawakami, one of his pages got drunk on the ferryboat and began to pester one of the sailors. When they landed on the other side, as the page had drawn his sword, the sailor took a pole and struck him on the head.

At that time the other sailors all ran up together carrying oars and were at the point 47 of striking the page down. However, as the master passed by with an air of not knowing what was happening, one of the other pages ran back and apologized to the sailors.

Then, pacifying his comrade, he accompanied him home. That night the page who had been drunk learned that his sword was being taken away from him.

Now, first of all, it was an insufficiency on the master's part not to have reproved and pacified the drunken page while they were on the boat.

Furthermore, even though his page had acted unreasonably, after he had been struck on the head there was no reason for an apology. The master should have approached the sailor and the drunken page in an apologetic manner and cut them both down. Certainly he was a spiritless master. The resolution of the men of former times was deep. Those between the ages of thirteen and sixty went to the front lines. For this reason men of advanced years hid their age. For serious affairs that bear directly on oneself, if one does not take care of things by making his own judgment his founda- tion and breaking through headlong, matters will not be brought to a close.

In conferring with people about matters of impor- tance, there may be many cases when your affair is thought lightly of, or when people will not speak of the real circum- stances. At such times one must use his own judgment. At any 48 rate, it is sufficient to become a fanatic and choose to throw away one's life.

At such a time, if one thinks about doing things well, confusion will soon arise and he will blunder. In many cases one's downfall may be brought about by an ally who is trying to do something for one's benefit, or one may be killed by his friend's kindness. It is the same as when one requests permission to become a monk. Lord Naoshige said, "An ancestor's good or evil can be de- termined by the conduct of his descendants. This is filial piety.

It is a wretched thing that one's family lineage be thrown into confusion with an adoption based on money alone.

Such a thing- is immoral from the beginning, but it is extreme wickedness to be thus immoral with the excuse that without doing so one will be unable to afford even today's rice.

When Nakano Shogen committed seppuku, the members of his group gathered at Oki Hyobu's place and said various bad things about him. Hyobu said, "One does not speak bad things about a person after his death. And especially since a person who has received some censure is to be pitied, it is the obligation of a samurai to speak something good of him, no matter how little.

There is no doubt that in twenty years Shogen will have 49 the reputation of a faithful retainer. To place one's armor out splendidly is a fine discipline, but it is sufficient if it is simply all accounted for. Fukabori Inosuke 's armor is a good example. Men of high rank and with many retainers will also need such things as money to set aside for campaign use.

It is said that Okabe Kunai made bags equaling the number of men in his ;group, affixed a name to each, and put in the appropriate amount of money for a campaign. This sort of discipline is profound.

As for men of low rank, if they cannot make the proper preparation at the time, they should rely on assistance from their group leader. To this extent, it is necessary for the group leader to be on intimate terms with his men beforehand.

As for men who are under the master's direction, and especially for those who are with him directly, it is better to be without preparation money. At the time of the summer maneuvers at Osaka, a certain person brought along twelve monme of refined silver and went off with Master Taku Zusho. This, of course, would have been fine if he had simply ridden off early. I think that it is better to dispense with such care. In carefully scrutinizing the affairs of the past, we find that there are many different opinions about them, and that there 50 are some things that are quite unclear.

It is better to regard such things as unknowable. Lord Sanenori once said, "As for the things that we don't understand, there ere ways of under- standing them. Furthermore, there are some things we under- stand just naturally, and again some that we can't understand no matter how hard we try. This is interesting. It is natural that one cannot un- derstand deep and hidden things. Those things that are easily understood are rather shallow.

Look at the human condition. It is unseemly for a per- son to become prideful and extravagant when things are going well. Therefore, it is better to have some unhappiness while one is still young, for if a person does not experience some bitter- ness, his disposition will not settle down.

A person who becomes fatigued when unhappy is useless. Especially with an extremely argumentative person, after yielding considerably one should argue him down with superior logic, but without sounding harsh, and in a fashion that will allow no resentment to be left afterwards.

This is a function of both the heart and words. This was an opinion given by a priest concerning personal encounters. Dreams are truthful manifestations. When I occasionally have dreams of dying in battle or committing seppuku, if I brace myself with courage, my frame of mind within the dream grad- ually changes. This concerns the dream I had on the night of the twenty- seventh day of the fifth month. If one were to say in a word what the condition of being a samurai is, its basis lies first in seriously devoting one's body and soul to his master.

And if one is asked what to do be- yond this, it would be to fit oneself inwardly with intelligence, humanity and courage. Intelligence is nothing more than discussing things with others. Limitless wisdom comes from this. Humanity is something done for the sake of others, simply comparing oneself with them and 53 putting them in the fore.

Courage is gritting one' s teeth ; it is simply doing that and pushing ahead, paying no attention to the circumstances. Anything that seems above these three is not necessary to be known. As for outward aspects, there are personal appearance, one's way of speaking and calligraphy.

Taiko: An Epic Novel of War and Glory in Feudal Japan

And as all of these are daily matters, they improve by constant practice. Basically, one should perceive their nature to be one of quiet strength. If one has ac- complished all these things, then he should have a knowledge of our area's history and customs. After that he may study the various arts as recreation. If you think it over, being a retainer is simple. And these days, if you observe people who are even a bit useful, you will see that they have accomplished these three outward aspects.

A certain priest said that if one thoughtlessly crosses a river of unknown depths and shallows, he will die in its currents with- out ever reaching the other side or finishing his business. This is the same as when one is indiscriminately eager in being a re- tainer without understanding the customs of the times or the likes and dislikes of the master and, as a result, is of no use and brings ruin upon himself.

To try to enter the good graces of the master is unbecoming. If you attach a number of bags of cloves to your body, you will not be affected by inclemency or colds. Some years ago Nakano Kazuma returned to this province as a messenger by horse in the dead of winter, and though he was an old man, he was not the least bit in pain.

It is said that that was because of his having used cloves. Furthermore, drinking a decoction of the feces from a dappled horse is the way to stop bleeding from an injury received by falling off a horse.

A faultless person is one who withdraws from affairs. This must be done with strength. There is surely nothing other than the single purpose of the present moment. A man's whole life is a succession of moment after moment. If one fully understands the present moment, there will be nothing else to do, and nothing else to pursue. Live being true to the single purpose of the moment.

Everyone lets the present moment slip by, then looks for it as though he thought it were somewhere else. No one seems to have noticed this fact. But grasping this firmly, one must pile experience upon experience. And once one has come to this understanding he will be a different person from that point on, though he may not always bear it in mind. When one understands this settling into single-mindedness 55 well, his affairs will thin out.

Loyalty is also contained within this single- mindedness. It is said that what is called "the spirit of an ape' ' is seine- thing to which one cannot return. That this spirit gradually dissipates is due to the world's coming to an end. In the same way, a single year does not have just spring or summer. A single day, too, is the same. For this reason, although one would like to change today's world back to the spirit of one hundred years or more ago, it cannot be done.

Thus it is important to make the best out of every generation. This is the mistake of people who are attached to past generations. They have no understanding of this point. On the other hand, people who only know the disposition of the present day and dislike the ways of the past are too lax.

Be true to the thought of the moment and avoid distraction. Other than continuing to exert yourself, enter into nothing else, but go to the extent of living single thought by single thought. The brave men of old times were for the most part rowdies. As they were of the disposition to be out running amuck, their vitality was strong and they were brave. When I had doubts about this and asked, Tsunetomo said, "It is understandable that since their vitality was strong they were generally rough and went about running amuck.

These days rowdiness is nonexistent 56 because man's vitality has weakened. Vitality has fallen behind, but man's character has improved. Valor is yet a different thing. Although men have become gentle these days because of the lack of vitality, this does not mean that they are inferior in being crazy to die.

That has nothing to do with vitality. When he was at the point of passing from this world, he said nothing, even when his chief retainers came to see him. Once Lord Ieyasu gamed nothing in a battle, but in a later judgment it was said, "Ieyasu is a general of great courage. Of his retainers who died in battle, not one of them died with his back turned. They all died facing the enemy lines.

As Yasuda Ukyo said about offering up the last wine cup, only the end of things is important. One's whole life should be like this. When guests are leaving, the mood of being re- luctant to say farewell is essential. If this mood is lacking, one will appear bored and the day and evening's conversation will disappear.

One should constantly give the impression that he is doing something exceptional. It is said that this is possible with but a little understanding. Our bodies are given life from the midst of nothingness. Ex- isting where there is nothing is the meaning of the phrase, "Form is emptiness. Uesugi Kcnshin said, "I never knew about winning from be- ginning to end, but only about not being behind in a situation.

A retainer will be dumbfounded if he is be- hind in a situation. In each and every instance one's function or responsiveness will not be shallow if he is not behind. One should be wary of talking on end about such subjects as learning, morality or folklore in front of elders or people of rank. It is disagreeable to listen to.

In the Kamigata area they have a sort of tiered lunch box they use for a single day when flower viewing. Upon returning, they throw them away, trampling them underfoot. As might be expected, this is one of my recollections of the capital [Kyoto]. The end is important in all things. While walking along the road together, Tsunetomo said, "Is not man like a well-operated puppet? Will we not be guests at next year's Ben Festival?

This world is vanity indeed. People always forget this. For exam- ple, if one were called before the master to explain something right away, he would most likely be perplexed. This is proof that he understands the two to be different. If, however, a per- son makes "right now" and "at that time" one, though he will never be an advisor to the master, still he is a retainer, and in order to be able to say something clearly, whether it be in front of the master, the elders or even the shogun at Edo Castle, it should be practiced beforehand in the corner of one's bedroom.

All things are like this. Accordingly, one should inquire into things carefully. It is the same for martial training as for offi- cial business. When one attempts to concentrate things in this manner, won't daily negligence and today's lack of resolve be understood? Even though one has made some blunder in governmental work, it can probably be excused by pleading clumsiness or in- experience. But what kind of excuse may be given for the failure 59 of the men who were involved in this recent unexpected event?

If one felt that such a failure were a mortification, it would be the least he could do to cut open his stomach, rather than live on in shame with a burning in his breast and the feeling that he had no place to go, and, as his luck as a warrior had run out, he was no longer able to function quickly and had been given a bad name.

But if one regretted losing his life and reasoned that he should live be- cause such a death would be useless, then for the next five, ten or twenty years of his life, he would be pointed at from behind and covered with shame. After his death his corpse would be smeared with disgrace, his guiltless descendants would receive his dishonor for having been born in his line, his ancestors' name would be dragged down, and all the members of his family would be blemished.

Such circumstances are truly regrettable. If one has no earnest daily intention, does not consider what it is to be a warrior even in his dreams, and lives through the day idly, he can be said to be worthy of punishment.

Presumably it can be said that a man who has been cut down was lacking in ability and had run out of luck as a war- rior. The man who cut him down, compelled by unavoidable cir- cumstances and feeling that there was nothing else to be done, 60 also put his life on the line, and thus there should be no evi- dence of cowardice.

Being short-tempered is inappropriate, but it cannot be said that two men who face each other are cowards. In this recent event, however, the men who lived and covered themselves with shame were not true warriors. One should every day think over and make an effort to im- plant in his mind the saying, "At that time is right now. Thus, the Way of the Samurai is, morning after morning, the practice of death, considering whether it will be here or be there, imagining the most slightly way of dying, and putting one's mind firmly in death.

Although this may be a most difficult thing, if one will do it, it can be done. There is nothing that one should suppose cannot be done. Moreover, the influence of words is important in military affairs. It would have been best for stopping the man in this recent event, too. When the situation is too much, one may cither cut the man down, or, if the man is escaping, yell some- thing like, "Don't run I Only cowards run! There was a certain man who was said to be good at judging men's dispositions and formerly had everyone's 61 attention, and he was able to handle such cases.

This is proof that "right now" is no different from "when the time comes.

The things to be deeply considered beforehand are many. If there is someone who has killed a man in the lord's mansion and has managed to escape, as one does not know whether he may still be swinging his sword and advancing toward the room next to the lord's, he should cut the man down.

Indeed, one may be blamed later in an investigation as a confederate of the killer, or as someone who had a grudge against him. But at that time one should think only of cutting the man down and not anticipate later blame. Even if one's head were to be suddenly cut off, he should be able to do one more action with certainty.

The last moments of Nitta Yoshisada are proof of this. Had his spirit been weak, he would have fallen the moment his head was severed. Recently, there is the example of Ono Dokcn.

These actions occurred because of simple determination. With martial valor, if one becomes like a revengeful ghost and shows great determination, though his head is cut off, he should not die.

Whether people be of high or low birth, rich or poor, old or young, enlightened or confused, they are all alike in that they 62 will one day die. It is not that we don't know that we are going to die, but we grasp at straws.

While knowing that we will die someday, we think that all the others will die before us and that we will be the last to go. Death seems a long way oft. Is this not shallow thinking? It is worthless and is only a joke within a dream. It will not do to think in such a way and be negligent. Insofar as death is always at one's door, one should make sufficient effort and act quickly. It is good to carry some powdered rouge in one's sleeve. It may happen that when one is sobering up or waking from sleep, his complexion may be poor.

At such a time it is good to take out and apply some powdered rouge. There are times when a person gets carried away and talks on without thinking much. But this can be seen by observers when one's mind is flippant and lacking truth. After such an occasion it is best to come face to face with the truth and express it. The truth will then be arrived at in one's own heart too.

Even when greeting someone lightly, one should consider the circumstances and after deliberation speak in a way that will not injure the man's feelings. Furthermore, if there is a person who is criticizing the Way of the Samurai or one's own province, one should speak with him severely, without the least bit of ceremony.

One must be 63 resolved in advance. Although a person who excels in an art regards others as competitors, last year Hyodo Sachu gave up the title of Master of Renga to Yamaguchi Shochin. A praiseworthy act. The priest Tannen used to hang up wind-bells but said, "It's not because I like the sound. I hang them in order to know the wind conditions in the event of fire, for that is the only worry in having a large temple.

Throughout his whole life the fire in his brazier was never out, and he always put a paper lantern and lighter by his pillow. He said, ' 'People are flustered during an emergency, and there is no one to quickly strike a light. There is only the matter of constant awareness. If it were not for men who demonstrate valor on the tatami, one could not find them on the battlefield either.

Bravery and cowardice are not things that can be conjec- tured in times of peace. They are in different categories. Though it may be said that the gods dislike impurity, if one thinks a bit, he will see that he has not been negligent in his daily worship. Thus, one's previous faithfulness has been 64 exactly for the sake of praying for good fortune in such times as when one is barbed in blood and climbing over the dead. At such a time, if it is a god that turns back when one is defiled, then one should know clearly that praying is ineffective and should worship regardless of defilement.

At times of great trouble or disaster, one word will suffice. At times of happiness, too, one word will be enough. And when meeting or talking with others, one word will do. One should think well and then speak. This is clear and firm, and one should learn it with no doubts. It is a matter of putting forth one's whole effort and having the correct attitude previously.

This is very difficult to explain but is something that everyone should work on in his heart. If a person has not learned this in his heart, it is not likely that he will understand it. Human life is truly a short affair. It is better to live doing the things that you like. It is foolish to live within this dream of a world seeing unpleasantness and doing only things that you do not like. But it is important never to tell this to young people as it is something that would be harmful if incorrectly understood.

Personally, I like to sleep. And I intend to appropriately confine myself more and more to my living quarters and pass my life away sleeping. I had a dream on the night of the twenty-eighth day of the 65 twelfth month in the third year of Shotoku. The content of the dream changed gradually to the extent that I strengthened my will. The condition of a person is revealed by his dreams.

It would be good to make companions of your dreams and to put forth effort. Shame and repentance are like upsetting a pot of water. When a certain friend of mine listened to the way that a man who had stolen his sword ornament confessed, he felt compas- sion. If one will rectify his mistakes, their traces will soon dis- appear.

According to what the Buddhist priest Kaion said, a person becomes more and more prideful if he gains a little understand- ing because he thinks he knows his own limits and weak points.

However, it is a difficult thing to truly know one's own limits and weak points. At a glance, every individual's own measure of dignity is manifested just as it is. There is dignity in personal appearance. There is dignity in a calm aspect. There is dignity in a paucity of words. There is dignity in flawlessness of manners. There is dignity in solemn behavior. And there is dignity in deep insight and a clear perspective.

These are all reflected on the surface. But in the end, their foundation is simplicity of thought and tautness of spirit. When bad things happen in the world, if you look at them comparatively, they are not unrelated to these three things. Looking comparatively at the good things, you will see that they are not excluded from wisdom, humanity and bravery.

This is according to what Nakano Kazuma Toshiaki said. There are people who feel that using old utensils for the Tea Ceremony is coarse, and that it is better to use new, clean uten- sils. There are also people who are wont to use old materials because of their lack of gaudiness.

HagaKure – The Book of the Samurai

Both are mistaken. Old utensils, although they are things that are used by the humble, are also used by the higher classes because of their value. Their value is revered. A retainer is just like this. A person rises from the humble to the higher classes because he has value. At the same time, to feel that a person of no family cannot do the same work as one of higher family, or that a man who has heretofore been only a foot soldier should not be allowed to become a leader, is entirely wrong thinking.

As for a person who has risen from the humble, his value should be prized and especially respected, even more than that of a person who was born into his class. My father Jin'emon said that when he was young he was taken from time to time to the entrance of the Chinese settle- 67 ment in order to be exposed to the atmosphere of the city and to become used to people. From the time he was five years old he was sent as family representative to various people's homes, and in order to make him strong he was made to put on a war- rior's straw sandals and visit the temples of his ancestors from the time he was seven.

It is said that one will not be able to do great works if he does not behave with some reserve towards his master, the chief retainers and elders. What is done casually and freely will not work out well. It is a matter of attitude. It is unfitting that one be ignorant of the history and origins of his clan and its retainers. But there are times when extensive knowledge becomes a hindrance. One should use discretion. Knowing the circumstances can be an obstruction in everyday affairs, too.

It is written that the priest Shungaku said, "In just refusing to retreat from something one gains the strength of two men. Something that is not done at that time and at that place will remain unfinished for a lifetime. At a time when it is difficult to complete matters with the strength of a single man, one will bring it to a conclusion with the strength of two.

If one thinks about it later, he will be negligent all his life. G8 "Stamp quickly and pass through a wall of iron" is another interesting phrase. To quickly break in and stamp through directly is the first step of celerity. In connection with this, Hideyoshi can be thought of as the only man who has grasped solidly the chance of a lifetime since the creation of Japan. People who talk on and on about matters of little importance probably have some complaint in the back of their mind.

But in order to be ambiguous and to hide this they repeat what they are saving over and over. To hear something like this causes doubt to arise in one's breast.

One should be careful and not say things that are likely to cause trouble at the time. When some difficulty arises in this world, people get excited, and before one knows it the matter is on everyone's lips.

This is useless. If worse comes to worse, you may become the subject of gossip, or at least you will have made enemies by saying somethinp unnecessary and will have created ill will. It is said that at such a time it is better to stay at home and think of poetry.

To talk about other people's affairs is a great mistake. To praise them, too, is unfttting. In any event, it is best to know your own ability well, to put forth effort in your endeavors, and to be discreet in speech.

The heart of a virtuous person has settled down and he does 69 not rush about at things. A person of little merit is not at peace but walks about making trouble and is in conflict with all. It is a good viewpoint to see the world as a dream. When you have something like a nightmare, you will wake up and tell yourself that it was only a dream.

It is said that the world we live in is not a bit different from this. People with intelligence will use it to fashion things both true and false and will try to push through whatever they want with their clever reasoning. This is injury from intelligence.

Nothing you do will have effect if you do not use truth. In affairs like law suits or even in arguments, by losing quickly one will lose in fine fashion. It is like sumo [wrestling].

If one thinks only of winning, a sordid victory will be worse than a defeat. For the most part, it becomes a squalid defeat. Feeling deeply the difference between oneself and others, bearing ill will and falling out with people-these things come from a heart that lacks compassion.

If one wraps up everything with a heart of compassion, there will be no coming into conflict with people.

A person who knows but a little will put on an air of knowl- edpe. This is a matter of inexperience. When someone knows something well, it will not be seen in his manner. This person is genteel.

To go without knowing whether the other party is busy, or when he has some particular anxiety, is awkward. There is noth- ing that surpasses not going where you have not been invited. Good friends are rare. Even if someone is invited somewhere, he should use understanding. It is difficult to feel deeply the sensitivities of people other than those who go out only rarely. Fiascos at pleasure gatherings are numerous.

However, you should not be brusque towards a person who has come to visit, even if you are busy. It is bad to carry even a good thing too far. Even concerning things such as Buddhism, Buddhist sermons, and moral lessons, talking too much will bring harm.

The late Jin'emon said that it is better not to bring up daughters. They are a blemish to the family name and a shame to the parents. The eldest daughter is special, but it is better to disregard the others. The priest Keiho related that Lord Aki once said that martial valor is a matter of becoming a fanatic. I thought that this was surprisingly in accord with my own resolve and thereafter became more and more extreme in my fanaticism.

The late Nakano Kazuma said that the original purpose of 71 the Tea Ceremony is to cleanse the six senses. For the eyes there are the hanging scroll and flower arrangement. For the nose there is the incense.

(PDF Download) Hagakure: The Secret Wisdom of the Samurai PDF

For the ears there is the sound of the hot water. For the mouth there is the taste of the tea. And for the hands and feet there is the correctness of term. Having only wisdom and talent is the lowest tier of usefulness.

According to their nature, there are both people who have quick intelligence, and those who must withdraw and take time to think things over. People think that they can clear up profound matters if they consider them deeply, but they exercise perverse thoughts and come to no good because they do their reflecting with only selfinterest at the center. In confronting a matter, however, if at first you leave it alone, fix the four vows in your heart, exclude self-interest, and make an effort, you will not go far from your mark.

Because we do most things relying only on our own sagacity we become self-interested, turn our backs on reason, and things do not turn out well. As seen by other people this is sordid, weak, narrow and inefficient. When one is not capable of true intelligence, it is good to consult with someone of good sense. Bushido, then, is the code of moral principles which the knights were required or instructed to observe.

It is not a written code; at best it consists of a few maxims handed down from mouth to mouth or coming from the pen of some well-known warrior or savant.

More frequently it is a code unuttered and unwritten, possessing all the more the powerful sanction of veritable deed, and of a law written on the fleshly tablets of the heart. It was founded not on the creation of one brain, however able, or on the life of a single personage, however renowned. It was an organic growth of decades and centuries of military career. It, perhaps, fills the same position in the history of ethics that the English Constitution does in political history; yet it has had nothing to compare with the Magna Charta or the Habeas Corpus Act.

We cannot, therefore, point out any definite time and place and say, "Here is its fountainhead.

But feudalism itself is woven of many threads, and Bushido shares its intricate nature. As in England the political institutions of feudalism may be said to date from the Norman Conquest, so we may say that in Japan its rise was simultaneous with the ascendancy of Yoritomo, late in the twelfth century. As, however, in England, we find the social elements of feudalism far back in the period previous to William the Conqueror, so, too, the germs of feudalism in Japan had been long existent before the period I have mentioned.The last moments of Nitta Yoshisada are proof of this.

Course Guidebook. If he will only make his master first in importance, his parents will rejoice and the gods and Buddhas will give their assent. If she becomes the child's ally, there will be discord between father and son. There are two kinds of dispositions, inward and outward, and a person who is lacking in one or the other is worthless.

What things a person should be able to accomplish if he had no haughtiness concerning his place in society!