UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN PDF
Universal Principles of Design. Ways to Enhance Usability,. William Lidwell. Kritina -Holden. Jill Butler. Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better. Universal principles 01 design: a cross-disciplinary reference I William Lidwell. Kritina Holden, and Jill Butler. p. cm. ISBN (paper over board) 1. Universal Principles of Design. William Lidwell. Kritina Holden. Jill Butler. Ways to Enhance Usability,. Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better.
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Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception,. Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design. William Lidwell. Whether a marketing campaign or a museum exhibit, a video game or a complex control system, the design we see is the culmination of many concepts and. Using the book Universal Principles of Design, prepare a short report with the information requested below. drawings, then submit a PDF with drawings.
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No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Universal principles of design 1. For our dads John C. Butler Larry W. Lidwell 3. How can I increase the How can I make betterappeal of a design? ForewordCourses in psychology and anthropology were glaringly absent from myundergraduate and graduate design education.
Indeed, a deeper understandingof human behavior and a scholarly approach to design were almost entirelyoverlooked. I left college with considerable knowledge in form making and verylittle knowledge in understanding human perception and meaning making. Universal Principles of Design is a resource that helps to fill in some of the gaps,dispel myths, and give sound reasons for much of what is felt intuitively, and yetnot fully understood. Universal Principles of Design guides the designertoward the reasons that people love high, expansive ceilings — the CathedralEffect — and big windows with beautiful nature views — the Biophilia Effect.
Andwho would have guessed that high ceilings promote creativity and that views ofnature are restorative to the sense of well-being?
Propositional Density looks at meaning in terms of analogies of shape, meaning,and supposition. Maybe even more importantly, it gives thedesigner a way to communicate with a client in terms of supporting the choicesthat have been made for the design. Universal Principles of Design brought me to a deeper understanding of thehuman equation in design. Human motivation is mysterious and tied to subconsciousinstincts, perceptions, and influences. Universal Principles of Design revealsthe driving forces behind human motivation and brings the designer to anunderstanding of the intuitive.
IntroductionNot long ago, designers were eclectic generalists. They studied art, science, andreligion in order to understand the basic workings of nature, and then appliedwhat they learned to solve the problems of the day. Over time, the quantity andcomplexity of accumulated knowledge led to increased specialization amongdesigners, and breadth of knowledge was increasingly traded for depth ofknowledge.
This trend continues today.
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As designers become more specialized,awareness of advances and discoveries in other areas of specialization diminishes. This is inevitable and unfortunate, since much can be learned from progress inother design disciplines. Convenient access to cross-disciplinary design knowledge has not previously beenavailable. A designer interested in learning about other areas of specializationwould have to study texts from many different design disciplines.
Determiningwhich texts in each discipline are worthy of study would be the first challenge,deciphering the specialized terminology of the texts the second, and enduring thedepth of detail the third. The effort is significant, and rarely expended beyond briefexcursions into unfamiliar areas to research specific problems. The goal of thisbook is to assist designers with these challenges, and reduce the effort required tolearn about the key principles of design across disciplines.
The principleswere selected from a variety of design disciplines based on several factors,including utility, degree of misuse or misunderstanding, and strength of supportingevidence. The selection of concepts should not be interpreted to mean thatthere are only relevant principles of design—there are obviously many more.
The book is organized alphabetically so that principles can be easily and quicklyreferenced by name. For those interested in addressing a specific problem ofdesign, the principles have also been indexed by questions commonly confrontingdesigners see previous page.
Each principle is presented in a two-page format. The left-hand page contains a succinct definition, a full description of theprinciple, examples of its use, and guidelines for use. Side notes appear to theright of the text, and provide elaborations and references. The right-hand pagecontains visual examples and related graphics to support a deeper understandingof the principle.
Sound design is not only within the reach of a small set of uniquely talentedindividuals, but can be achieved by virtually all designers. The use of well-established design principles increases the probability that a design will besuccessful. Use Universal Principles of Design as a resource to increase yourcross-disciplinary knowledge and understanding of design, promote brainstormingand idea generation for design problems, and refresh your memory of designprinciples that are infrequently applied.
Finally, use it as a means of checkingthe quality of your design process and product. The best designers sometimes disregard the principles of design. When they do so, however, there is usually some compensating merit attained at the cost of the violation. Unless you are certain of doing as well, it is best to abide by the principles.
The specific percentages are not important, as measures of actual systems economist who observed that 20 percent ofindicate that the proportion of critical variables varies between 10 percent and 30 the Italian people possessed 80 percent of thepercent. Juran Ed. The remaining 80 percent of the features shouldbe reevaluated to verify their value in the design. Similarly, when redesigningsystems to make them more efficient, focusing on aspects of the system beyondthe critical 20 percent quickly yields diminishing returns; improvements beyondthe critical 20 percent will result in less substantial gains that are often offset bythe introduction of errors or new problems into the system.
All elements in a design are not created equal. Noncritical functions that are part of the less-important 80percent should be minimized or removed altogether from the design.
When timeand resources are limited, resist efforts to correct and optimize designs beyondthe critical 20 percent, as such efforts yield diminishing returns. Forms Movie Picture Customize Graphical user interfaces concealmost of their functions in drop-downmenus bottom image.
This reducesthe complexity of the display, but alsomakes frequently used functions moredifficult to access. Identifying the critical20 percent of the functions and makingthem readily available in toolbars solvesthe problem top image.
AccessibilityObjects and environments should be designed to be usable,without modification, by as many people as possible. Historically, accessibility to universal design and inclusive design. There are Accessibility Guidelines 1. Toward Universal Design by Ronald L.
Mace,Perceptibility is achieved when everyone can perceive the design, regardless Graeme J.
Hardie, and Jaine P. Basic guidelines for improving perceptibility are: Operability is achieved when everyone can use the design, regardless of physicalabilities. Basic guidelines for improving operability are: Simplicity is achieved when everyone can easily understand and use the design,regardless of experience, literacy, or concentration level.
Basic guidelines forimproving simplicity are: Forgiveness is achieved when designs minimize the occurrence and consequencesof errors. Basic guidelines for improving forgiveness are: Advance OrganizerAn instructional technique that helps people understandnew information in terms of what they already know.
Advance organizers are brief chunks of information—spoken, written, or illustrated— 1 The seminal work on advance organizers ispresented prior to new material to help facilitate learning and understanding.
They The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning, Grune and Stratton, ; and Educationalare distinct from overviews and summaries in that they are presented on a more Psychology: A Cognitive View 2nd ed. Ausubel, Review of Educational Research, vol. The just present the key points on how to controldecision to use one or the other depends on whether the information is new to a forklift. For example, prior to presenting information on how to control a forklift on Advance Organizers: Mayer, Instructional Science, , vol.
Comparative advance organizers are useful when audiences have existingknowledge similar to the information being presented. For example, in teachingexperienced forklift operators about how to control a new type of forklift, anadvance comparative organizer would compare and contrast features andoperations between the familiar forklift and the new forklift.
Use advance organizers in learning situationsthat begin with an introduction and present information in a linear sequence. When presenting novel information, use expository advance organizers.
Whenpresenting information that is similar to what people know, use comparativeadvance organizers. At A forklift is a small industrial vehicle with a power-operated pronged platform that canan abstract level, it illustrates that be raised and lowered for insertion under aadvance organizers are a kind of load to be lifted and moved.
How a forklift works forklift operation. How to inspect a forklift 3. How to operate a forklift How a forklift works How to inspect a forklift How to operate a forklift Comparative Advance Organizers A comparative advance organizer Familiar Knowledge New Information leverages familiarity with the A model forklift to introduce the A model.
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Aesthetic-Usability EffectAesthetic designs are perceived as easier to use thanless-aesthetic designs. The effect has been observed in several experiments, and has significant subsequent research. Inherentwhether or not they actually are easier to use. More usable but less-aesthetic Usability: Experimental Analysis on thedesigns may suffer a lack of acceptance that renders issues of usability moot. Asch, Journal of Abnormal andimpressions of people influence attitude formation and measurably affect how Social Psychology, , vol.
Attractive Things WorkAesthetics play an important role in the way a design is used. For example, it is common for peopleto name and develop feelings toward designs that have fostered positive attitudes e. Such personal and positive relationships with a designevoke feelings of affection, loyalty, and patience—all significant factors in the long-term usability and overall success of a design.
These positive relationships haveimplications for how effectively people interact with designs. Positive relationshipswith a design result in an interaction that helps catalyze creative thinking andproblem solving.
Negative relationships result in an interaction that narrowsthinking and stifles creativity.
This is especially important in stressful environments,since stress increases fatigue and reduces cognitive performance. Aesthetic designs are perceived aseasier to use, are more readily accepted and used over time, and promote creativethinking and problem solving. Aesthetic designs also foster positive relationshipswith people, making them more tolerant of problems with a design.
Universal Principles of Design, Revised and Updated
Nokia was one of the first companiesto realize that adoption of cellularphones required more than basiccommunication features. Cellularphones need to be rechargedfrequently, carried around, and oftensuffer from signal loss or interference;they are not trouble-free devices. Aesthetic elements like color coversand customizable rings are more thanornaments; the aesthetic elementscreate a positive relationship withusers that, in turn, make suchtroubles more tolerable and thedevices more successful.
Aesthetic-Usability Effect 21 AffordanceA property in which the physical characteristics of anobject or environment influence its function.
Objects and environments are better suited for some functions than others. Stairs are better suited than fences for climbing; E. Bransford Eds , Lawrencetherefore, stairs are said to better afford climbing.
This is not to say that square Erlbaum Associates, ; and The Ecologicalwheels cannot be rolled or fences climbed, rather that the physical characteristics Approach to Visual Perception by Jamesof round wheels and stairs better afford the functions of rolling and climbing. A popular treatment of affordances can be found in The Design of Everyday Things by Donald Norman,When the affordance of an object or environment corresponds with its intended Doubleday, Conversely, when the affordance of an object or environment conflicts with its 2 Note that the term affordance refers to theintended function, the design will perform less efficiently and be more difficult to properties of a physical object or environmentuse.
For example, a door with a handle affords pulling. Sometimes, doors with only. When images of physical objects orhandles are designed to open only by pushing—the affordance of the handle environments are used e. Replace the handle with a flat plate, and it now button , the images, themselves, do not afford anything. The knowledge of button affordancesaffords pushing—the affordance of the flat plate corresponds to the way in which exists in the mind of the perceiver basedthe door can be used.
Contemporary standards like the advance organizer, chunking, and mnemonic devices, as well as more obscure practices, like baby-face bias and threat detection, are all given equal mention. In certain cases, the authors provide interesting D. Falvo, M. Core instructional design principles Since much of what is done by educational technologists involves developing and designing, many of the defined principles serve as foundational theory for instructional design and technology.
For example, foundational instructional design research conducted by Pavio clearly indicated that picture and graphics teach better than written or aural words. More interesting for designers, Pavio found that teaching with pictures combined with words increased memory-recall and transfer of information. More recently, Mayer has developed a research-based cognitive theory of multimedia learning, which is founded in the earlier work by Pavio and other researchers. Mayer conducted many studies of animations and diagrams that concluded duel channels for cognitively processing information.
For example, when we see and hear something at the same time our mind coordinates both of these through separate channels. This is the case with all of our senses, but it is much more prevalent with vision and hearing. Mayer found that word and pictures should be used simultaneously and should be presented close to each other in space.
Additionally, Mayer found that audio narration is superior to textual explanations. Sicne Universal Principles of Design includes many chapters related to visual literacy, educational technologists would benefit from understanding the represented core principles such as visualization, chunking, advance organizers, shaping, color, and alignment.
The book presents these ideas in easily understood terminology with illustrations and examples that exemplify each concept. Traditional architectural design principles Historically, creative people who built things followed rules of nature, religion, art, and science. These builders applied their knowledge of these rules as guidelines to solve the important problems of the day. This book provides many fundamental principles of architectural design that sometimes apply to areas outside of the design of physical structures.
This ratio appears to be found in nature, art, and architecture. Piet Mondrian and Leonardo da Vinci are known to have incorporated the golden ratio into their drawings and paintings.
Objects and environments need to meet the needs of as many people as possible, if not all people. Accessibility is an accepted universal design principle both in real life and virtual worlds. This principle guides us to afford use to a broad and diverse population without compromising quality and affordability.
The authors define four characteristics of accessibility as being perceptibility, operability, simplicity, and forgiveness. But some books simply don't lend themselves to the iBooks format for the reasons described above. My hope is, with the release of this very good book in this format, that other graphics intensive books, such as those by Edward Tufte and Steven Few, will begin to hear in iBooks as well.
Hate the iBook. First and foremost, this is a review of the way this particular book is rendered and formatted by iBook, not a review of the book itself, which is fantastic.
[PDF] The Pocket Universal Principles of Design: 150 Essential Tools for Architects, Artists,
This book is formatted like a PDF and I'm highly disappointed that it doesn't follow what I thought was the standard for iBook publications.
This is lame and robs you of the swipe through pages functionality unless you're zoomed all the way out.Creating a tint or shade of color reduces the saturation. Core instructional design principles Since much of what is done by educational technologists involves developing and designing, many of the defined principles serve as foundational theory for instructional design and technology.
A related effect pertains to visual perspective: Toward Universal Design by Ronald L. Aesthetic designs also foster positive relationshipswith people, making them more tolerant of problems with a design.
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