TOM SAWYER AND HUCKLEBERRY FINN PDF
Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page The Adventures of. Huckleberry. Finn. (Tom Sawyer's Comrade) by. Mark Twain name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain't no matter. That. Tom Saw yer; its sequel.,. The Adventures of. Huck leberry. Finn, appeared in By this time a highl . Tom Sawyer also, but not from an individual—he is a .
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Genre:||Health & Fitness|
|ePub File Size:||24.70 MB|
|PDF File Size:||11.75 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
occurred; one or two were experiences of my own, the rest those of boys who were schoolmates of mine. Huck. Finn is drawn from life; Tom Sawyer also, but not. read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. That book . Then Ben Rogers said, “Huck Finn doesn't have a family. How can we let him join the. Mark Twain created two fictional boys, Tom. Sawyer and Huck Finn, who still seem more real than most of the people we know. In a still puritanical nation, Twain.
Aunt Polly was angry. You can paint the fence. His friend Jim was in the street. I like painting. Please, can I paint? I have some fruit. Do you want it? Then you can paint.
They watched Ben, and they wanted to paint, too. Tom stayed in the yard, and the boys painted. They painted the fence three times. It was beautiful and white. Tom went into the house. Aunt Polly was surprised. Aunt Polly went to the yard and looked at the fence.
She was very surprised and very happy. Then he walked home again. There was a new girl in one yard. She had yellow hair and blue eyes. Tom swindles his friends out of all their favorite objects through a kind of false advertising when he sells them the opportunity to whitewash the fence.
He then uses his newly acquired wealth to buy power and prestige at Sunday schoolrewards that should be earned rather than bought. When Tom and Joe fight over the tick in class, we see a case in which a disagreement leads the boys, who have been sharing quite civilly, to revert to a quarrel over ownership. In spite of all Tom and Hucks practice, their money is given to a responsible adult.
With their healthy allowance, the boys can continue to explore their role as commercial citizens, but at a more moderate rate. The Circus The boys mention again and again their admiration for the circus life and their desire to be clowns when they grow up. These references emphasize the innocence with which they approach the world.
Rather than evaluate the real merits and shortcomings of the various occupations Tom and Hank could realistically choose, they like to imagine themselves in roles they find romantic or exciting. Showing Off Toms showing off is mostly directed toward Becky Thatcher.
When he shows off initially, we guess that he literally prances around and does gymnastics.
Later, the means by which Tom and Becky try to impress each other grow more subtle, as they manipulate Amy and Alfred in an effort to make each other jealous. In the Sunday school scene, Twain reveals that showing off is not strictly a childhood practice. The adults who are supposed to be authority figures in the church are so awed by Judge Thatcher and so eager to attract his attention and approval that they too begin to behave like children.
The room devolves into an absolute spectacle of ridiculous behavior by children and adults alike, culminating in the public embarrassment in which Tom exposes his ignorance of the Bible. Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. The Cave The cave represents a trial that Tom has to pass before he can graduate into maturity. Comingof-age stories often involve tests in which the protagonist is separated from the rest of the society for a period of time and faces significant dangers or challenges.
Only after having survived on the strength of his personal resources is Tom ready to rejoin society.
The Storm The storm on Jacksons Island symbolizes the danger involved in the boys removal from society. It forms part of an interruptive pattern in the novel, in which periods of relative peace and tranquility alternate with episodes of high adventure or danger. Later, when Tom is sick, he believes that the storm hit to indicate that Gods wrath is directed at him personally. The storm thus becomes an external symbol of Toms conscience. The Treasure The treasure is a symbolic goal that marks the end of the boys journey.
It becomes a indicator of Toms transition into adulthood and Hucks movement into civilized society.
It also symbolizes the boys heroism, marking them as exceptional in a world where conformity is the rule. The Village Many readers interpret the small village of St. Petersburg as a microcosm of the United States or of society in general. All of the major social institutions are present on a small scale in the village and all are susceptible to Twains comic treatment. The challenges and joys Tom encounters in the village are, in their basic structure, ones that he or any reader could expect to meet anywhere.
Im a-laying up sin and suffering for us both, I know. Hes full of the Old Scratch, but laws-a-me! She finds him in the closet, discovers that his hands are covered with jam, and prepares to give him a whipping. Tom cries out theatrically, Look behind you! After Tom is gone, Aunt Polly reflects ruefully on Toms mischief and how she lets him get away with too much.
Tom comes home at suppertime to help Aunt Pollys young slave, Jim, chop wood. Tom also wants to tell Jim about his adventures. During supper, Aunt Polly asks Tom leading questions in an attempt to confirm her suspicion that he skipped school that afternoon and went swimming instead.
Tom explains his wet hair by saying that he pumped water on his head and shows her that his collar is still sewn from the morning, which means that he couldnt have taken his shirt off to swim. Aunt Polly is satisfied, but Sid, Toms half-brother, points out that the shirt thread, which was white in the morning, is now black. Tom has resewn the shirt himself to disguise his delinquency. Tom goes out of the house furious with Sid, but he soon forgets his anger as he practices a new kind of whistling.
While wandering the streets of St. Petersburg, his town, he encounters a newcomer, a boy his own age who appears overdressed and arrogant. Tom and the new arrival exchange insults for a while and then begin wrestling. Tom overcomes his antagonist and eventually chases the newcomer all the way home. When he returns home in the evening, Tom finds Aunt Polly waiting for him. She notices his dirtied clothes and resolves to make him work the next day, a Saturday, as punishment.
Jim passes by, and Tom tries to get him to do some of the whitewashing in return for a white alley, a kind of marble.
Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The.pdf
Jim almost agrees, but Aunt Polly appears and chases him off, leaving Tom alone with his labor. A little while later, Ben Rogers, another boy Toms age, walks by. Tom convinces Ben that whitewashing a fence is great pleasure, and after some bargaining, Ben agrees to give Tom his apple in exchange for the privilege of working on the fence. Over the course of the day, every boy who passes ends up staying to whitewash, and each one gives Tom something in exchange.
By the time the fence has three coats, Tom has collected a hoard of miscellaneous treasures. Tom muses that all it takes to make someone want something is to make that thing hard to get. SummaryChapter 3: Busy at War and Love Aunt Polly is pleasantly surprised to find the work done, and she allows Tom to go out in the late afternoon. On his way, he pelts Sid with clods of dirt in revenge for his treachery in the matter of the shirt collar.
He then hastens to the town square, where a group of boys are fighting a mock battle. Tom and his friend Joe Harper act as generals. Toms army wins the battle. On his way home for dinner, Tom passes the Thatcher house and catches sight of a beautiful girl. He falls head over heels in love with her. Quickly forgetting his last love, a girl named Amy Lawrence, Tom spends the rest of the afternoon showing off on the street.
The girl tosses him a flower, and, after some more showing off, Tom reluctantly returns home. At dinner, Sid breaks the sugar bowl, and Tom is blamed.
Toms mood changes, and he wanders out after dinner feeling mistreated and melodramatic, imagining how sorry Aunt Polly would be if he turned up dead. Eventually, he finds his way back to the beautiful girls house and prepares to die pitifully beneath her window. Just then, a maid opens the window and dumps a pitcher of water on his head. Tom scurries home and goes to bed as Sid watches in silence. Tom and Aunt Pollys initial confrontation quickly characterizes Tom as clever enough to escape punishment and Aunt Polly as someone who threatens harsh discipline but who, for all her bluster, is really quite fond of her nephew.
Every time I hit him, she says, my old heart most breaks. Aunt Polly knows that she must discipline Tom in order to help him mature successfully into responsible adulthood, but there is a part of her that balks at impinging on the freedom of such a creative and headstrong child. That the softhearted Aunt Polly is Toms only authority figure in the home explains Toms relatively large degree of freedom. Huckleberry Finn, the son of the town drunk, offers an even more extreme example of a child who lives outside of the normal structures of authority, whether parental, social, or legal.
By depicting the fighting, playing, and trading in which the children engage as elaborate rituals, Twain emphasizes that the world of childhood is governed by its own social rules, which serve as a kind of practice for, and microcosm of, adulthood. The reality of the surrounding adult social world manifests itself in the brief appearance of the slave boy, Jim, abruptly reminding us that the novel is set in the slaveholding South.
Unlike Twains later novel Huckleberry Finn, however, slavery and criticism of slavery exist in Tom Sawyer only in the background; Toms idyllic childhood adventures remain the novels focus. The scene in which Tom persuades his peers to do all his whitewashing work establishes Toms position as a leader among his peers and as an initiative-taking mastermind.
Though a troublemaker, Tom at times presents a hint of maturity that his comrades lack. Joe Harper, Toms friend who acts as the opposing general in the mock battle, serves as a sidekick throughout the novel, mostly following Toms lead. Because of his comparatively dull nature and flat characterization, Joe highlights Toms vibrancy. Sid, Toms half-brother, is presented as Toms oppositewhereas Tom is a mischief-maker with a noble heart, Sid is a well-behaved child whose heart is basically evil.
Toms pursuit of his Adored Unknown we find out later that the girls name is Becky Thatcher also helps to pinpoint his level of maturity.
The fact that he is interested in a girl shows him to be mature compared to his friends, but his showing off for Becky, along with his melodramatic desire to die under her window after Aunt Polly falsely blames him for breaking the sugar bowl, spring from the sensitivity and sensibility of a young boy.
Furthermore, the fluidity of Toms imaginationhe moves with ease from one game or occupation to the nexttestifies to his youthful manner of experiencing the world. Walters fell to showing off, with all sorts of official bustlings and activities. The librarian showed off. The young lady teachers showed off.
The little girls showed off in various ways, and the little boys showed off. As Tom struggles halfheartedly to learn his Bible verses, Mary encourages and entices him with the promise of something ever so nice.
Toms work ethic then improves, and he manages to memorize the verses. Mary gives him a Barlow knife as reward. Tom then dresses for church, and he, Mary, and Sid hurry off to Sunday school, which Tom loathes. Before class begins, Tom trades all the spoils he has gained from his whitewashing scam for tickets. The tickets are given as rewards for well-recited Bible verses, and a student who has memorized two thousand verses and received the appropriate tickets can trade them in for a copy of the Bible, awarded with honor in front of the entire class.
The judges family includes his daughter, Beckythe beautiful girl Tom notices the previous afternoon.
The class treats the judge as a celebritythe students, teachers, and superintendent make a great attempt at showing off for him. As usual, Tom is the best show-offby trading for tickets before class, Tom has accumulated enough to earn a Bible. Walters, Toms Sunday school teacher, is flabbergasted when Tom approaches with the tickets. He knows that Tom has not memorized the appropriate number of verses, but since Tom has the required tickets, and since Mr.
Walters is eager to impress Judge Thatcher, the Bible-awarding ceremony proceeds. The Judge pats Tom on the head and compliments him on his diligence. He gives him the chance to show off his purported knowledge, asking him, No doubt you know the names of all the twelve disciples.
Wont you tell us the names of the first two that were appointed? Tom does not know their names, of course, and eventually blurts out the first two names that come to his mind: David and Goliath.
The narrator pleads, Let us draw the curtain of charity over the rest of the scene. At one point, the minister describes how, at the millennium the 1,year period during which Christ will reign over the earth, according to Christianity the lion and the lamb will lie down together and a little child shall lead them.
Tom wishes that he could be that childas long as the lion were tame. Bored, Tom takes from his pocket a box containing a pinchbug, or a large black beetle. The insect pinches him and slips from his grasp to the middle of the aisle at the same time that a stray poodle wanders into the church.
The dog investigates the pinchbug, receives one pinch, circles the insect warily, and then eventually sits on it.
The bug latches onto the poodles behind, and the unfortunate dog runs yelping through the church until its master flings it out a window. The general laughter disrupts the sermon completely, and Tom goes home happy, despite the loss of his bug.
When that ploy fails, he complains of a toothache, but Aunt Polly yanks out the loose tooth and sends him off to school.
On his way to school, Tom encounters Huckleberry Finn, the son of the town drunkard. Huck is cordially hated and dreaded by all the mothers of the town, who fear that he will be a bad influence on their children. But every boy, including Tom, admires Huck and envies him for his ability to avoid school and work without fear of punishment. Huck and Tom converse, comparing notes on charms to remove warts. Huck carries with him a dead cat, which he plans to take to the graveyard that night.
According to superstition, when the devil comes to take the corpse of a wicked person, the dead cat will follow the corpse, and the warts will follow the cat. Tom agrees to go with Huck to the cemetery that night, trades his yanked tooth for a tick from Huck, and continues on to school.
Tom arrives late, and the schoolmaster demands an explanation. Tom notices an open seat on the girls side of the room, next to Becky Thatcher. He decides to get in trouble on purpose, knowing that he will be sent to sit with the girls as punishment. He boldly declares, I stopped to talk with Huckleberry Finn! The horrified teacher whips Tom and sends him to the seat next to Becky.
Tom offers Becky a peach and tries to interest her by drawing a picture on his slate. Becky initially shies from Toms attentions, but she soon warms to him and promises to stay at school with him during lunch. Becky and Tom introduce themselves, and Tom scrawls I love you on his slate. At this point, the teacher collars Tom and drags him back to the boys side of the room. AnalysisChapters 46 Twain renders Toms cousin Mary as an idealized character whose total goodness leads her to forgive the faults of others.
Unlike Sid, who behaves well but delights in getting Tom in trouble, Mary behaves well and attempts to keep Tom out of mischief. Her motherly caring for Tom is manifest not only in her eagerness for Tom to learn Bible verses but also in her name, which evokes that of Mary, mother of Jesus. In the Sunday school scenes, Twain gently satirizes the tradition of making children memorize Bible verses.
He points out the cheapness of the prizea very plainly bound Bibleand relates the story of a German boy who had once recited three thousand verses without stopping and afterward suffered a nervous breakdown. In calling the boys collapse a grievous misfortune for the school since the school relied on the German boy to perform for guests , Twain implies that the students are memorizing verses not for real spiritual growth but for the sake of making their teachers and superintendent look good.
Twain furthers this implication by illustrating Mr. Walterss eagerness to display a prodigy, or extremely talented youth, for Judge Thatcher. Twains critique is compassionate, however. His intention is not to expose anything inherently unworthy in his characters but to point out universal human weaknesses.
When Judge Thatcher visits, everyone at Sunday school shows offthe superintendent, librarian, teachers, boys, and girlsin an attempt to attract the local celebritys attention. Tom arranges to earn an honor he doesnt deserve, teachers dote on students they usually treat severely, and the superintendent gives a reward to a child Tom whom he knows doesnt deserve it.
By exposing the superficiality of the Sunday schools workings, Twain makes Toms own dramatic inclinations seem not a departure from, but an exaggeration of, his societys behavior. As Twain describes the church service in Chapter 5, he again shows Toms faults replicated in the behavior of adults. Tom is restless and inattentive in the usual childlike manner, but he is not alonethe congregation as a whole drifts toward slumber, and many a head by and by began to nod.
Toms desire to be the child leading the lion and the lamb, while misguided, demonstrates that he is at least listening to some of the sermon. That the rest of the congregation is so easily distracted supports the idea that Toms lack of interest in and misunderstanding of the sermon constitute the universal response to the monotonous minister.
By releasing the pinchbug and creating havoc, Tom succeeds in doing what the sermon cannot he gets the congregations attention. With more people caring about the pinchbug than about the ministers fire and brimstone, the church service begins to seem as ridiculous as the struggle between the poodle and the insect.
Again, however, Twains satire is not cruel. Nobody is accused of being irreligious or wicked for falling asleep during the service. Rather, Twain exposes the comic and sometimes ridiculous elements of traditions, such as churchgoing, that bind the community together.
In the scene following the church service, we meet Huckleberry Finn, one of the most famous figures in American literature. Huck enjoys what Tom and every other mischievous boy secretly wishes he could attaincomplete freedom from adult authority.
Unlike Tom, who is parentless but has Aunt Polly to limit his liberty, Huck has no adults controlling him at all. His father is the town drunkard, leaving Huck to wander as he pleaseseverything that goes to make life precious, that boy had. From a boys perspective, Huck can do all the important thingsswimming, playing, cursing, fishing, walking barefootwithout enduring the burdens of church, school, personal hygiene, or parental harassment.
Given Toms inability to keep his mind from wandering during the church sermon, Huck and Toms earnest enthusiasm for superstition in their conversation about the causes of warts is particularly notable.
Tom may not be interested in memorizing Bible verses, but he and his companions are fascinated by the intricate details of charms, magical cures, and other varieties of folk wisdom.
The boys unwavering belief in the efficacy of the wart cures resembles religious fervor in its dependence upon explanations that exist outside the bounds of human understanding. They want so strongly to believe in the supernatural that when a charm seems not to work, they are quick to furnish what they consider a rational explanation for its failure rather than concede that their charms dont work at all.
After trying to study for a while, Tom gives up and he and Joe play with the tick, each attempting to keep the bug on his side of the desk by harassing it with a pin. They begin arguing midway through the game, and the teacher again appears behind Tom, this time to deliver a tremendous whack to both boys. During lunch, Tom and Becky sit in the empty schoolroom together, and Tom persuades her to get engaged to himan agreement they render solemn by saying I love you and kissing.
Tom begins talking excitedly about how much he enjoys being engaged and accidentally reveals that he was previously engaged to Amy Lawrence. Becky begins to cry and says that Tom must still love Amy.
Tom denies it, swearing that he loves only Becky, but she cries harder and refuses to accept the brass andiron knob he offers her as a token of his affection. When Tom marches out, Becky realizes that he wont return that day and becomes even more upset. SummaryChapter 8: A Pirate Bold to Be For the rest of the afternoon, Tom wanders about in a forest, first deciding that he will become a pirate, next trying a futile charm to locate his lost marbles, and finally encountering Joe Harper.
The boys play Robin Hood and then go home, in agreement that they would rather be outlaws a year in Sherwood Forest than President of the United States forever. They hide in a clump of elms a few feet from the fresh grave of Hoss Williams and wait for devils to appear. After a while, three figures approach the grave. The boys believe with horrified delight that these are the devils, but they turn out to be three adults from the town carrying out a midnight mission of their own.
Tom and Huck are surprised to discover the young Dr.
Log in to Wiley Online Library
Robinson accompanied by two local outcasts, the drunken Muff Potter and Injun Joe. Robinson orders the other two men to dig up Hoss Williamss corpse, presumably for use in medical experiments. After they finish the job, Potter demands extra payment, and Robinson refuses.
Injun Joe then reminds Robinson of an incident that happened five years earlier, when Injun Joe came begging at the Robinsons kitchen door and was turned away. Injun Joe now intends to have his revenge.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
A fight ensues; Dr. Robinson knocks Injun Joe down and then is attacked by Potter. He uses Hoss Williamss headstone to defend himself, knocking Potter unconscious.
In the scuffle, Injun Joe stabs Dr. Robinson with Potters knife. Tom bases his expertise in adventures on the many pirate and robber books he has read.
Later, in Chapter 3, Tom mentions Don Quixote as a model of the romantic novels. Ironically, Cervantes was satirizing romantic adventure stories in this work much the same as Twain does in this work. Obviously, Tom was unaware of the satiric nature of the novel, but Twain was not.
Unlike the playful humor of Tom Sawyer, the humor of Huck Finn is bitter satire using the hypocrisy, violence, and squalor in the society that Twain observed. This meaning, of course, is wrong, but, as in the greater society, because the group believes it to be true, it becomes their truth, and the rest of their action is based on this error, a serious subject matter undercut by humor.
Critical Commentaries: Chapter 2 27 Glossary the quality word used by the South to describe aristocracy, five-center piece monetary equivalent of a nickel. Nickels were not minted until after the Civil War.
Miss Watson explains to Huck that, through prayer, he can have anything he wants. She makes Huck pray for the next few days, and Huck does not understand why the fishhooks he prays for never arrive. During this time, Huck is told that his father, Pap Finn, has been found drowned in the river. Because the body was floating on his back, the superstitious Huck does not believe it is Pap and worries that the violent Pap will show up again. The Tom Sawyer Gang disbands because the only adventure they have is attempting to rob a Sunday-school picnic.
Commentary In Chapter 3, the practical Huck again struggles to understand religion.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
When Miss Watson tells Huck he can receive anything he wants through prayer, the literal Huck believes he can receive fishing gear. Through Huck, Twain is exploring his own reservations about religion and its ties to the institution of slavery.
It is not incidental that it is Miss Watson who owns Jim and not the Widow Douglas, and Huck continues to question religion and the rules of his society. Critical Commentaries: Chapter 3 29 Chapter 3 continues to establish Tom and Huck as contrasting characters. This approach serves Huck well throughout the novel.
Glossary hived robbed. To protect the reward money from Pap, Huck goes to see Judge Thatcher and tries to persuade Judge Thatcher to take the money for his own. Because Jim is rumored to have the ability to do magic, Huck asks him if he can predict what Pap will do and where he will stay. Jim says that there are two angels hovering over Pap—one white and one black—and he does not know which way Pap will decide to live his life. Jim also says that, just like Pap Finn, Huck has two angels over him, trying to help him decide the right path.
When Huck returns to his room that night, he finds Pap waiting for him. He knows that Pap is inspired only by whisky or greed, and if Huck is poor, perhaps Pap will leave him alone. Moreover, the subtle threat of abuse underscores the theme of a chaotic and violent environment after the Civil War, an environment that Huck cannot entirely avoid despite his plans and cunning. Critical Commentaries: Chapter 4 31 Chapter 4 continues to document that Huck and Jim are superstitious and are products of their society and their circumstances.
Jim warns Huck to stay away from the water because it is his fate to be hanged. Glossary irish potato the common white potato; so called because extensively cultivated in Ireland. After the initial shock, Huck decides Pap is too disheveled to be a threat. Pap immediately notices how clean Huck is in comparison and then begins a tirade about Huck attending school and trying to be more of a man than his father.
Pap is unable to get any money, except when he takes a dollar or two directly from Huck. Although the widow wants to raise Huck, Pap convinces a new judge that he has changed and will start a life free from alcohol and sin.
When the widow tells Pap to stop loitering around her house, Pap kidnaps Huck and takes him upriver to the Illinois shore. But as in Chapter 4, the threats are laced with the realization that Huck has been beaten by Pap before. Huck stays captive for the next couple of months and begins to enjoy his old life, free from manners, education, and religion. Pap exudes bigotry and hate. The irony, however, is more painful than it is humorous because it symbolizes a common racist attitude built on ignorance and insecurity.
The label is important, however, and foreshadows the numerous deaths that Huck encounters as he escapes down the Mississippi. Glossary black slouch a felt hat with a broad, floppy rim.They painted the fence three times.
The character of Jim, however, is much more complex than the sleepy man who has seen the devil and been kidnapped by witches. Sid - Toms half-brother. Tom recognizes that Uncle Silas has helped him and Huck conceal their plan to help Jim Huck walks to town, he sees a wagon coming toward him, riding in which is Tom Sawyer. But they wanted very much to find that'cross'.
It also symbolizes the boys heroism, marking them as exceptional in a world where conformity is the rule. It was beautiful and white. There was a bed, two whiskey bottles, some old shoes - and the box of money, When somebody finds treasure, everybody hears about it very quickly.