THE ME BOOK LOVAAS PDF
Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children: The ME Book Teaching Ivar Lovaas, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of California, Los Angel with . Children: The "ME" Book, by O. Ivar Lovaas pdf Teaching Developmentally " ME" Book, pdf O. Ivar Lovaas Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children. Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children: The Me Book O. Ivar Lovaas Adults who have undergone ABA as described in this book as children consider.
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Google Scholar Bayley, N. Bayley Scales of Infant Development. New York: Psychological Corporation. Google Scholar Boring, E.
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Seminars in Psychiatry, 1, 79— Google Scholar Cattell, P. The measurement of intelligence of infants and young children. Google Scholar Churchill, D. Language: The problem beyond conditioning. Schopler Eds. New York: Plenum Press. Google Scholar DeMyer, M. Prognosis in autism: A follow-up study. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 3, — A comparison of five diagnostic systems for childhood Schizophrenia and infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood schizophrenia, 1, — Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research.
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, — The measurement of social competence. Google Scholar Dunn, L. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Google Scholar Eisenberg, L. The autistic child in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, , — Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehensive intervention program.
Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5, 7— Positive reinforcement and behavioral deficits of autistic children. Child Development, 32, — Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs.
The stability of cognitive and linguistic parameters in autism: A 5-year study. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, — Google Scholar Garber, H.
The Milwaukee Project: Indications of the effectiveness of early intervention in preventing mental retardation. Mittler Ed. Care and intervention pp.
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Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Young Autistic Children
Google Scholar Havelkova, M. Follow-up study of 71 children diagnosed as psychotic in preschool age. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 38, — Teaching speech to an autistic child through operant conditioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, — Synapse elimination and plasticity in developing human cerebral cortex. Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, — Google Scholar Kanner, L.
Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. Silver Spring, MD: V. Google Scholar Kazdin, A. Research design in clinical psychology.
Comparative outcome studies of psychotherapy: Methodological issues and strategies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 95— Kendall and J.
Butcher Eds. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar Koegel, R. Educating and understanding autistic children. San Diego: College-Hill Press. Google Scholar Leiter, R. Part I of the manual for the revision of the Leiter International Performance Scale: Evidence of the reliability and validity of the Leiter tests.
Psychology Service Center Journal, 11, 1— Google Scholar Lotter, V. Follow-up studies. Rutter and E. Google Scholar Lovaas, O.
Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3—9.
Experimental studies in childhood schizophrenia: Building social behavior in autistic children by use of electric shock. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 99— Acquisition of imitative speech by schizophrenic children.
Science, , — Teaching developmentally disabled children: The ME Book. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Experimental analysis of autistic behaviors. They typically score within the retarded range of intellecdisabledpersonsoften need to learn some of the most tual functioningon IQ tests. Developmentally Some personsdo not know how to play, of living,includingeating,toileting,and dressing. Some individuals personsneed help with school. Older personswith dedisabled well. Almost all developmentally selves need to learn to spend their leisuretime more eflectively.
This book presentsa velopmental disabilities set of teaching programs designed to help persons lessenor overcome these behavioral deficiencies. In addition to needing help with acquiring new behaviors, many developmentally disabled personsalso need to unlearn certain maladaptivebehaviors,such as throwing tantrums when frushated and spending hours alone in seemingly meaninglessritualisticplay.
Our programs help parents and teachersbetter understand these problem behaviorsand teach children and studentsto better manage their behaviors. Through this help studentsshould become easierto handle at school and able to fit in their community.
They should become happierpersons. Throughout this book we refer to developmentallydisabledor behaviorallyretarded delayed personsas studentsor children. We often use the term child in refening to the students even though some of the "children" we worked with were actuallyadults. Perhaps child'likewould have been a better term. Caregivers,such as parents,teachers,speechtherapists,psychiatrictechnicians,nurses' and psychologists,who work with developmentallydisabledpersonsare called parentsor teachers.
When pronouns are needed in our discussionof developmentallydisabledpersons,we have selectedthe rnascu- students the factmostof these andto reflect lineform to avoidawkwarddoublepronounconshuctions are male. All living organismsshow variabilityin their behaviors. CharlesDarwin was the first to recognizethe importance of such variabilityfor the purpose of survival of the species. We can regard developmentally disabledpersons as instancesof such variability.
Behavioral variability deviance is not consideredto be symptomatic of underlying mental illnessor disease,and therefore requiring its own unique form of beatment. Although many developmentallydisabledindividuals suffer from seriousorganicbrain damage, it has not been to the educationaladvantageof developmentallydisabled individuals to be ffeated as mentally ill.
Laws of learning apply to individuals with deviant organic structure as they do to individuals with less deviant structure. Personsat either extreme do not learn for them. The smallerthe differencebetween the specialtherapeuticleducationalenvironmentconshuctedfor the child and the averageenvironmentto which, it is hoped, he will return, the easierthe transition. We employed rewards and punishment analogousto those used with normal children in or clinics, creatingthe specialteachingenvironment.
We taught the childrenat home, not in hospitals they programs because were taughtthe and teachers childrenlive and learn in homes. Parents because care for and teach children. Our programs present a set of teaching steps, very similar to those employed with normal children, but certainfeaturesare temporarily exaggeratedand the teachingprocess is sloweddown.
Our procedurescan be taught to and used by anyone.
The book is written with as few technicaltermsaspossible. Although the teachingstepsare presentedin everydaylanguage,and parents and teacherslearn about behavior modificationby carrying out the various programs, we recommend certain inhoductory texts on learning theory and behavior modification that present more theoreticaland researchinformation' See the recommended reading list at the end of Unit I.
A better understandingof the foundations of our programs can be gained by reading one or more of these texts along with this teaching manual' Undlrstanding the basictheory helps teachersand parents become more creative in developing their Introduction 2.
Thereare even several published teaching manuals that dealwith problems similar to theones addressed in thismanual. Bernal's review of these manuals canhelpyou select theappropriate one. First, no one approach will solve all the problems of developmentallydisabledpersons. Rather,the personswho hy to help theseindividuals need to draw upon a varietyof concepts and teachingtechniques. For example, each client will have somewhat different needs and the context within which he functionswillbe different.
Procedures that work particularly wellfor an affectionate and frightenedblind child may be somewhat differentfrom those that work for an aggressive, autisticchild.
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What works wellin heating a child in his family in his naturalcommunitymay not work equallywellfor an institutionalized adult. The "teacher-therapist-parent" hasto be flexible,innovative, and ableto draw upon a varietyof techniquesand procedures.
We do know now that certain basicprocesses work for all personsand that a working knowledge of theseprocesses is essential for providing effectivehelp. One such procedure, or principle, used for providing help is the pleosure-painprinciple, which is infinitely better understood today than when first proposed by the Greeks. This principle was renamed learningby trialand error, and later calledThe Law ol Elfecf and insfrumental learning.
Today most personsrefer to this principle asoperant conditioning and the applicationof that principleas behauiormodit'ication In psyor appliedbehauioronolysis, chologyand education,operant conditioningmay well be like the principleof gravityin physics. We all know about gravity, but you need to know it in detail to transport a person to the moon. Likewise,with operant learning, we observeit and use it every day, but to work the principle ellectivelywith developmentally disabled persons requires more than superficial knowledge.
It is hoped that this teaching manual will help you learn to use the principle of operant learning more effectively,but keep in mind that, just as a physicist needsto know more than the laws of gravityto transporta personto the moon, you need to know more than the laws of operantbehaviorto move a person to more adequatefunctioning.
We have limitedourselves to the useof operantlearningin devising our programsfor teaching developmentallydisabledpersons. We recognizethe considerableinvestmentthat other professionals have made in other approaches and hope that no one is upsetor angeredby the focus of this book. AII personsurho consistently interact with deuelopmentallydisabledpersons haue to learn to be you must becomean efaslong aspossible teachers.
To keep your child in his naturalcommunity protection in an environment that is the since living Primarily, is for his this own fective teacher. But it also servesto protect you, as a parent or teacher, againstthe hurt of separationor againstthe trauma of giving up your child to persons or processesyou don't understand or over which you have limited confrol.
By lntroduction 3. When you havethe bestinformation,you can make the best for you' othersdon't have to make decisions decisions; so that bothyou and your child willbe rewarded. Findpleosurein Set smollgoolsin the beginntng of smallergoals,ratherthan hoping smollsteps Jorward. Ytu shouldbe pleasedat reachinga set and absoluteideal of normalcy or overall excellence' for some often unattainable and struggling goals. You stillcan anticipate you to identifyand reachsmaller,quite attainable This book teaches all.
This doesnot meanthat it in in some areas,but you should not expect normalcyand excellence people are thosewho curbtheir you will becomean unhappy parentor teacher. Often the happiest be attainedwithin a ambitionsa bit, those individualswho work for a set of smallergoalsthat can there will alwaysbe more to learn,so is relative; amount of time.
Remember,excellence reasonable goals' in reachable it is importantto find pleasure burn-outbylorming o "teachingteom'" If yourselt'lrom Be preporedt'ormuch hord work. Protect , you may burn out if you do all the one-to-oneteachingyourself you take your teachingseriously, disabledpersonsoften have to be after 1 or Z years. Be preparedfor hard work; developmentally detail. Many do not respondin the beginning,and you haveto be taughteverythingin the smallest and form a "teachingteam'" extremelypatient.
Get some help to preventburn-out. Hire assistants people, each working about The ideal teachingteam probably numbersbetweenfour and eight teachingper four to eight hours per week. If your child gets from 20 to 60 hours of one-on-one as he can handle.
It is criticalthat teachingbe canied week, he will probablyget as much instruction possible'Everybodyhas to teach' out everywhere-at home, at school, as many hours a day as manner, at leastin the beginning' and everybodyhas to teach in a consistent your asThis manualshould help you becomea good teacherand showsyou how to use to you' help be of should After only 2 or 3 hours of inshuction,your assistants effectively.
Therearesomeamazingly studentswho will work for littlemoney, if not for free' assistant through "job interviews. If you like the way he handleshimself"on the spot," and interact job for 6 to stay on the instrucr,you probably will have a good worker. Expect your assistants assisgroup of large a you have monthsto a couple of years;they come and go, you haveto stay' If For example,one person persons. Eachpersonworks program. Eachpersonshouldwork Such to geifeedback,positiveor negative,regardingteachingmethods' elseduring staffmeetings it perhaps is bestto have assistants weekly supervisionis important.
During the first 2 or 3 months, and note superior procedures' If work in pairs so that they can befter identify each other's mistakes that he wantsto do it his a team memberdoesn'tagreeto this and feelsso "senior"and experienced then let that person go beforehe hurtSyour that he can't standcriticism, own way, or so sensitive Introduction program.
If you are a teacher, hope that the child's parentswill be open to feedbackas you are. If you are a parent, hope that you are welcomedto the child'sschool.
If the teacherdoesnot welcome you to the child'sclass, consultwith the schoolprincipal and perhapsconsiderchangingteachers or schools.
Haue your child work for what he wants; make him responsible. Developmentallydisabledpersonshave to work particularly hard. Their work is to learn, your job is to teach. The responsibility is shared.
With responsibility,the developmentallydisabled individual takes on dignity and "acquires" certain basicrights as a person. No one has the right to be taken care of , no matter how retardedhe is.
So, put your child to work; his work is to learn. Try not to be frightened or t'eelguilty by the child'semotional outburstsor withdrawal. You are the boss, you make the decisions.
Almost all persons,including the retarded and especially the autisticand emotionallydisturbed,want it differently.
Sometimesthey will becomeso angry that they act out aggressively againstthemselves, the furniture, or you. They scareyou. Or they will withdraw and make you feel guilty. They may try to frightenyou into quitting.If you don't seeexactlyhow they are appliedafterreadingChapter 1. Developmentally disabled persons often share a number of common characteristics.
Lovaas Me Book
The rocking. It is a good idea to catchthe tanhum early. This means that if the child self-stimulates when the teacheris talking to him whenshe wantshim to pay attentionto her.
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