# SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY PDF

dimensional polar coordinates and three-dimensional spherical coordinates Section deals with the trigonometric formulas for solving spherical triangles. Spherical resourceone.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we .

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Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to derive various trigonometric formulas for spher- ical triangles. The subject of spherical trigonometry has many. One of the simplest theorems of Spherical Trigonometry to prove using plane Theorem (The Spherical Law of Cosines): Consider a spherical triangle with. 2. It's the purpose of this booklet to deduce some formulae and equations that may come in handy when working with spherical trigonometry. The cosine- formula.

The shape of a lune can also be seen in 6 the next figue. Example Lune Spheical tiangles can be defined in tems of lunes. Definition Spheical Tiangle A spheical tiangle is the intesection of thee distinct lunes.

A simple way to think about a spheical tiangle is the shape captued though the intesection of thee geat cicles. It is also inteesting to conside that any two 7 unique points, which ae not diametic on the sphees suface, lie on a geat cicle.

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This makes sense because a tiangle would have thee vetices and theefoe thee diffeent geat cicles which go though two diffeent points. Since the spheical tiangle s edges ae cuved, it is clea that the equations, sides, aea, and geneal popeties will be diffeent fom that of a plana tiangle. We also know that in some way we should be able to elate the functions that we do discove to the adius of the sphee, because it seems natual that the fomulas would change in elation to the sphee s adius.

Example Spheical Tiangle Definition Spheical Excess is the amount by which the sum of the angles in the spheical plane only exceed This definition tells us about the behavio of the sphee and its edges. We know that the length of the edges on a spheical tiangle will be geate the edges on a coesponding plana tiangle, since they ae cuved.

This definition allows fo a spheical tiangle to have multiple ight angles. The coodinate values stated below equie to be the length of the adius to the point P on the sphee.

## Spherical trigonometry

Conside a spheical tiangle on the suface of a sphee with adius, and sides a, b, c. Let vetex C in the spheical tiangle be a ight angle, as in the diagam below. Now conside the othe vetices on the spheical tiangle. Note b is necessaily also equal the inteio angle between the vecto which goes fom the O to C and the vecto fom O to A, since the adius is equal to. Now conside the magnitude of A B. Let thee be a spheical tiangle with sides denoted a, b, c.

Let us call the cente of the sphee to be S. Theefoe we know fom any single vetex, A, B, C, to the point S is exactly equal to the adius,.

## A Text Book On Spherical Trigonometry

If we abitay let A be the lagest angle since we can abitaily name any angle then we can that thee is a point somewhee between the vetices B and C which ceates a ight angle, since A is the lagest angle and we must have spheical excess, it follows that ceating a ight angle is possible.

Call this vetex N.

This patition will ceate two ight spheical tiangles. Now we know that N some distance n fom B and is the distance a n fom vetex C to N. Thee will also be some distance we shall call y fom the vetex N to point A. With this infomation we can use the spheical Pythagoean equation. Example Flight Routes Spheical tigonomety is vey applicable to ou evey day life. One of these applications is discoveing the length and diections needed fo navigation.

The fomulas easily apply to the eath because the latitude and longitude lines ae actually examples of geat cicles. The law of cosines can be used on the example below, in which we want to find the distance between two cities. To find this we use the equation below and then substitute the numeical values. This estimation is useful, howeve; since it was so quick and easy to find.

Now we at least have some idea of the distance between two places that would othewise be impossible to diectly measue. Let thee be a spheical tiangle ABC, with adius. So x 1 is othogonal to the entie plane of secto COB. Then x 2 is othogonal to the entie plane coesponding to secto COA.

Also x 3 is othogonal to the plane lying on secto BOA. Next we need to conside the angle between x 1 and x 2, ecall that each of these angles is pependicula to its especting geat cicles. Because these unit vectos ae pependicula to the whole geat cicle we can abitaily place them at a specific point on that geat cicle without loss of geneality.

Since x 1 is pependicula to the geat cicle coesponding to COB, then we know at vetex C, x 1 will be exactly tangent to the geat cicle ceated by vetices C and A.

Note also that x 2 is pependicula to the geat cicle coesponding to AOC. Theefoe by simila logic x 2 will be exactly tangent at vetex C to the geat cicle which goes though vetices B and C. Theefoe these two vectos ceate an angle that must coespond to the angle ceated at vetex C.

## History of trigonometry

Fom popeites in linea algeba we know that deteminants do not change when two pais of ows ae swapped, which means it is invaiant.

Theefoe, since we ae only swapping two pais of vectos; we know that the equations above all equivalent. Now that we have the Pythagoean Theoem, Law of Cosines, and the Law of Sines fo a sphee, we can compae these to thei plana countepats. Commutative Algebra. Complex Algebra. Elliptic Curves. Geometric Algebra. Groups Theory. Higher Algebra.

Homological Algebra. Lie Algebra. Differential Algebra. Rings and Fileds.

Algebraic Geometry. Differential Geometry. Riemannian Geometry.

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Mathematical Analysis. Complex Analysis. Functional Analysis. Differential Analysis. Fourier Analysis. Harmonic Analysis. Numerical Analysis. Real Analysis. Algebraic Topology. Differential Topology. Geometric Topology. Applied Mathematics. Differential Equations. Discrete Mathematics. Graph Theory. Number Theory. Probability Theory.A very important theorem Todhunter, [1] Art.

For example.

Cambidge: Cambidge UP, Pint. Fourier Analysis. Gandung Sukardiyono. Three planes define a spherical triangle, the principal subject of this article. Let thee be a spheical tiangle with sides denoted a, b, c.

Trigonometry, like other branches of mathematics, was not the work of any one man, or nation.

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