SANGAM LITERATURE PDF
SANGAM LITERATLRE. Introducti on. Sangam literature is the earli~st extant literature of the Tamil people. According to tradition it consists of the compositions . Brahmi inscriptions dated to 3rd century BCE. ▻Possess the oldest literature among the Dravidian languages known as. 'Sangam' literature dated between 3rd. Sangam Literature – சாᵹேறா ெசᵼᶩᶀ பᵷᶞᵺபாᵵᶚ உைர. Books on Sangam Literature ெகாᵿலிᵺபாைவ. Sangam Poets and Poems.
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Script. South India during the Age of the Sangam Literature: Political, Socio- Economic and Cultural Profile. The earliest literature of South India is represented by. Sangam Literature as a source of evidence on India's trade with the Western World economy is the corpus of Tamil literature known as the "Sangam" literature. The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
The classification ties the emotions involved in akam poetry to a specific landscape.
These are: According to the compilers of the Sangam works such as Nakkeeran, the Tamil Sangams were academies, where Tamil poets and authors are said to have gathered periodically to publish their works. The legends claim that the Pandyan dynasty of the mythical cities of "South Madurai", Kapatapuram, and Madurai, patronized the three Sangams. While these claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers,  "Sangam literature" is still the preferred term for referring to the collection of Tamil works from the period BC to AD.
Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of 'Sangam literature' to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead.
The works of Sangam literature were lost and forgotten for several centuries before they were brought to light by several Tamil scholars, such as Arumuka Navalar , C.
Navalar and Pillai hailed from Jaffna. Navalar brought the first Sangam text into print; this was the Thirumurukaattuppadai one of the Ten Idylls , in Pillai brought out the first of the Eight Anthologies Ettuththokai of the Sangam classics, the Kaliththokai , in Swaminathaiyar published his first print of the Ten Idylls in They published more than works in all, including minor poems.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historic period of Tamil literature. Other schools. Teachers Acharyas. Tantra Shakta. Major texts. Main article: Sangam landscape. Tamil Sangams. Literature portal. Others cite as late as 2BCE. The date of BCE may represent a middle-of-the road consensus view; e.
However, it is quite likely that the songs existed in oral tradition well before this date. Subramanian Retrieved The six Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions of the 2nd century B.
The Ankle Bracelet. New Directions Publishing. An inscription of the early tenth century AD mentions the achievements of the early Pandya kings of establishing a Sangam in Madurai. See K. Book Review: A Brief History of India. Simon and Schuster. Kamil Zvelebil The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Tamil Literature. Handbook of Oriental Studies.
Meenakshi Sundaram History of Tamil Literature. Annamalai University. Tamil language.
Negombo Batticaloa Jaffna. Brahmin Tamil Arwi Malaysian Tamil. The king was responsible for maintaining the law and order in the state. He also looked after the welfare of his subjects, worked hard for their good and frequently toured the country to put things in order. The king also had recourse to advisers in the course of his administration. Chieftains This was not only a period of great kings but also of great chieftains who were subordinate to the kings. Some of them were great patrons of letters.
The later Sangam period witnessed greater consolidation of monarchical power with the reduction of the traditional chieftains to the position of royal officers. However, in the post-Sangam period the royal officers grew stronger and the centre became weak gradually.
Administration Now, let us discuss the administrative machinery as described by the Sangam texts. The policies of the king were controlled by a system of checks and balances in the councils.
This worked as an administrative machinery of the state. These two assemblies that of the Five and that of the Eight functioned as administrative bodies, though their function was generally advisory in character. However, their advice was rarely rejected by the king.
Tamil history from Sangam literature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.pdf
It is important to note that in spite of all the glory attached to the ancient king, the ethos of Indian administration has been in the direction of limited or popular monarchy. This can be observed in South India from very early times even more than in the north and each followed its own model of administration. Every local unit, however small and in whatever corner it was situated, was administered by a local assembly.
These can be taken to be the forerunner of our modern panchayat. Defence Major ruling dynasties and chieftains maintained large standing army.
Sometimes the wars occurred for matrimonial alliances. Such was the mental state of the people that almost everyone trained himself for war and besides the army maintained by the kings potential soldiers were all over the country to join the royal force in times of need.
Even kings trained themselves in such activities. The king maintained all the four kinds of armies mentioned in Sangam literature — the chariot, the elephant, the cavalry and the infantry. There are references to the navy of the Chera that guarded the sea-port so well that other ships could not enter the region.
The Sangam texts also mention about the army camp on the battle field. The camps of ordinary soldiers were generally built with the sugarcane leaves on the sides and cut paddy crop on the top with paddy hanging from it. Generals and officers of high rank were accompanied by their wives on the campaign and stayed in the special camps built for the officers.
The king frequently visited the camp of soldiers and officers to enquire about their welfare. He did so even in the night and in pouring rain.
Tamil people had a great respect for the warrior and particularly the hero who died in the battle field. Suffering a back-wound was considered as highly disreputable as there are instances of kings who died fasting because they had suffered such a wound in battle.
The herostones were erected to commemorate heroes who died in war. There was the provision for the prison which indicate the coercive machinery of the state. Sangam polity was influenced by the North Indian political ideas and institutions in many aspects. Many rulers sought their origin and association with deities like Siva, Vishnu and ancient sages.
Economy Agriculture The prosperity of people in the Sangam age was rooted in the fertility of agriculture and expansion of trade.
Agriculture was the main source of revenue for the state. The importance attached to cultivation is also seen in the interest people showed in cattle rearing. The Sangam poems frequently refer to milk and milk-products such as curd, butter, ghee and butter milk. The importance of cattle is also attested by the cattle raids on enemy country mentioned in the literary works.
One of the primary duties of the king was to protect the cattle of his kingdom. The cattle wealth in turn enhanced the wealth of the farmer. The paddy and sugarcane were the two important crops cultivated in a large quantity. The kings of the Sangam age took great measures for the development of agriculture. It is well-known that Karikala Chola dug tanks for irrigation and his embankment of the river Cauvery Kaveri proved to be very useful for agriculture.
Tank irrigation helped in feeding agriculture as mentioned in many poems. From the sources it is very evident that the prosperity of the king very much depended on the prosperity of the land.
Industry The Sangam age also witnessed the industrial activities on a large scale.
The poems refer to various kinds of craftsmen including the goldsmith, the blacksmith, the coppersmith, the potter, the sculptor, the painter and the weaver. The occupation or profession was generally hereditary or handed down from father to the son. This led to progress in various trades and industries and also resulted in making these men skilled in their art.
The art of building reached a high level during this period. In this context the works of carpenters are noteworthy. Moreover, the thriving trading activities with the Mediterranean world and other distant lands could have been facilitated only with well-built and highly seaworthy ships. Other building activities included the construction of moats, bridges, drainage, lighthouse, etc.
The walls of houses, roofs, dress, bed-spreads, curtains and many other articles of day-to-day use were painted and were in great demand.
The art of weaving, however, commanded popularity not only among the Tamils but also among the foreigners. Garments with woven floral designs are frequently mentioned in Sangam literature. The Indian silk, for its fineness, was in great demand by the Roman merchants.
Books on Sangam Literature _ Sangam Tamil Literature.pdf
However, the weaving industry was a domestic industry in which all the members of the family, especially women, took part. The leather-workers, potters and other craftsmen also contributed to the industrial development. But one of the most noteworthy fact in this regard is the introduction of Greek sculpture and other foreign workmanship into South India during this period. The Graeco-Roman influence in the contemporary period can also be seen in the sculptures of Amaravati Andhra Pradesh and Ceylon.
This period marked the height of the Indo-Roman trade. The archaeological excavations and explorations at various sites have also yielded the artefacts confirming to the trading relations between the Tamil regions and other countries. The discovery of coin hoards at many places also attest this fact. The Sangam texts mention prominently only the ports of Musiri, Puhar Kaveripattinam and Korkai, the three great ports of the three great rulers of the times. These included small coasting vessels, large coasting vessels and ocean-going ships.
The commodities exported to Rome fetched high returns. Living animals like tiger, leopard, monkeys and peacocks were exported to Rome.
The chief animal products of export included ivory and pearl. Plant products like aromatics and spices pepper, ginger, cardamom, cloves, nutmegs, etc. Mineral products like diamonds, beryl, steel, semiprecious stones, etc.
The main articles of import from Rome consisted of the coins, coral, wine, lead, tin and jewellery. The beads manufactured at many sites in South India in the contemporary period have been found at several sites of Southeast Asia. This suggests the maritime contacts between the two regions.
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There were settlements of the foreign traders in many towns. However, it was not only the external trade, which added to the prosperity of the Tamils. Internal trade also flourished in the region with local networks of trade connecting different urban centres. Besides the coastal ports or towns, the Tamil region also witnessed the growth of urban centres in the inland regions. While Korkai on the East Coast was famous for pearl fishing, Kodumanal in the interior part was known for its beryl.
However, the trade was not confined to cities alone.
The remotest villages were also linked with the trading network. The carts were the important mode of transport for inland trade. These were in use for either carrying goods or people including the traders. The trade was mostly conducted through barter.
However, the use of coins for trading purpose can not be ruled out even in the context of internal trade. Trade was a very important source of the royal revenue. Transit duties were collected from merchants who moved from one place to another. Spoils of war further added to the royal income. But the income from agriculture provided the real foundation of war and political set-up. However, the share of agricultural produce claimed and collected by the king is not specified.
Different kinds of people inhabited these various classified lands and developed certain fixed customs and ways of life as a result of their interaction with respective environment.
The ecological variations also determined their occupations such as hunting, cultivation, pastoralism, plunder, fishing, diving, sailing, etc. Social Composition Anthropological studies have shown that the earliest social element consisted of Negroid and Australoid groups with mixture of another racial stock which migrated from the earliest Mediterranean region.
In its early phase these societies had small population and social classes were unknown. As a result there existed great unity among the people of each region, who moved freely among themselves and their ruler. The existence of numerous tribes and chieftains was seen in the later half of the Sangam age. The prisoners of war were reduced to slavery.My earnest endea- vour is to narrate a brief account of the greatness of siddha medicine, from the ancient Tamil Literature.
The great siddha medicine. Agriculture was the main source of revenue for the state. Transit duties were collected from merchants who moved from one place to another. The art of medicine in India, has been purely associated with religion and philosophy and such is evidently based on truth.
He also looked after the welfare of his subjects, worked hard for their good and frequently toured the country to put things in order. Eighteen Greater Texts.