# SAE J941 PDF

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the location of drivers’ eyes inside a vehicle. Elliptical (eyellipse) models in three dimensions are used to represent tangent cutoff percentiles of driver eye locations. This document applies to Class A Vehicles (Passenger Cars. SAE J JUN SAE Recommended Practice. 3.' Report of the Body Engineering Committee, approved November , completely revised, Truck and Bus. This paper describes the development of the fixed seat eyellipse in the October revision of SAE. Recommended Practice J The eye locations of

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SEP Issued Revised Superseding J JUN (R) Motor Vehicle Drivers' Eye Locations Foreword—This SAE. twice as tall as the current J Class-B eyellipse, due to the incorporation .. During the s, another SAE-sponsored study of truck driver. sions of the SAE seat position and eyellipse models with the new tools developed in .. Comparison of SAE J and new UMTRI. 95th-percentile eyellipses for.

The only variable is the eyellipse cutoff percentile. The distributions along these two axes are modeled as single normal distributions with fixed standard deviations. Finding the axis endpoints is simply a matter of using the inverse normal cumulative distribution to solve for the cutoff points that exclude the appropriate proportion of the population. Equations A12 and A13 contain the specific formulas. A12 Eq. The boundaries may not be symmetrical around the reference centroid location.

Thus, the final centroid must be computed according to Equations A14 through A These equations place the final centroid in vehicle grid at the midpoint between the two side view axis cutoff points, and along the centerline of occupant. A14 Eq.

A15 Eq. A16 A. The user is cautioned that eyellipses derived in this way have not been verified with field testing. Mean Stature mm Data for Netherlands supplied by TNO. These anthropometric differences will likely require an adjustment to the location of their eyellipse centroid. Testing with Japanese drivers is necessary to derive or validate an equation for locating the centroid.

Similarly, because the Netherlands population is taller on average than the reference USA population, resulting in higher seated eye heights, a different equation for locating the eyellipse centroid may also be needed for that population.

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A17 Adjust the eyellipse centroid X value from the PRP using equation A5 which is based on the difference between average stature of the target population and average stature of USA population , as follows: A18 Table A3 gives the adjustments in centroid location from the USA centroid for a population having an equal mix of males and females, using anthropometry values from Table A1 and Equations A17, A Positive numbers are rearward and up from USA centroid. The only vehicle factor affecting location of the fixed seat eyellipse is the seat back angle, A Other seat adjustments are assumed fixed at the manufacturers design specifications.

These eyellipses are based on the user populations described in Table 1, Section 4. The 95th and 99th percent eyellipses are constructed from tables and equations described in Sections B. Fixed seat eyellipses for other percent tangent cutoffs and gender mixes can be calculated using procedures in Appendix C. If the seat has a fixed back angle with limited H-Point adjustment, or if both H-point and back angle are adjustable, there are no data available on which to base a procedure for selecting or locating an eyellipse.

See Equation B1 and Figure B1. The dimension code for seatback angle depends on the passenger seat position under study. A refers to passenger second row seating and A refers to passenger third row seating as defined in SAE J See Figure B1. B2 Eq. B3 Eq. L, W and H refers to second row passenger seating; L, W, and H refers to third row passenger seating. See Equation C1 and Figure B1.

Equations C2 and C3 are used to calculate the H-Point-to-eye-distance.

The mean and standard deviation of H-Point-to-eye distance define the two overlapping normal distributions for males and females. These distributions lie along the primary axis z of the fixed-seat eyellipse and embody the way in which driver population anthropometry affects the location and size in the z axis of the fixed-seat eyellipse.

C2 Eq. C3 Eq. C4 2 Eq. As in that procedure, the primary-axis length in this case, the eyellipse z axis is calculated by determining the cutoff values at the upper and lower ends of the distribution. The length of the primary eyellipse axis z is the difference between the upper and lower boundaries of HPoint-to-eye distance, CM and CF. C8 Eq. C6 Eq. H-point-to-eye angle is distributed normally with a standard deviation of 2. A radius at each boundary angle with length equal to the mean H-point-to-eye distance will end at the x-axis boundary of the fixed-seat eyellipse.

These radii are shown in Figure C1 as ru and rl, and the distance between their endpoints is the x-axis length.

This length is very close to the length of the arc between the endpoints, a value that can be calculated easily by multiplying the angle between the radii in radians by the radius length the mean H-point-to-eye distance. The procedure described in this paragraph is expressed mathematically in Equation C9 for a q-percentile ellipse. Eye location along the y-axis is modeled as a normal distribution with a fixed standard deviation of Thus, Equation C10 gives the y-axis length as a function of eyellipse percentile q.

C11 Eq.

## Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

C12 Eq. C13 Equations C6 to C13 define the parameters of the fixed-seat eyellipse for any adult population anthropometry. The shape of the eyellipse is the same across vehicles for the same adult population except for small differences in angle as a function of back angle. Whereas the adjustable seat eyellipse is defined relative to the pedal reference point, the fixed-seat eyellipse is expressed relative to SgRP, because the H-point is stationary when the seat and seatback are fixed see Appendix B.

To illustrate this in two dimensions, consider the side view of the eyellipse shown in Figure 4. For this reason the eyellipse is called a tangent cutoff ellipse.

If it is necessary to determine driver accommodation to a specific target above the header obstruction, a progressively smaller percentile eyellipse tangent cutoff contour would be constructed such that a tangent from the eyellipse to the target is tangent to the underside of the header. Tangent cut-off eyellipses presented in previous sections and appendices are used in various SAE J applications to describe sight line accommodation.

These are the most common and useful eyellipses for vehicle design. The percent of the population included inside any ellipse is always less than the tangent cut-off percentage for that ellipse. Table D1 lists a number of inclusive ellipses and their corresponding tangent cutoff eyellipse percentiles.

From the first 3 columns of Table D1 or D2, find the tangent cutoff eyellipse percentile that corresponds to the desired inclusive eyellipse percentile. Then, calculate the axes lengths for that tangent cutoff ellipse using the procedures described in Appendix A or C. Eyellipses can be constructed in three dimensions using the following information. The x-axis of both 95th and 99th eyellipses is about 25 mm longer for seat track travel in excess of mm.

The effect of the longer track travel is to stretch the front of the eyellipse forward in the workspace without changing the location of the rear. A single mid-eye centroid a cyclopean eye is located Use of the ellipsoidal surface gives the greatest accuracy.

All values are in millimeters except A40 which is in degrees. This standard is also available to be included in Standards Subscriptions. Standards Subscriptions from ANSI provides a money-saving, multi-user solution for accessing standards.

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Neck Pivot P Points—Locate these points relative to the cyclopean mid-eye eyellipse centroid using values given in Table 3. Px, Py, and Pz is the x,y,z coordinate of the P point, Ex, Ez is the x,z coordinate for the left and right eye point, El and Er are the y-coordinate of the left eye and right eye, respectively.

An R symbol to the left of the document title indicates a complete revision of the report. For larger or smaller percentages of females in the driver population, the eyellipse side view axis angle and centroid z location will be incorrect. In side view the angle of the eyellipse is given in Equation A1. The mean stature for the reference population is mm. L1 is the x coordinate of the PRP L6 is steering wheel center to PRP x distance W20 is the y coordinate of the seat centerline H8 is the z coordinate of the AHP H30 is the z-coordinate of the SgRP, measured vertically from AHPz and t is the transmission type 1 with clutch pedal, 0 without clutch pedal For seats with vertical adjustment, Equations A2 to A4 were developed with H30 set at the middle of the adjustment range.

A2 Eq. A3 Eq. Figures A1 and A2 illustrate the calculation of side view axis length. That is, two drivers with stature differing by 10 mm will, on average, have eyes located 4. Similarly, two populations with mean stature differing by 10 mm will, on average, have eyellipse centroids located 4.

Calculation of side view axis length takes into account the eye location distributions of two sub-populations of each driver population, one for males and one for females. Because males and females differ in average stature, their distributions will also differ in average location along the side view axis.

The process of determining side-axis length involves constructing the population eye-location distribution along that axis and then finding the upper and lower cutoff points that represent the boundaries of the eyellipse along the side view axis. The underlying distribution of eye locations in side view is a mixture of two normal distributions, one for males and one for females.

To simplify calculation of the boundaries, the reference centroid will be treated as the zero point along the side view axis, and the boundaries will be calculated as offsets from the reference. First, the centers of the male and female distributions relative to the reference should be calculated using Equations A5 and A6. M and F are the mean male and female eye centroids along the side view axis, relative to the reference centroid SM and SF are the mean male and female stature The standard deviation of each component distribution is calculated using Equations A7 and A8.

The two means and standard deviations define two overlapping normal distributions along the side view eyellipse x-axis Figure A2. These can then be used with Equations A9 and A10 to determine lower forward and upper rearward eyellipse boundaries. Breaking the equation down, the portion inside parentheses that appears twice in each equation is the z-score of the lower or upper boundary with respect to the male or female eyeposition distribution along the side view axis.

The cumulative normal distribution returns the proportion of the distribution that lies below forward of the upper or lower boundary. In Equation A9, for example, there is an expression for the proportion of the female population whose eyes lie below the lower cutoff, and an expression for the proportion of the male population whose eyes lie below the lower cutoff.

These proportions are then combined in a weighted average based on the relative proportions of males and females in the driver population. The last step is to compute x-axis length, which is simply the difference between CM and CF. A11 Eq. A9 Eq. A10 0. A5 Eq.

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A6 Eq. A7 2 Eq. The only variable is the eyellipse cutoff percentile.

## Application of slim A-pillar to improve driver’s field of vision

The distributions along these two axes are modeled as single normal distributions with fixed standard deviations. Finding the axis endpoints is simply a matter of using the inverse normal cumulative distribution to solve for the cutoff points that exclude the appropriate proportion of the population. Equations A12 and A13 contain the specific formulas.

A12 Eq. The boundaries may not be symmetrical around the reference centroid location. Thus, the final centroid must be computed according to Equations A14 through A These equations place the final centroid in vehicle grid at the midpoint between the two side view axis cutoff points, and along the centerline of occupant.

A14 Eq.

A15 Eq. A16 A. The user is cautioned that eyellipses derived in this way have not been verified with field testing.

## Sae j941motor vehicle drivers eye range sae

Mean Stature mm Data for Netherlands supplied by TNO. These anthropometric differences will likely require an adjustment to the location of their eyellipse centroid. Testing with Japanese drivers is necessary to derive or validate an equation for locating the centroid. Similarly, because the Netherlands population is taller on average than the reference USA population, resulting in higher seated eye heights, a different equation for locating the eyellipse centroid may also be needed for that population.

A17 Adjust the eyellipse centroid X value from the PRP using equation A5 which is based on the difference between average stature of the target population and average stature of USA population , as follows: A18 Table A3 gives the adjustments in centroid location from the USA centroid for a population having an equal mix of males and females, using anthropometry values from Table A1 and Equations A17, A Positive numbers are rearward and up from USA centroid.

The only vehicle factor affecting location of the fixed seat eyellipse is the seat back angle, A Other seat adjustments are assumed fixed at the manufacturers design specifications. These eyellipses are based on the user populations described in Table 1, Section 4. The 95th and 99th percent eyellipses are constructed from tables and equations described in Sections B. Fixed seat eyellipses for other percent tangent cutoffs and gender mixes can be calculated using procedures in Appendix C.

If the seat has a fixed back angle with limited H-Point adjustment, or if both H-point and back angle are adjustable, there are no data available on which to base a procedure for selecting or locating an eyellipse. See Equation B1 and Figure B1. The dimension code for seatback angle depends on the passenger seat position under study. A refers to passenger second row seating and A refers to passenger third row seating as defined in SAE J See Figure B1. B2 Eq.

B3 Eq. L, W and H refers to second row passenger seating; L, W, and H refers to third row passenger seating. See Equation C1 and Figure B1. Equations C2 and C3 are used to calculate the H-Point-to-eye-distance.

The mean and standard deviation of H-Point-to-eye distance define the two overlapping normal distributions for males and females. These distributions lie along the primary axis z of the fixed-seat eyellipse and embody the way in which driver population anthropometry affects the location and size in the z axis of the fixed-seat eyellipse.

C2 Eq. C3 Eq.A9 Eq. The largest horizontal field will be found between the sight line from the left eye to the farthest right side of the mirror and the sight line from the right eye to the farthest left side of the mirror.

If the A-Pillar is to the right of the driver. Figure 6 4. A14 Eq. SAE Most of the results are summarized in the foreword to this document.