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New Opportunities Opportunities Beginner Teacher's Book · Opportunities Beginner Mini-Dictionary Opportunities Intermediate Teacher's book. Elementary. New Opportunities Pre Intermediate Teacher's book Russian Ed. Юлия Малиновская. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can . Find new research papers in: Physics · Chemistry · Biology · Health Sciences · Ecology · Earth Sciences · Cognitive Science · Mathematics · Computer Science.
Teacher-guided books Some books are ideal resources for teachers. These books provide teachers with information and guidance not on the math topic, but they instruct how to teach it. This can be an ideal resource tool for teachers who would like to pursue new methods for teaching concepts.
These resources can be helpful at any time and can be used in or out of the classroom. It is an educational look at the importance of researchers, educators and the methods of improving math learning throughout the world.
The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics, by Stanislas Dehaene — This book explores how the mathematical mind works, from the time a child is an infant throughout life. It is a look at the way that math comes together with neurons in the development of people. Teaching Inclusive Mathematics to Special Learners, K-6, by Julie A Silva Spitzer — This book provides an opportunity to learn new strategies and techniques designed to help children who may be struggling to grasp math concepts.
It teaches ways to help children conquer math who otherwise are unable to do so. The math book collection for any elementary teacher needs to present opportunities for the teacher to grow and develop new teaching methods.
These are just some of the tools that a teacher will need. Learning to better the education the child receives is an ongoing process for even the best teachers. Books for students In that classroom math book collection, add books that are meant for kids to read. These books can explain complex topics or help to reduce frustrations over the concepts. The following books are great for students in elementary education: Bad Luck Brad Math Matters , written by Gail Herman, teaches probability.
It is a story-based book that can help students to grasp this complex topic. It is a good option for those in grades one and two who are learning the basics of probability. When districts do not find qualified teachers, they assign the least able individuals to the students with the least political clout.
In , for example, the Los Angeles City School District was sued by students in predominantly minority schools because their schools were not only overcrowded and less well funded than other schools, they were also disproportionately staffed by inexperienced and unprepared teachers hired on emergency credentials Rodriguez et al.
Consent decree filed August 12, In , students in California's predominantly minority schools were 10 times more likely to have uncertified teachers than those in predominantly white schools Shields et al.
A growing body of research suggests that inequitable distributions of qualified teachers are a major cause of the achievement gap. Recent studies have found that differential teacher effectiveness is an extremely strong determinant of differences in student learning, far outweighing the effects of differences in class size and heterogenity.
These studies also find evidence of bias in assignment of students to teachers of different effectiveness levels, including indications that African American students are nearly twice as likely to be assigned to the most ineffective teachers and about half as likely to be assigned to the most effective teachers.
Analyzing a data set covering Texas school districts, Ronald Ferguson found that the single most important measurable cause of increased student learning was teacher expertise, measured by teacher performance on a state certification exam, along with teacher experience and master's degrees. Holding socioeconomic status SES constant, the wide variation in teachers' qualifications in Texas accounted for almost all of the variation in black and white students' test scores.
That is, after controlling for SES, black students' achievement would have nearly equaled that of whites if they had been assigned equally qualified teachers. Other data also indicate that black students are more likely to attend large schools than white students Paterson Institute, , with much larger than average class sizes NCES, a, p.
A , and confirm that smaller schools and classes make a difference for student achievement for a review, see Darling-Hammond, These findings are confirmed elsewhere.
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For example, in North Carolina, Strauss and Sawyer found a strong influence on average school district test performance of teachers' average scores on the National Teacher Examinations NTE measuring subject matter and teaching knowledge.
Student test scores 5th grade math by effectiveness level of teachers over a three-year period, for two metropolitan school systems. Sanders and J. Cumulative and Residual Effects of more Of the inputs which are potentially policy-controllable teacher quality, teacher numbers via the pupil-teacher ratio and capital stock our analysis indicates quite clearly that improving the quality of teachers in the classroom will do more for students who are most educationally at risk, those prone to fail, than reducing the class size or improving the capital stock by any reasonable margin which would be available to policy makers p.
In this study's estimate of the achievement gains associated with expenditure increments, spending on teacher education swamped other variables as the most productive investment for schools. Unfortunately, policymakers have nearly always been willing to fill teaching vacancies by lowering standards so that people who have had little or no preparation for teaching can be hired, especially if their clients are minority and low-income students. As Evertson and colleagues concluded: T he available research suggests that among students who become teachers, those enrolled in formal preservice preparation programs are more likely to be effective than those who do not have such training.
Moreover, almost all well planned and executed efforts within teacher preparation programs to teach students specific knowledge or skills seem to succeed, at least in the short run p. Most important, their students learn at lower levels See figure 3.
Hawk, C. Coble, and M. Certification: It Does Matter. Journal of Teacher Education, 36 3 May—June ; more Teacher expertise and curriculum quality are interrelated, because expert teachers are a prerequisite for the successful implementation of challenging curriculum. Teacher education is also related to the use of teaching strategies that encourage higher-order learning and the use of strategies responsive to students' needs and learning styles. Thus, policies that resolve shortages in poor districts by hiring unprepared teachers serve only to exacerbate the inequalities low-income and minority children experience.
He found that differences in reading outcomes among students were almost entirely explained not by socioeconomic status or race, but by the quality of instruction the students received: Our evidence shows that the level of learning responds strongly to the quality of instruction: having and using enough time, covering a substantial amount of rich curricular material, and matching instruction appropriately to the ability levels of groups…When black and white children of comparable ability experience the same instruction, they do about equally well, and this is true when the instruction is excellent in quality and when it is inadequate p.
However, the study also found that the quality of instruction received by African-American students was, on average, much lower than that received by white students, thus creating a racial gap in aggregate achievement at the end of first grade.
In fact, the highest ability group in Dreeben's sample was in a school in a low-income, African-American neighborhood. These students, though, learned less during first grade than their lower-aptitude white counterparts because their teacher was unable to provide the quality instruction this talented group deserved. The National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP has documented that the qualifications and training of students' teachers are among the correlates of reading achievement.
Students of teachers who are fully certified, who have master's degrees, and who have had professional coursework in literature-based instruction do better on reading assessments. Furthermore, teachers who have had more professional coursework are more likely to use an approach that integrates literature and writing, which is associated with stronger achievement.
For example, teachers with more staff development hours in reading are much more likely to use a wide variety of books, newspapers, and materials from other subject areas and to engage students in regular writing, all of which are associated with higher reading achievement.
They are also less likely to use reading kits, basal readers, and workbooks which are associated with lower levels of reading achievement NAEP, Most studies have estimated effects statistically based on natural occurrences of different tracking policies. Another study of African-American high school youth randomly placed in public housing in the Chicago suburbs rather than in the city, found similar results.
Compared to their comparable city-placed peers who were of equivalent income and initial academic attainment, the students who were enabled to attend largely white and better-funded suburban schools had better educational outcomes across many dimensions.
These examples are drawn from carefully controlled studies that confirm what many other studies have suggested. The Unequal Distribution Of Teachers Minority and low-income students in urban settings are most likely to find themselves in classrooms staffed by inadequately prepared, inexperienced, and ill-qualified teachers because funding inequities, distributions of local power, labor market conditions, and dysfunctional hiring practices conspire to produce teacher shortages of which they bear the brunt.
By every measure of qualifications, unqualified and underprepared teachers continue to be found disproportionately in schools serving greater numbers of low-income or minority students NCES, a. The vast majority of these teachers were assigned to the most disadvantaged schools in central city and poor rural school districts. Districts with the greatest concentrations of poor children, minority children, and children of immigrants are also those where incoming teachers are least likely to have learned about up-to-date teaching methods or about how children grow, learn, and develop—and what to do if they are having difficulties.
In addition, when faced with shortages, districts often hire substitutes, assign teachers outside their fields of qualification, expand class sizes, or cancel course offerings. No matter what strategies are adopted, the quality of instruction suffers. This situation is partly a function of real shortages, but it is also due to urban district hiring practices that are often cumbersome, poorly managed, insensitive to teacher qualifications, and delayed by seniority transfer rules and a variety of other self-inflicted procedures National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, This adds additional problems of staff instability to the already difficult circumstances in which central city youth attend school.
Where these practices persist, many children in central city schools are taught by a parade of short-term substitute teachers, inexperienced teachers without support, and underqualified teachers who are not really familiar with either their subject matter or effective methods. The California Commission on the Teaching Profession concluded that disproportionate numbers of minority and poor students are taught throughout their entire school careers by the least qualified teachers.
This sets up the school failure that society predicts for them. Oakes' nationwide study of the distribution of mathematics and science opportunities confirmed these pervasive patterns.
Based on teacher experience, certification status, preparation in the discipline, degrees, self-confidence, and teacher and principal perceptions of competence, it is clear that low-income and minority students have less contact with the best-qualified science and mathematics teachers.
Oakes concluded: Our evidence lends considerable support to the argument that low-income, minority, and inner-city students have fewer opportunities…They have considerably less access to science and mathematics knowledge at school, fewer material resources, less-engaging learning activities in their classrooms, and less-qualified teachers… p.
Access to High-Quality Curriculum In addition to being taught by teachers less qualified than those of their white and suburban counterparts, urban and minority students face dramatic differences in courses, curriculum materials, and equipment. Unequal access to high-level courses and challenging curriculum explains much of the difference in achievement between minority students and white students. These data also demonstrate that for students of all racial and ethnic groups, course taking is strongly related to achievement.
For students with similar course taking records, achievement test score differences by race or ethnicity narrow substantially Jones, ; College Board, , p. One source of inequality is the fact that high-minority schools are much less likely to offer advanced and college preparatory courses in mathematics and science than are schools that serve affluent and largely white populations of students Matthews, ; Oakes, Schools serving predominantly minority and poor populations offer fewer advanced courses and more remedial courses in academic subjects, and they have smaller academic tracks and larger vocational programs NCES, ; Rock et al.
The size and rigor of college preparatory programs within schools vary with the race and socioeconomic status of school populations California State Department of Education, As plaintiffs noted in the New Jersey school finance case, wealthy and predominantly white Montclair offers foreign languages at the preschool level, while poor and predominantly black Paterson does not offer any until high school— and then, relatively few.
When high-minority, low-income schools offer any advanced or college preparatory courses, they offer them to only a very tiny fraction of students. Thus, at the high school level, African American, Hispanics, and Native Americans have traditionally been underrepresented in academic programs and overrepresented in general education or vocational education programs, where they receive fewer courses in areas such as English, mathematics, and science College Board, The unavailability of teachers who could teach these upper-level courses, or who can successfully teach heterogeneous groups of students, reinforces these inequalities in access to high-quality curricula.
Scarce resources tend to get allocated to the students whose parents, advocates, or representatives have the most political clout. This results, not entirely but disproportionately, in the most highly qualified teachers teaching the most enriched curricula to the most advantaged students.
Evidence suggests that teachers themselves are tracked, with those judged to be the most competent, experienced, or with the highest status assigned to the top tracks Rosenbaum, ; Finley, ; Davis, ; Oakes, ; Talbert, ; NCTAF, Tracking in U.
Starting in elementary schools with the designation of instructional groups and programs based on test scores and recommendations, it becomes highly formalized by junior high school.
The result of this practice is that challenging curricula are rationed to a very small proportion of students, and far fewer of our students ever encounter the types of curricula that students in other countries typically experience McKnight et al. Although test scores and prior educational opportunities partially explain these differential placements, race and socioeconomic status play a distinct role.
Even after test scores are controlled, race and socioeconomic status determine assignments to high school honors courses Gamoran, , as well as vocational and academic programs and more or less challenging courses within them Useem, ; Oakes, Yet the distinguishing feature of such programs, particularly at the elementary level, is not their difficulty, but their quality.
Students in these programs are given opportunities to integrate ideas across fields of study.
They have opportunities to think, write, create, and develop projects. They are challenged to explore. Though virtually all students would benefit from being similarly challenged, the opportunity for this sort of schooling remains acutely restricted. Presentations are less clear and less focused on higher-order cognitive goals Oakes, In addition, many studies have found that students placed in the lowest tracks or in remedial programs—disproportionately low-income and minority students—are most apt to experience instruction geared only to multiple-choice tests, working at a low cognitive level on test-oriented tasks that are profoundly disconnected from the skills they need to learn.
The fact that U. If the academic outcomes for minority and low-income children are to change, reforms must alter the caliber and quantity of learning opportunities they encounter. These efforts must include equalization of financial resources, changes in curriculum and testing policies, and improvements in the supply of highly qualified teachers to all students. Resource Equalization Progress in equalizing resources to students will require attention to inequalities at all levels—between states, among districts, among schools within districts, and among students differentially placed in classrooms, courses, and tracks that offer substantially disparate opportunities to learn.
Special programs such as compensatory or bilingual education will never be effective at remedying underachievement as long as these services are layered on a system that so poorly educates minority and low-income children to begin with. The schools serving large concentrations of low-income and minority students are generally not fine, and many of their problems originate with district and state policies and practices that fund them inadequately, send them incompetent staff, require inordinate attention to arcane administrative requirements that fragment educational programs and drain resources from classrooms, and preclude the adoption of more promising curriculum and teaching strategies.
In the pursuit of equity, our goal should be to develop strategies that improve the core practices of schooling rather than layering additional programs and regulations on foundations that are already faulty. The pressures to respond to special circumstances with special categorical programs are great, and the tradition of succumbing to those pressures in an add-on fashion is well established, in education as in other areas of national life. But special programs, with all their accoutrements of new rules and procedures, separate budgets, and fragmented, pull-out programs will be counterproductive as long as the status quo remains unchanged in more significant ways.
Among these vital services, perhaps the most important is highly qualified teachers, not just for specific Chapter 1 services but for all classrooms.
Ferguson's recommendation that equalization focus on district capacity to hire high-quality teachers is an important one. In addition to the weight of evidence indicating the central importance of qualified teachers to student learning, there is real-world experience with the positive effects on teacher quality and distribution of such policies.
When Connecticut raised and equalized beginning teacher salaries under its Education Enhancement Act, shortages of teachers including those that had plagued urban areas evaporated. By , most teaching fields showed surpluses. The state raised standards for teacher education and licensing, initiated scholarships and forgivable loans to recruit high-need teachers into the profession including teachers in shortage fields, those who would teach in high-need locations, and minority teachers , created a mentoring and assessment program for all beginning teachers, and invested money in high-quality professional development, with special aid to low-achieving districts.
The state also developed a low-stakes, performance-oriented assessment program focused on higher-order thinking and performance skills, which is used to provide information to schools and districts, but not to punish children or teachers. By , Connecticut had surpassed all other states in 4th grade reading and mathematics achievement on the NAEP and scored at the top in 8th grade mathematics, science, and writing.
The new wave of school finance lawsuits that are challenging both within state and within district resource allocation disparities are also promising. These suits are increasingly able to demonstrate how access to concrete learning opportunities is impaired by differential access to money, and how these learning opportunities translate into academic achievement for students.
Such cases are requiring remedies that link levels of funding to minimum standards of learning and teaching. Opportunity to Learn Standards The idea of opportunity to learn standards was first articulated by the National Council on Education Standards and Testing NCEST , which argued for student performance standards but acknowledged they would result in greater inequality if not accompanied by policies ensuring access to resources, including appropriate instructional materials and well-prepared teachers NCEST, , E12—E The Commission's Assessment Task Force proposed that states collect evidence on the extent to which schools and districts provide opportunity to learn the curricula implied by standards as a prerequisite to using tests for school graduation or other decisions NCEST, , F17—F Opportunity-to-learn standards would establish, for example, that if a state's curriculum frameworks and assessments outlined standards for science learning that require laboratory work and computers, specific coursework, and particular knowledge for teaching, resources must be allocated and policies must be fashioned to provide for these entitlements.
Such a strategy would leverage both school improvement and school equity reform, providing a basis for state legislation or litigation where opportunities to learn were not adequately funded.
Opportunity-to-learn standards would define a floor of core resources, coupled with incentives for schools to work toward professional standards of practice that support high-quality learning opportunities.
Such standards would provide a basis for: state legislation and, if necessary, litigation that supports greater equity in funding and in the distribution of qualified teachers; information about the nature of the teaching and learning opportunities made available to students in different districts and schools across the state; incentives for states and school districts to create policies that ensure adequate and equitable resources, curriculum opportunities, and teaching to all schools; a school review process that helps schools and districts engage in self-assessments and external reviews of practice in light of standards; and identification of schools that need additional support or intervention to achieve adequate opportunities to learn for their students.
Curriculum and Assessment Reform As noted above, the curriculum offered to many students—and to most African American students—in U. These new standards will require students to be able to engage in independent analysis and problem solving, extensive research and writing, use of new technologies, and various strategies for accessing and using resources in new situations. Major changes in curriculum and resources will be needed to ensure that these kinds of activities are commonplace in the classrooms of minority students and others.
They are unlikely to pay off, however, unless other critical changes are made in curriculum, in the ways students are tracked for instruction, and the ways teachers are prepared and supported.
Although mounting evidence indicates that low-tracked students are disadvantaged by current practice and that high-ability students do not benefit more from homogeneous classrooms Slavin, , the long-established American tracking system will be difficult to reform until there is an adequate supply of well-trained teachers—teachers who are both prepared to teach the more advanced curriculum that U. Other important changes concern the types and uses of achievement tests in U.
As a study of the implementation of California's new mathematics curriculum framework points out, when a curriculum reform aimed at problem solving and higher-order thinking skills encounters an already mandated rote-oriented basic skills testing program, the tests win out Cohen et al. As one teacher put it: Teaching for understanding is what we are supposed to be doing… but the bottom line here is that all they really want to know is how are these kids doing on the tests?
Students in schools that organize most of their efforts around the kinds of low-level learning represented by commercially developed multiple-choice tests will be profoundly disadvantaged when they encounter more rigorous evaluations that require greater analysis, writing, and production of elaborated answers. Initiatives in some states e. An equally important issue is how tests are used.
If new assessments are used, like current tests are, primarily for sorting, screening, and tracking, the quality of education for minority students is unlikely to improve.
Qualitatively better education will come only from developing and using assessment not for punishment but as a tool for identifying student strengths and needs as a basis for adapting instruction more successfully Glaser, , The outcomes of the current wave of curriculum and assessment reforms will depend in large measure on the extent to which developers and users of new standards and tests use them to improve teaching and learning rather than merely reinforcing our tendencies to sort and select those who will get high-quality education from those who will not.
They will also need to pursue broader reforms to improve and equalize access to educational resources and support the professional development of teachers, so that new standards and tests are used to inform more skillful and adaptive teaching that enables more successful learning for all students. Investments in Quality Teaching A key corollary to this analysis is that improved opportunities for minority students will rest, in large part, on policies that professionalize teaching by increasing the knowledge base for teaching and ensuring mastery of this knowledge by all teachers permitted to practice.
This means providing all teachers with a stronger understanding of how children learn and develop, how a variety of curricular and instructional strategies can address their needs, and how changes in school and classroom practices can support their growth and achievement. There are two reasons for this approach. First, the professionalization of an occupation raises the floor below which no entrants will be admitted to practice.
It eliminates practices that allow untrained entrants to practice disproportionately on underserved and poorly protected clients. The students who have, in general, the poorest opportunities to learn—those attending the inner-city schools that are compelled by the current incentive structure to hire disproportionate numbers of substitute teachers, uncertified teachers, and inexperienced teachers and that lack resources for mitigating the uneven distribution of good teaching—are the students who will benefit most from measures that raise the standards of practice for all teachers.
They will also benefit from targeted policies that provide quality preparation programs and financial aid for highly qualified prospective teachers who will teach in central cities and poor rural areas. Providing equity in the distribution of teacher quality requires changing policies and long-standing incentive structures in education so that shortages of trained teachers are overcome, and that schools serving low-income and minority students are not disadvantaged by lower salaries and poorer working conditions in the bidding war for good teachers.
Building and sustaining a well-prepared teaching force will require local, state, and federal initiatives. States should also strengthen teacher education and certification. It has long been used as a revenue producer for programs that train engineers, accountants, lawyers, and doctors.
Rather than bemoaning the quality of teacher training, policy makers should invest in its improvement, require schools of education to become accredited, and insist that teachers pass performance examinations for licensing that demonstrate they can teach well. Shortages should be met by enhanced incentives rather than by lowering standards, especially for those who teach children in central cities and poor rural schools.
The federal government can play a leadership role in providing an adequate supply of well-qualified teachers just as it has in providing an adequate supply of qualified physicians. When shortages of physicians were a major problem more than 30 years ago, Congress passed the Health Professions Education Assistance Act to support and improve the caliber of medical training, to create and strengthen teaching hospitals, to provide scholarships and loans to medical students, and to create incentives for physicians to train in shortage specialties and to locate in underserved areas.
Similarly, federal initiatives in education should seek to: 1. Recruit new teachers, especially in shortage fields and in shortage locations, through scholarships and forgivable loans for high-quality teacher education. Strengthen and improve teachers' preparation through improvement incentive grants to schools of education and supports for licensing reform.
This would include funding mentoring programs for new teachers in which they receive structured coaching from expert veterans. If the interaction between teachers and students is the most important aspect of effective schooling, then reducing inequality in learning has to rely on policies that provide equal access to competent, well-supported teachers. The public education system ought to be able to guarantee that every child who is forced by law to go to school is taught by someone who is knowledgeable, competent, and caring.
That is real accountability. As Carl Grant put it: Teachers who perform high-quality work in urban schools know that, despite reform efforts and endless debates, it is meaningful curricula and dedicated and knowledgeable teachers that make the difference in the education of urban students p.
When it comes to equalizing opportunities for students to learn, that is the bottom line. Selection and allocation within schools: Some causes and consequences of curriculum placement. American Sociological Review, 41, pp. Ashton, P. Does teacher certification make a difference? Florida Journal of Teacher Education, 38 3 , pp.
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Systematic study of planned variations: The essential focus of teacher education reform. Journal of Teacher Education, 38, pp. Baron, J. Exploring high and improving reading achievement in Connecticut. Barr, R. How schools work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Barton, Paul E. Captive students: Education and training in America's prisons. Princeton, N. Bents, M. Perceptions of good teaching among novice, advanced beginner and expert teachers.
Berne, R. Educational input and outcome inequities in New York State. Berne, editor; and L. Picus, editor. ThousandOaks, CA. Bledsoe, J. Comparison between selected characteristics and performance of provisionally and professionally certified beginning teachers in Georgia. Washington, D. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. California Commission on the Teaching Profession Who will teach our children?
Sacramento: California Commission on the Teaching Profession. California State Department of Education California high school curriculum study: Path through high school. Sacramento: California State Department of Education. Carter, K. Teachers' knowledge structures and comprehension processes. Calderhead, editor.
London: Cassell. Cohen, D. College Board Equality and excellence: The educational status of black Americans.
Commission on Chapter 1 High performance schools: No exceptions, no excuses. Cooper, E. Addressing urban school reform: Issues and alliances. Journal of Negro Education, 58 3 , pp.
Copley, P. A study of the effect of professional education courses on beginning teachers. ED — Darling-Hammond, L. Teacher quality and equality. Keating, editor. Teaching and knowledge: Policy issues posed by alternate certification for teachers. Peabody Journal of Education, 67 3 , pp. The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that work.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Traditions of curriculum inquiry: The scientific tradition. Jackson, editor. New York: Macmillan. Davis, D. A pilot study to assess equity in selected curricular offerings acrossthree diverse schools in a large urban school district.
Doyle, W. Content representation in teachers' definitions of academic work.
Journal of Curriculum Studies, 18, pp. Dreeben, R. Closing the divide: What teachers and administrators can do to help black students reach their reading potential, American Educator, 11 4 , pp.
Class composition and the design of instruction. Race, instruction, and learning. American Sociological Review, 51 5 , pp. Druva, C. Science teacher characteristics by teacher behavior and by student outcome: A meta-analysis of research.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20 5 , pp.
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Ebmeier, H. The comparability and adequacy of financial support for schools of education. Journal of Teacher Education, 42 3 : pp.
Eckstrom, R. Ability grouping in middle grade mathematics: Process and consequences. Research in Middle Level Education, 15 1 , pp. Educational Testing Service The state of inequality. Evertson, C.
Making a difference in educational quality through teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 36 3 , pp. Ferguson, R.What happens with computers in this sense? Cooper, E. He noticed that no one of his students addressed a foreigner.
Then you can self publish it as a book or ebook. His argument 6 seems astonishing: behaving like psychologists and mainly epistemologists puts a child into a clear adult state of consciousness.