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NBIC CODE PDF

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National Board Inspection Code NBIC Part 1This part provides requirements and guidelines for the installation of power boilers, steam. National Board Inspection Code (NBIC). • The purpose of the NBIC is to maintain the integrity of pressure-retaining items after fabrication by providing common. LEGALLY BINDING DOCUMENTUnited States of AmericaAll citizens and residents are hereby advised that this is a legally binding document.


Nbic Code Pdf

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to boilers and pressure vessels. The National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) Committee is charged with the responsibility for maintaining and revising the NBIC. Documents Similar To ANSI-NB - National Board Inspection Code. NBIC .pdf. Uploaded by. superdick Nbic Part 3 Repairs and Alterations. NBIC-PartInspectionpdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or Vessel Code, Sections I, IV, VIII, and X are used with the permission of the.

NBBI NB 23 (NBIC) HC+PDF

Ralph P Pate Alaska.. Anthony Scholl Manitoba Joel T Kotb Saskatchewan John F Steve Nelson Delaware Burns Georgia Milton Washington New York Matthias Mailman Nova Scotia Benjamin Crawford Hawaii Nathaniel Smith Rhode Island Karl J Hannon California Ronald Brockman Nebraska Rodney Handy Louisiana John E Larry Leet Alberta John Esch Florida Amato Mississippi Matthew Sansone North Carolina Terrence Hellman Oregon Ronald W Mark Perdue Pennsylvania Michael Adams Prince Edward Island Kraft Massachusetts Michael J Donald C Christopher B Dennis R Watson Missouri Kawa Jr Porcella Wisconsin Jillian Klug New York Ryan Detroit Aaron Lorimor Texas William McGivney Seattle Edward S Austin Arkansas Darrell Mallory New Jersey Rob Troutt Utah Sturm Virginia Edward G Michael A Burpee Maryland Steven Townsend Quebec Chris Fulton Arizona Spiker South Dakota Eben L Cortney Jackson Los Angeles Cook Colorado Clayton Novak Iowa Tony Oda West Virginia Kenneth L Julius Dacanay Illinois Reyes Milwaukee Gary Schultz New Hampshire Mark Moore Minnesota Richards P.

Webb M. Pulliam B. Riley S. Vice Chair R. Staniszewski Jr. Chair V. Schulte D. Pillow B. Sekely P. Bourgeois Users Travelers J. Simmons G. Trout L. Moore J. Secretary J. Wadkinson Trinity Industries. Welch Arise. US Department of Transportation J. Riley Phillips 66 J. Bourgeois T. MacDonald Co.

Konopacki M. Chair M. Horbaczewski P. Newton K. Fulton Boiler Works. Halley D. Vice Chair S. Schwartzwalder AEP T. McRae M. Vandini Quality Steel Corporation P. Pate E. Babcock and Wilcox Construction Company. Anthony B. McCaffrey L. Amato State of Minnesota B. Bramucci Dowco Valve Company. Chair Parts 1. Seattle Boiler Works. Beise A. Hopkins E. Secretary National Board J. DeMichael C. Secretary National Board T. Miletti Allied Valve.

Dobbins W. McHugh R. Troutt State of Texas M. Ortman Praxair. Chair CCR J. Alstom Power Inc. Renaldo E.

Joe Moore Company T. Simmons B. Sekely Welding Services. Jones Zurich N. Vice Chair Industrial Value W. Donalson J. Patel B. Nutter K. Alstom Power M. Moore E. Brodeur P. Welch M. Secretary D. Hopkins V. Creacy G. Vice Chair D. Konopacki R.

Wiggins A. Barker P. Paul Travelers Midwest Generation T. Halley M. Staniszewski H. Secretary R. Zurich N. Newton Seattle Boiler Works. Galanes XL Insurance America. Vandini P. Dobbins Fulton Boiler Works. Chair Worthington Cylinders J. Ford R. Millette J. Horbaczewski St. One CIS S. Diamond Technical Services.

Canonico C. State of New Jersey K. Bourgeois M. Amato State of Minnesota M. Chair R. Brantley G. Washington Arise. Morelock E. Beise Dowco Valve Company. McHugh K. Donalson Tyco Valves and Controls L. Anthony State of Rhode Island K.

Sekely Subgroup Graphite Welding Services. Joe Moore Company B. DeMichael Arise. Jones D. Larson R. Nutter B. Eastman Chemical T. Secretary National Board B. Johnson M. White D. Patel E. Vice Chair Industrial Value T. Secretary M. McCaffrey Quality Valve R. Common Arc Corporation K. Stupica Special Subgroups for Installation. Viet S. Renaldo J. Moore Allied Valve. Simmons R. Cummins R. Martinez FM Global R. NB F. Chair W. Pillow Praxair. Miletti Babcock and Wilcox Construction Company.

Bonn R. Use of these codes. Any inconsistency or discrepancy between the requirements of the NBIC and these inspection codes. The Inspector shall have a thorough knowledge of jurisdictional regulations where the item is installed.

There may be occasions where more detailed procedures will be required. The safety of the public and the Inspector is the most important aspect of any inspection activity.

National Board Inspection Code (NBIC)

Some examples are as follows: Suitable hearing protection should be used during testing because extremely high noise levels can damage hearing. AS Pressure equipment.

Pressure Vessel Examination r Institute of Petroleum. Extreme caution should be used when working around these devices due to hazards to person- nel.

In-Service Inspection. Repair and Alteration k American Petroleum Institute. Hazard levels u Alberta Boilers Safety Association.

In the absence of such rules. In addition. All applicable safety regulations shall be followed. Proper personal protective equipment shall be worn. In-service Inspection. Inspectors shall comply with plant safety rules associated with the equipment and area in which they are inspecting. This includes federal. Particular attention shall be afforded respiratory protection if the testing of the atmosphere of the object reveals any hazards.

This shall include: This Section describes pre-inspection and post-inspection activities applicable to all pressure-retaining items. Operation shall be conducted only by competent owner or user employees familiar with the equipment and qualified to perform such tasks.

The Inspector shall have the proper training governing the selection and use of any personal protective clothing and equipment necessary to safely perform each inspection. The owner or user and Inspector shall jointly determine that pressure-retaining items may be entered safely. This may include. The atmosphere shall be verified by the owner or user as directed by the Inspector. A plan may include the following. Use of a checklist to perform inservice inspections is recommended.

The plan identifies methods of examination. A formal inspection plan is a document providing the scope of inspection activities necessary to determine if in-service damage has occurred. This shall include a review of information such as: Section 4 for examples.

It may provide a time interval for external and internal inspection as well as describe methods of repair and maintenance for a PRI. Industry standards may be used to prepare an inspection plan. When a boiler is being prepared for internal inspection. A plan may be a simple single document or may be complex.

The means of isolating the vessel shall be in compliance with applicable occupational safety and health regulations and procedures.

Once a plan has been implemented. Any deviation from the planned intervals or inspection activities needs to be justified and documented. Vessel surfaces should be cleaned as necessary so as to preclude entrant exposure to any toxic or hazardous materials. Require- ments of occupational safety and health regulations i. During air purging and ventilation of vessels containing flammable gases. When toxic or flammable materials are involved. All necessary precau- tions shall be taken to eliminate the possibility of explosion or fire.

The temperature of the vessel shall be such that the inspecting personnel will not be exposed to excessive heat. For boilers or fired pressure vessels See 4. Additional monitoring of the PRI during a deferral period may be employed to better ensure safe PRI operation until the planned activity can be completed.

The pressure-re- taining item should be prepared in the following manner or as deemed necessary by the Inspector: Recent operating history e. Risk-Based Assessment may be included in a plan.

SECTION 1 f If requested by the Inspector or required by regulation or procedure, a responsible attendant shall remain outside the vessel at the point of entry while the Inspector is inside and shall monitor activity in- side and outside and communicate with the Inspector as necessary. The attendant shall have a means of summoning rescue assistance, if needed, and to facilitate rescue procedures for all entrants without personally entering the vessel.

NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE

If a vessel has not been properly prepared for an internal inspection, the Inspector shall decline to make the inspection. Follow-up inspections should be performed as needed to determine if deficiencies have been corrected satisfactorily. The Inspec- tor shall sign, date, and note any deficiencies, comments, or recommendations on the inspection report.

The Inspector should retain and distribute copies of the inspection report, as required. Supplement 9 of this part provides requirements and guidelines to be followed when a change of service or service type is made to a pressure-retaining item.

Whenever there is a change of service, the Jurisdiction where the pressure-retaining item is to be operated, shall be notified for acceptance, when applicable. Any specific jurisdictional requirements shall be met. Material conditioning such as cleaning, buffing, wire brushing, or grinding may be required by procedure or, if requested, by the Inspector. The Inspector may require insulation or component parts to be removed. This section provides guidelines for external and internal inspection of boilers used to contain pressure.

This pressure may be obtained from an external source or by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source or a combination thereof. The temperature and pressure at which they operate should be considered in establishing inspection criteria.

This part is provided for guidance of a general nature. A review of the known history of the boiler shall be performed. The general condition of the boiler room or boiler location should be assessed using appropriate jurisdictional requirements and overall engineering practice. Items that are usually considered are lighting, adequacy of ventilation for habitability, combustion air, housekeeping, personal safety, and general safety considerations.

The external inspection of a boiler is made to determine if it is in a condition to operate safely. Some items to consider are:. Particular attention should be paid to pressure relief devices and other safety controls;.

Alternatively, lines may be blanked or sections of pipe removed. Blowoff lines, where practi- cable, shall be disconnected between pressure parts and valves. All drains and vent lines shall be open. If a boiler has not been properly prepared for an internal inspection, the Inspector shall decline to make the inspection.

Where there is evidence of leakage showing on the covering, the Inspector shall have the covering removed in order that a thorough inspection of the area may be made. Such inspection may require removal of insulating material, masonry, or fixed parts of the boiler.

It can affect large areas, or it can be localized in the form of pitting. Isolated, shallow pitting is not considered serious if not active. Whenever possible. This is especially significant adjacent to riveted joints. In vertical firetube boilers. Grooving in the knuckles of such heads is common since there is slight movement in heads of this design. Oil or scale in the tubes of water- tube boilers is particularly detrimental since this can cause an insulating effect resulting in overheating.

Where active corrosion is found. Other means of examination. The Inspector should insert a mirror through an inspection opening to examine as much area as possible. Where tubes are readily accessible. Absence of proper baffling or defective baffling can cause high temperatures and overheat portions of the boiler. The location and condition of combustion arches should be checked for evidence of flame impingement.

Water should return to the gage-glass immediately. A sluggish response could indicate an obstruction in the pipe connections to the boiler. The position of the water column should be checked to determine that the column is placed in accordance with the original code of construction or jurisdictional requirements.

Any leakage at these fittings should be promptly corrected to avoid damage to the fittings or a false waterline indication. Defective gag- es shall be replaced. NB 2.

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The Inspector should check that provisions are made for blowing out the pipe leading to the steam gage. This test should shut off the heat source to the boiler. Verify that these activities are conducted at assigned intervals in accordance with a written procedure.

This should be done only after being assured that the water level gage glass is indicating correctly. When required by the Jurisdiction.

Where no frequencies are recommended or prescribed. Part 1. Where allowed by the jurisdiction. The return to normal condition such as the restart of the burner. These activities shall be conducted at a frequency recommended by the manufacturer or the frequency required by the jurisdiction.

Owners or users are responsible for establishing and implementing management programs which will ensure such action is taken. A sluggish response could indicate an obstruction in the connections to the boiler.

Documentation of compliance with these management systems and repairs is an essential element of demonstrating the effectiveness of such systems. Performance Evaluation may be used to increase or decrease the frequencies based on document review and approval by an appropriate engineer.

When required by the code of construction or the jurisdiction. The float chamber should be examined to ensure that it is free of sludge or other accumulation. NB j In the event controls are inoperative or the correct water level is not indicated. Any necessary corrective action shall be taken before the device is placed back into service.

Such repairs or alterations should be reviewed for compliance with the juris- dictional requirements. The following items are common areas of inspection: Expan- sion washers may be used and nuts should be just snugged allowing for expansion.

Look for rust trails left by weeping joints. Supply should be connected to a return pipe for tempering. Firetube boilers are found in a wide variety of applications ranging from heating to process steam to small power generation. Corrosion pitting on all pressure boundaries.

Steam capacities are generally less than Scale and corrosion buildup on stay rods hiding the actual diameter. Partial or complete removal of the refractory may be required for inspection purposes.

Firetube boilers are classified by the arrangement of the furnace and tubes such as Horizontal Return Tubular HRT boiler. They may be either low-pressure or high-pressure construction. The number of passes that the products of combustion make through the tubes is also used in classify- ing the type of boiler.

Condensation of combustion gas dripping out of the fireside gaskets during a cold boiler start-up is expected. A reduction in efficiency and hot spots may occur. Leakage or corrosion between sections will not allow normal expansion and contraction and that may cause cracking. Combustion of fuel takes place within the furnace area. When in doubt where the leakage is coming from. These rods must not carry any stress and need to be loose. Staybolt ends and the stayed plates should be examined to determine whether cracks exist.

The shell is supported by the brick work or by support beams that are connected by buckstays to suspension lugs mounted on the shell. Stays or staybolts that are not in tension or adjustment should be repaired.

Horizontal Return Tubular boilers consist of a cylindrical shell with flat tube sheets on the ends. The rear door may be either a dry refractory lined design dry back or a water-cooled wet back design.

Flat-end tubesheet surfaces are supported by various methods: Two designs of the furnace are commonly used: A Firetube Scotch Marine boiler consists of a horizontal cylindrical shell with an internal furnace. The lower portion of the shell is enclosed by refractory brick work forming the furnace of the boiler.

Staybolts with telltale holes should be examined for evidence of leakage. Tubes may be rolled. It must be protected with a refractory baffle to prevent direct contact with the products of com- bustion. Another area of concern is the bottom blowdown line. For steam applications. Currently both the wet back design and the dry back design can be found in stationary applications.

The tubes occupy the lower two-thirds of the shell with a steam space above the tubes. Broken stays or staybolts shall be replaced. These tube ends should be closely examined to determine if there has been a serious reduction in thickness. This type of boiler is highly susceptible to overheating of the lower portion of the shell due to scale accumulation that prevents heat transfer from the shell to the water.

Broken staybolts shall be replaced. An unbroken bolt should give a ringing sound while a broken bolt will give a hollow or non-responsive sound. There are several different types of firetube boilers: The tube surfaces in some vertical tube boilers are more suscepti- ble to deterioration at the upper ends when exposed to the heat of combustion. The FTSM boiler design is one of the oldest firetube boiler designs with internal furnaces.

Another potential problem is deterioration of the furnace brickwork. Each staybolt end should be checked for excessive cold working heading and seal welds as evidence of a possible leakage problem. Fire- tube Scotch Marine boilers are used for both high-pressure and low-pressure steam applica- tions and are also used for hot-water service. Fuel is burned in the furnace with the products of combustion making two.

The fuels burned in watertube boilers may contain ash.

The handholes in the water legs should be open during an internal inspection. They range in size and pressure from small package units to ex- tremely large field-erected boilers with pressures in excess of 3.

The abrasive action of the ash in high-velocity flue gas can quickly erode boiler tubes. This design saw limited stationary applications and few remain in service today. Besides interfering with water flow. A leak from a tube frequently causes serious corrosion or erosion on adjacent tubes.

HRT boilers were quite common in the early to-mids. The burner may be located on the top or bottom of the boiler. Vertical firetube boilers are found in many high. Due to their small size and frequent application where considerable makeup water is used.

These boilers may be fired by many types of fuels such as wood. The boilers may be two-.

NBIC-Part-2-Inspection-2015.pdf

These boilers are frequently of rivet- ed construction. Their size and type of construction poses mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses.

Units that are still in service are typi- cally found in old industrial facilities and are generally only used for steam heating applications. An FTFB boiler consists of an external furnace that is enclosed by water legs on three or four sides. See Supplement 1 for detailed drawings. Most are of riveted construction.

Flat heads are used on both ends of the boiler shell. The water legs extend upward to the crownsheet to form the lower part of the boiler shell while the upper part of the shell is formed by the extension of the water leg outer shell. Tubes may become thinned by high velocity impingement of fuel and ash particles or by the improper installation or use of soot blowers.

Firetube Fire Box boilers were popular in the mids. The design is quite inefficient due to the one pass design and the large amount of brickwork that is heated by the products of combustion. HRT boilers were originally used for both high-pressure and low-pressure steam applications.

Since the water legs of FTFB boilers are the lowest point of the water side. If a temperature differential is created within the coil. Check header seals for gasket leakage.

Inspect supply piping to the soot blowers for faulty supports. These elements will scale sooner and at a faster rate than internal sur- faces. These boilers may be used in either high-or low-pressure steam or hot water applications. Such deposits are likely to cause corro- sion if moisture is present. Check design for proper installation to allow for complete drainage of condensate. Creation of steam. This type of heater has very little volume and may be used in conjunction with a hot-water storage vessel.

There is a tendency for unburned solid fuel and ash to collect in these dead air spaces which may limit the ability to inspect these spaces for corrosion. These dead air spaces should be thoroughly cleaned and examined.

Excessive weight puts severe stress on the attachment fittings and welds at support points. NB e In restricted fireside spaces. These dead air spaces include the penthouse. This design utilizes a coil through which the water being heated is passed. Inspect blowdown piping and connections for expansion and flexibility.

Some thermal fluid heaters operate at atmospheric pressure. Leaks within a fired heater can result in destruc- tion of the heater. Scale and sludge can also shield temperature control probes. Leaks in external piping can result in fire and may result in an explosion. To heat water to those temperatures would require pressures of at least 1.

Water accumulation in a thermal heating system may cause upsets and possible fluid release from the system if the water contacts heated fluid remember. The heaters are commonly direct-fired by combustion of a fuel or by electric resistance ele- ments. Any buildup can cause overheating and failure of the metal in this area. The fluids are typically flammable.

Heater design may be similar to an electric resistance heated boiler. These heaters should be insulat- ed and fitted with an outer jacket and may be lined with porcelain. Depending on process heating requirements. Over- heating and pressure boundary failure may result. Many chemical plants use this type of heater in jacketed reactors or other types of heat exchangers. The fluids that become viscous will also become difficult to pump when cooled. If the fluid begins to break down.

Materials — For some thermal fluids. Reliable and safe operation of a heater requires frequent analysis of the fluid to determine that its condition is satisfactory for continued operation.

This is due to the rapid expansion of water exceeding the venting capability. Internal inspections. Design — Specific requirements outlined in construction codes must be met. They are also frequently found in asphalt plants for heating of oils. These fluids should not be used in systems containing aluminum or galvanized pipe. Review of fluid test results and control and safety device maintenance records are essential in determining satisfactory conditions for continued safe heater operation.

Expansion tanks used in thermal heater systems. The fluid specifications will list such restrictions. The zinc will then form a precipitate that can cause localized corrosion or plug instrumentation. Corrosion — When used in applications and installations recommended by fluid manufacturer.

Code requirements for the particular Jurisdiction should be reviewed for specific design criteria. NB level. Increased viscosity could cause low flow rates through the heater. Some manufacturers of these fluids recommend not using aluminum paint on valves or fittings in the heat transfer system.

Aluminum acts as a catalyst that will hasten decomposition of the fluid. Leakage — Any sign of leakage could signify problems since the fluid or its vapors can be haz- ardous as well as flammable. Since the boiler does not have effective control over the amount of heat entering the boiler. Generation of electrical energy is usually the primary application of waste heat boilers. Water or steam leakage can create localized corrosion. Loop seal or rain cap on the discharge keep both air and water out of the system.

Special design considerations are made to compensate for lower combustion gas temperatures such as the use of finned high-efficiency heat absorbing tubes. Solidification of the fluid — Determine that no conditions exist that would allow solidification of the thermal fluid.

Both thermal and chemical reactions personnel hazard. When out- door discharge is used. Heat tracing for systems using high freeze point fluids prevent blockage. Surface drains pollution and fire hazard. Drip leg near device prevent liquid collection.

Pressure relief devices — Pressure relief valves shall be a closed bonnet design with no manual lift lever. The thermal fluid manufacturer specifications will list the potential hazards. Extreme thermal cycling can cause cracks and leakage at joints. The biggest disadvantage of this type of boiler is that it is not fired on the basis of load demand. Combustible materials fire hazard. The pressure relief discharge should be connected to a closed. Pressure parts within the furnace require protection from the reducing atmosphere and from sulfidation.

Carbides in the steel may precipitate to graphite at elevated temperatures. The primary source of water is from pressure part failure. The molten material. Common practice is to replace these spouts in an interval shorter than that in which failure is known to occur. A second source of water is the liquor fuel. The typical water-cooled smelt spout can admit water to the furnace if the spout fails.

In all cases. Gas or oil auxiliary burners are used to start the self-sustaining black liquor combustion process and may be used to produce supplemental steam if sufficient liquor is not available.

The rate of corrosion within the furnace is temperature dependent. Black liquor is a by-product of pulp processing. The organic material that is dissolved in the pulping process combusts.

Above psi 6. NB 5 Dry operation — in certain applications waste heat boilers are operated without water. Boilers operating up to psi 6. If floor tubes may have been mechanically damaged or overheated. Maintenance of boiler water quality is crucial to minimizing tube failure originating from the water side. The inspector should confirm the ESP is tested and maintained such that it will function as intended and that operators will activate the system when a leak into the furnace occurs or is suspected.

Technical Information Papers: Part I: Guidelines for Accurate Tube Thickness Testing 2. Minor upsets in boiler water quality and improper chemical cleaning may initiate SAC. Tube butt welds that could admit water to the furnace should be examined by a volumetric NDE method acceptable to the inspector. Part II: Excursions in water treatment may result in scale and sludge on internal surfaces. System for Black Liquor Boilers. Tube leaks at attachment welds may originate from the internal stress-assisted cor- rosion SAC.

The inspector should verify a redundant low-water protection system is provided and maintained.

Recommended Guidelines for Personnel Safety. Recommended Practices: Volumes I. The owner and repair agency should carefully plan SECTION 2 and inspect all repair welds and seal welds that could admit water to the furnace. On-stream inspection. If the pressure vessel is to remain in operation. Section 1 and should be followed in conjunction with the specific requirements outlined in this Section when performing inspections of pressure vessels.

The general requirements for safety. Section 4. NB d. The following should be reviewed: If it is found that external coverings such as insulation and corrosion-resistant linings are in good condi- tion and there is no reason to suspect any unsafe condition behind them. This pressure may be obtained from an external source. The media that a pressure vessel contains and the temperature and pressure at which it operates should be considered in establishing inspection criteria. The in- spection method may be performed when the vessel is operating on-stream or depressurized.

This inspection may be either external or internal and use a variety of nondestructive examination methods as described in NBIC Part 2. Section 3. The pressure vessel mountings should be checked for adequate allowance for expansion and contrac- tion.

If rivet shank corrosion is suspected. Attachments of legs. Weep holes in rein- forcing plates should remain open to provide visual evidence of leakage as well as to prevent pressure buildup between the vessel and the reinforcing plate.

Accessible flange faces should be examined for distortion and to determine the condition of gasket-seating surfaces. Any leakage of gas. Depending upon the extent of the defect.

Precautions should be taken when removing insulation while vessel is under pressure. Dents can create stress risers that may lead to cracking. For additional information regarding a leak in a pressure vessel or determining extent of a possible defect.

Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination is a useful means for doing this. Bolts and nuts should be checked for corrosion or defects. Data collected for vessels in similar service will aid in locating and analyzing corrosion in the vessel being inspected. Welded seams. Door safety interlock mechanisms.

Aerospace Industries Association. Telecommunications Industry Association. Deutsches Institut fur Normung E. American Welding Society, Inc. Association Connecting Electronics Industries. CSA Group. View All Publishers. Quality Management. SCC Standards Store. Popular Standards Bundles. Drawing and Drafting. Telecommunications Standards. AWS D1. Structural Welding. The Store A2LA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Audio Engineering Society AF: American Industrial Hygiene Assn.

Artech House ASA: B11 Standards Inc. Builders Hardware Manufacturers Association, Inc. Codes and Standards Training, Inc. Chlorine Institute CIE: Clarion, Inc. Construction Specifications Institute, Inc. Product Binders DBS: DEStech Publications, Inc. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd. Energy Institute EIA: Elevator World Inc. Emergo Group, Inc. Deutsche Bundespost Telekom GA: Gypsum Association GAL: Grayboy Associates GSA: InfoComm International IP: Industrial Press, Inc.

IT Governance Ltd. Key Products, Inc. Korean Standards Association LC: Maag Gear Company, Ltd. Meta Solutions MHI: Packt Publishing, Inc. Petroconsultants, Inc. Plasa PMI: Prentice Hall PTI: Pressure Vessel Handbook RA: Radiocommunications Agency RAC: Robert S. Means, Inc.

RTCA, Inc. Standards Australia International, Ltd. Society of Allied Weight Engineers, Inc. Synapse Information Resources, Inc.

Standards Norway SNV: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. Syentek, Inc. Technology International, Inc. T H Hill Associates, Inc. Technical Indexes, Ltd.Miletti Babcock and Wilcox Construction Company. Structural Welding. UT thickness testing may be used where internal inspection access is limited or to deter- mine actual thickness when corrosion is suspected. Renaldo E. Industry standards may be used to prepare an inspection plan.

Verify that these activities are conducted at assigned intervals in accordance with a written procedure.