NARRATIVE TEXT PDF
PDF | The objective of this research is: To find out how the generic structure is written in the narrative texts, to find out the problems faced by the students of SMA. Narrative Texts - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Types of Narrative Texts. FICTION. NONFICTION. Fantasy. Science Fiction. Realistic Fiction. Historical Fiction. Narrative Nonfiction. • Examples include.
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NARRATIVE TEXT. (by: Soneta Welliya). I. Learning Objectives. By the end of this lesson, students are able to: 1. Identify the main information of the text. informational text is read, the group adds items that serve as examples and describes attributes of the tar- get concept. It is important to identify attributes of. The final project is about the teaching narrative texts in improving writing skill to the tenth grade students of SMA N 1 Petarukan. Teaching writing to Senior.
Often, secondary characters coincides with being mere observers and an invented narrator is used by the author to talk explicitly through the story. Hence they are compared with a cinema camera, which films facts, gestures and words. First, we examine narration in third person singular since it is the most usual form. It offers and impersonal point of view about the story. The narrator can have i an omniscient point of view panoramic narrator who reports all aspects of an action and may go into the head of any or all of the characters involved in the action.
Secondly, the first person singular is used when the narrator is a character in the story and talks in first person singular. His knowledge on the story will depend on he being the main character or an internal observer. If he is the main or, at least, an important participant in the story, he will tell the story from his own point of view main character. On the contrary, if the narrator real or imaginary recounts an action of which he is an external observer, we shall talk about a narrator-observer.
Thirdly, although quite rare, the author can make the narrator speak in second person singular when he wants to transmit the feeling of confession or internal story facts.
Finally, the author can also invent a narrator so as to offer his point of view about the story. Character vs. Characters are necessary to maintain coherence and consistency in a story and they are defined as the people or animals that perform actions in narrative texts. We can distinguish three main types: 1 the main characters, who participate most in the plot, 2 secondary characters, who are actually a support for the main characters and 3 juncture characters, who are not even introduced as individuals extras.
According to the way participants are characterized or introduced in the plot , characters are classified into 1 characters as individuals round characters and 2 characters and stereotypes flat characters. It must be borne in mind that there are two main ways of characterization: direct and indirectly. Then, 1 regarding round characters , we may say that the plot is organized around them, their feelings, thoughts, conflicts, and life in general.
They represent stereotypes of personality, attitudes, thoughts, physical appearance, and so on but they are not considered to be relevant in the plot. Theme: the story central idea.
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The theme is the central idea of the story which can be directly stated or through use of story elements, namely characters. Plot: sequence of events. In fact, the plot is causally related to actions which, as single episodes, merely add up to a loosely knit story.
This story telling may be chronological or reverted flashbacks or foreshadowings. So, we can say that narrative texts are organized around a plot and that the us er guides the plot structures through character interactions. As a result, characters and the environment influence the narrative. Then the plot involves a problem or a conflict which is presented in the story in a specific order of events and sets the action in motion. The plot includes a series of episodes that are written by the author to hold our attention and build excitement as the story progresses.
Included in these events may be some roadblocks setbacks that the character encounters while attempting to solve the problem. During these events the excitement of the story builds as the character goes about solving the problem. The ending of the story contains the resolution the solving of the proble m and the ending to the story. Therefore the story grammar or structure of a narrative piece would contain these components: 1 beginning, that is, an initiating event that starts the main character off on a series of events to solve the problem and in a specific setting time and place.
We may say it is the open beginning or exposition of the story. During these events the excitement of the story builds as the character goes about trying to find a solution. Hence, the ending of the story and the ending to the story.
The main solutions to a problem are: twist endings. In this type of endings, the writers usually suspense and mystery ones often end the story in a way that the reader does not expect. The story begin s with an event and then goes back in time allowing the reader to understand previous events. Setting: space, time and atmosphere. The setting of a story is defined as the environment of the action as constituted by time, space and atmosphere Scholes and Kellogg, So, space, time reference and atmosphere refers respectively to where or when the story takes place and the general effect produced by these two concepts.
Authors may tell the reader the exact time or place of the story, but often these must be inferred by the reader. The time and place are usually important to the plot of the story when the details of the setting have metaphorical significance i. Actually, these details can help the reader answer questions about the plot or character actions in the story.
It may also be a universal place the Universe, South Africa, the ocean or a specific place London, a little village on the highest mountain. Moreover, we may find indoor scenes a house, a palace, a castle or outdoor a meadow, a football pitch. Finally, the place may have a symbolic meaning love stories in Paris; ghost stories in English castles.
The relationship between the acting time and narrated time will give us four different subclassifications of time: historical, internal, verbal and rhythmic. Another important element in the setting of a story is the atmosphere, that is, the general effect or feeling produced by the theme, the characters, the place, etc. Narrative texts: structure.
The order is given by the focus on the story ending. Therefore, as stated, we may find three types of narrative developments: 1. Firstly, in order to know the ending of the story, we shall find a linear development which follows a chronological order from the beginning to the end of the story. Thirdly, if the focus is on both the beginning and the ending, the telling may start at an intermediate point within the story for events to be described in terms of backwards and forwards movements.
This technique is to be called in medias res narration. For example, if one finds lexical signals that indicate situation-problem- response-result, we can know with some certainty that we are dealing with a Problem-Solution test.
When one identifies vocabulary items that signal doubt or skepticism, words such as appear, suggests, speculation, etc. In fact, while the sequence of these structures may be varied, we should always find all the elements we are looking for in a well-formed text.
So, let us examine which textual and lexical elements there are in narrative texts. Narrative texts: main literary devices.
The main textual features in narrative texts are given by textual and lexical items, that is, literary devices which are words used to enrich the understanding of the story i. In addition, the author may use a wide range of word choice for different purposes, thus to entertain, to inform and to persuade the reader about the telling. Readers must understand the meaning of vocabula ry as used in the story context, for instance, the meaning a word has in the story i.
My treasure , and finally, what that word suggests i. The power and control of the reign. So, let us analyse the basic language structures in narrative texts regarding the articulation of written discourse devices where we shall approach literary devices in narrative texts from the disciplines of syntax, pragmatics and namely semantics, together with a grammatical approach. Hence we shall analyse cohesion, coherence and other literary devices. Cohesion has been a most popular target for research, and it is well known its relation to the second of the textuality standards, coherence.
Since cohesive markers are important for the understanding of narrative texts, all speakers make extensive use of them, for example in order to enhance coherence, but also for reasons of economy e.
Since cohesion is expressed partly through the grammar and partly through the vocabulary, we find two main types of cohesive devices considered as general categories of cohesion: grammatical cohesion substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, reference and lexical cohesion reiteration, collocation.
Yet, we shall include in our study a third type that, although last is not the least. We refer to graphological devices orthography, punctuation, headings, foot notes, tables of contents and indexes since most of them deal with form and structure of narrative texts, and are part of the semantic relations established in a text. Grammatical cohesion. Thus the concept of cohesion accounts for the essential semantic relations whereby any story is enabled to function as text. It is within grammatical cohesion that we find different types of relations: substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and reference.
Essay narrative text horror story
It is relevant to mention first that anaphora and cataphora will be examined under the heading of reference, connectors under the heading of conjunction and finally, deixis as a subtype of reference and ellipsis. However, the mechanisms involved in the two are rather different, and also, at least in the case of ellipsis, fairly complex, so we shall devote a section to each.
We may find three different types of substitution which are defined in grammatical terms rather than semantically: nominal one, ones, same , verbal do , and clausal so, not.
The structural mechanisms involved in ellipsis are fairly complex and hence, it shows different patterns from those of substitution. She brought some biscuits, and Cristine some fruit.
Like substitution, ellipsis is a relation within the text, and in the great majority of instances the presupposed item is present in the preceding text, that is, in anaphoric relation. We may distinguish two different structural possibilities in which ellipsis is a form of relation between sentences by means of: first, nominal ellipsis, that is, ellipsis within the nominal group i.
He ate four oysters and yet another four where the modifying elements include some which precede the head and some which follow it, as premodifier and postmodifier respectively i.
How did you enjoy the show? Have you been running? An elliptical verbal group presupposes one or more words from a previous verbal group.
The third type of grammatical cohesion is reference , which is another well researched area within linguistics. See how they eat! There is a logical continuity from naming through situational reference referring to a thing as identified in the context of situation to textual reference referring to a thing as identified in the surrounding text and hence a significant opposition in the system between pointing back anaphora and pointing forwards cataphora : thus the direction may be anaphoric with the presupposed element preceding or cataphoric with the presupposed element following.
The typical direction as we shall see later is the anaphoric one. It is natural after all, to presuppose what has already gone rather than what is to follow. Hence, in this case, situational reference would be the prior form.
As stated before, reference is the relation between an element of the text and something else by reference to which it is interpreted in the given instance. The interpretation may take two forms: either the reference item is interpreted through being identified with the referent in question; or it is interpreted through being compared with the referent. In the former case, where the interpretation involves identifying, the reference item functions as a deictic item which is always specific. Hence the set of reference items includes all the specific deictics pronouns and determiners except the interrogatives.
The interrogatives who, what, whose, which, what cannot be cohesive since they contain only a request for specification, not the specification itself. Conjunction is a relationship which indicates how the subsequent sentence or clause should be linked to the preceding or the following sentence or pa rts of sentence. Fantasy 9. Adventure Science Fiction Myth He lived in a simple hut in a farming field. The did some gardening and fishing for his daily life. One day, while the man was do fishing, he caught a big golden fish in his trap.
It was the biggest catch which he ever had in his life. Surprisingly, this fish turned into a beautiful princess. The other two components as proposed by Anderson and Anderson b are just variations or can even be considered as optional since the two are not differently essentially.
Narrative can be presented as written or spoken texts. Written narratives often take the form of novels.
The story is usually told by a narrator. If the narrator is one of the characters in this story, the story is said to be told in the first person. In addition, narrative text may take many kinds or forms. Among those forms, fairy tales or fairy story has lots of sub-forms: fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and talking animals.
Gurney in Carnine believes that stories have their own structure called story grammar. By keying on the presence of these components of a story, the reader is better able to comprehend the story. The structure of a story can be simple e.
Additionally, Anderson and Anderson a state that narrative usually include the following grammatical features: a. The primary rule for developing a sequence for introducing stories is to progress from simple stories to more complex stories.
A Story Structure Approach to Narrative Text Comprehension
Factors to consider are a the number of characters, plots, goals, and sub-goals, b the number of attempts by characters to achieve the goal, c the explicitness of the story grammar components the main characters, goal, and conflict , d the length of the story, e the readability of the story, and the amount of background knowledge required by students. The purpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotions.
In well-written narration, a writer uses insight, creativity, drama, suspense, humor, or fantasy to create a central theme or impression. The details all work together to develop an identifiable story line that is easy to follow and paraphrase. References Anderson, M. Text Types in English 2. Anderson, M. Text Types in English 3. Carnine, D. Direct Instruction Reading.
Saint Louis: Merril Publishing Company. Diana, M. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.She, furthermore, states that a key to comprehending a narrative is a sense of plot, of theme, of characters, and of events, and of how they relate. Moreover, we may find indoor scenes a house, a palace, a castle or outdoor a meadow, a football pitch.
University of Toronto Press. So he tried to apologize and temporal i. A narrative can tell what happens in a matter of minutes or years. There is a logical continuity from naming through situational reference referring to a thing as identified in the context of situation to textual reference referring to a thing as identified in the surrounding text and hence a significant opposition in the system between pointing back anaphora and pointing forwards cataphora : thus the direction may be anaphoric with the presupposed element preceding or cataphoric with the presupposed element following.
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