MARIJUANA MEDICAL HANDBOOK PDF
Doctors cannot prescribe any “marijuana medicines” states The issue of medical marijuana in the United States ultimately comes this guide online, .. resourceone.info . divided. Some dismiss medical marijuana as a hoax that exploits our (ONDCP) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a review of the scientific. How do you know how much to take? Medical Cannabis: The Definitive Guide covers all those questions and many more. Beginning with the history of cannabis.
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STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE: resourceone.info marijuana/mmj- · resourceone.info a specific phrase, e.g. medical marijuana ballot initiatives. Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) have designated that cannabis is. He and the city attorney thought he was legally cultivating medical marijuana as an officer of the City of Oakland. Ed faced a possible year mandatory.
In one test, participants reported an increase in alertness and restlessness. Various limonene analogs can cue the brain to sexuality, buoyancy or focused attention. Limonene sprays are used to treat depression. It has a sweet, woody, dry-clove odor and tastes pepper-spicy with camphor and astringent citrus backgrounds.
B-Caryophyllene, ingested in large amounts, blocks calcium and potassium ion channels. As a result, it impedes the pressure exerted by heart muscles. Applied topically, it is an analgesic and is one of the active constituents of clove oil, a preferred treatment for toothache.
It docks on the CB2 receptor site, the same site for which cannabidiol has an affinity. Thus it may help reduce inflammation. In a recent experiment, a group of experienced marijuana users smoked a joint with caryophyllene added. All but one reported good feelings and were slightly giddy. The other individual had positive feelings but was more contemplative. It added a slightly woody taste to the bouquet.
It is the major component in turpentine and is found in many other plant essential oils in Pine Rosemary, Sage Pinene is likely to give the true skunk varieties, ones that stink like the animal, much of their odor. It is also a bronchodilator. The smoke seems to expand in your lungs and the high comes on very quickly since a high percentage of the substance will pass into the bloodstream and brain.
It also increases focus, self-satisfaction, and energy. This might seem counterintuitive to experienced marijuana users because Afghani Skunk experiences are often calming or sedating.
This is caused by the presence of terpineol, which is often found in combination with pinene. Many additional plant oils contain minute quantities of it. Pinene is used medically as an expectorant and topical antiseptic. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, it inhibits activity of a chemical that destroys an information-transfer molecule. This results in better memory. It is a minor constituent of many plant essential oils.
It is used in perfumes and soaps for fragrance. Terpineol is obtained commercially from processing other terpenes. That may be explained by the fact that terpineol is often found in cannabis with high pinene levels, as mentioned above.
What is Marijuana?
Its odor is masked by the pungent woodsy aromas of pinene. The camphor-like overtones of Silver Haze varieties are unmistakable. The high of these varieties does have a calming effect, in addition to its psychedelic aspects. This indicates there may be a large amount of borneol present in these varieties. It is a constituent of pine and cedar resin but is found in many other plants, Artemisia verted into it.
It is found in small quantities in many essential oils. Commercially, it is derived from artemisia plants such as wormwood and some species of cinnamon. In aromatherapy, cypress oil high in DeltaCarene is used to dry excess fluids, tears, running noses, excess menstrual flow and perspiration. It may contribute to the dry eye and dry mouth experienced by marijuana users. It is refined from lavender, neroli and other essential oils. Humans can detect its odor in the air at rates as low as one part per million ppm.
Linalool is being tested now for treatment of several types of cancers. It is also a component of several sedating essential oils. It is implicated in liver damage when used in very high dosages. It is found in tiny quantities in marijuana. Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, pulegone interferes with the action of the protein that destroys acetylcholine, the The way terpenes interact with one another and their resulting effect on brain activity provides fascinating territory for another level of exploration and creativity for seed breeders.
By learning the odors of the terpenes, you may be able to predict the mindaltering properties each lends to a bud. Eucalyptus chemical the brain uses to store memory.
It has a camphor-minty odor similar to pulegone. It is also found in other fragrant plants and in minor amounts in marijuana. It is used to increase circulation, pain relief and has other topical uses.
Cineole easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and triggers a fast olfactory reaction. Eucalyptus oil is considered centering, balancing, and stimulating. A creative mind and sense of intuition are necessary to achieve success in this field.
While some herb is strictly pleasing to the mental palate, taste can also be tantamount to the buzz for the cannabis connoisseur. The range of flavors expressed by the genus cannabis is extraordinary.
No other plant on the planet can equal the bouquet of smells and tastes available from cannabis. The spectrum of possible smells and tastes a human can experience is large and complex. Like its counterpart, categories branch out from the general to the more specific.
Some of these are already well known and represented among widely available cannabis varieties, while others require some cross-breeding to achieve. Some of the most desirable bud bridges multiple categories, creating a complex sensory experience. Note that aroma and flavor vary by growing method and also between various stages of the plant. The aroma of a live bud on the plant, a dried and cured bud, and the smoke on the inhale and exhale, may all be different from each other.
The physical palate of cannabis is a wondrous dimension, important in distinguishing the good from the superb in the weed world. Capable of being refined, one's palate is best educated through experience. The map that follows is meant to aid the discriminating stoner in charting the territory.
Happy travels. This has allowed breeders, growers, and users to take a good look at the analysis of some of the bud they are growing and using. Still, this field requires more investigation.
Each recipe produces a slightly different effect. Each is an adventure. All these varieties contain ample amounts. Between 15 and 16 an unidentified terpene A appears on all the charts.
It is insignificant in the Hazes. It imparts aroma to beer, but also has both anti-inflammatory effects and is used as a sedative and to relieve stress. Varieties containing high quantities may relieve pain, reduce inflammation, lower stress and induce better sleep.
On the other hand, it might not be the best therapy for concentration or even socializing. Two varieties that are often used medically, White Widow and Cheese, both contain more of it than the other varieties do. You can see the test results of other varieties on the Green House Seeds website. See Terpene Key. To simplify interpretation we can combine numbers 1 and 3- alpha and beta pinene, 8, 11 and alpha and terpinene and terpinolene, and 13 and cis and trans-ocimene.
The pinene helps create the more acrid pungent odors, as does terpenine and terpinolene. In addition to the terpenes that were identified in several of the varieties, Trainwreck and White Widow had similar unidentified spikes, which delineates a bit of their similarity. Cheese also contained terpenes not identified by the test. These terpenes have not been found in other varieties tested by Greenhouse. This may account for its unusual aroma and high. Most of the varieties had high levels of 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14 and It is interesting that White Widow and Trainwreck have wide bands at 7, beta-myrcene.
Myrcene makes the blood-brain barrier more porous, allowing more THC to get to the brain faster. This results in a faster, more powerful initial experience and perhaps a more intense high. Terpinolene and its cousin terpineol, which was not tested for, have sweet odors reminiscent of apple blossoms or lilac.
They also are responsible for serious couch-lock. On the other hand ASH is lower in cineole than the others. Cineole helps THC pass through the blood-brain barrier, so it is slow to come on. The wide selection of characteristics has been developed from the two potent sub-species or varieties: Another sub-species, ruderalis, is some individual plants will thrive no matalso available and is used to create auto- ter what conditions occur in a particular flowering varieties that do not wait for season.
Most varieties available today are shorter days to begin budding. The kush hybrids of these types, and bred to have varieties, sometimes called Afghani, are a the best characteristics of each. Beginning in the s, breeders crossed different sub-group of indicas. The reNorthern Mexicans, marijuana plant has been sult was some of the and indicas.
Marifirst domesticated substantially changed. The ratio and Afghani-Kush. A second generation of of THC the psychoactive ingredient also breeders included landraces from Brazil, varies. The differences in native climate South Africa and Burma. There is little change tance. Most of the varieties offered today of weather in more tropical areas, where are many hybridizations away from the every year tends to resemble the last.
In original landraces from which they started. Drought one year may be followed by cloudy, rainy or sunny weather. For the population to continue, the plant group needed different individuals that survive and even thrive under those specific conditions. Thus, in any season, no matter what the weather, some plants will do better than others. Indicas, including Kush varieties, have broad general characteristics: Afghan x Skunk.
The Afghani Mazar-i-Shariff part is a very short Christmastree-like plant. Original sativa from the Hindu Kush region, Flowering: Indica plants were developed for resin content, which was removed from the flowers to make hashish. They are a variant of indicas and have many of the same characteristics. Some growers look for extrawide leaf blades. The difference between Kush varieties and other indicas is one of nuance, rather than distinct difference.
These plants require a long time to mature because they originated in areas that have a long season. The highs they produce are described in such terms as psychedelic, dreamy, spacey, and creative. The buds usually smell sweet or tangy and the smoke is smooth, sometimes deceptively so. Sativa plants grow in a conical, Christmas-tree form.
The leaves have long, narrow serrated blades, wide spacing between branches, and vigorous growth. They often grow very tall outdoors and are difficult to control indoors. Sativas have long, medium-thick buds when grown in full equatorial sun; under artificial light with inadequate intensity, or even under the temperate sun, the buds run, or are thinner, longer and don't fill out completely.
A few weeks after germination, the plants begin to produce flowers while continuing to grow. They tend to be short, between 1'3' 0.
The seed bank tried using a Romanian variety that grew flowers along its new growth. Some varieties that are available commercially are more determinate. They produce flowers as the plants grow larger and when a critical time period occurs, they quickly stop growing vegetatively and form a bud.
These varieties include the LowRyder series. If indica and sativa varieties are considered opposite ends of a spectrum, most marijuana plants today fall between the two ends. Since the s, seeds from the Dutch and other seed companies have been introduced in traditional marijuana growing areas all over the world including Mexico, Jamaica, and Even in traditional cannabis-growing countries, the marijuana found there is often the result of several crossed lines. For example, Jamaican ganja is probably the result of crosses between hemp, which the English cultivated for rope, and Indian ganja, which arrived with the Indian immigrants who came to the country.
The term for marijuana in Jamaica is ganja—the same as in India. The traditional Jamaican term for the best weed is Kali, which is the name of the Hindu goddess of destruction. However, tourists in Jamaica today are likely to be solicited with terms such as Kush or Purple; it is very difficult to find the original landraces there. At this point, marijuana is the most intensively bred plant using classical techniques. There are several reasons for this: One is that pollen, because it is produced on male plants, can easily be either removed from or introduced to the females, facilitating controlled breeding.
The more important reason is non-botanical: Most people cannot go to the store to pick up a pack of White Widow seeds; thus necessity led to growers producing their own seed. After 40 years of breeding, the marijuana plant has been substantially changed.
Breeders began with landraces then widened the selection. Now thousands of varieties are available from countries all over the world. Since the heyday of hemp in the 18th and 19th centuries, when it was the preferred material for rope, paper, and cloth, marijuana has been re-domesticated for western cultivation. ASK ED: Should I try to mimic its original environment or will it adapt well to normal methods of indoor gardening? Equatorial indicas need lots of light, space and time.
For these reasons they are not popular with indoor growers or with high latitude outdoor growers. The intensity of sunlight declines from the equator to higher latitudes because the sun hits the equator at a direct perpendicular angle. Landraces from equatorial areas have adapted genetically to the intense sun. To grow well, they need more intense light than most indoor plants receive.
Typically, gardeners use a w HPS lamp over a 4' x 4' 1. With the sativas, increase the light to a w lamp over a 3' x 3' 0. Equatorial plants are fast growing and have large stem spaces internodes between the leaves. They are not the tight hybrids that gardeners are accustomed to, but their wilder cousins must gain height and canopy space quickly to survive.
Indicas, on the other hand, adapted to a far less habitable environment. A compact thick-leaved plant is better equipped for the windy Himalayan foothills than a tall lanky one. Provide sativas twice to four times the space that you give indicas. You can control height somewhat using early flowering, pruning, bending and super-budding. Still, these are going to be tall plants.
Treating them at the end of the day with a strong blue light of at least 20 watts per square foot watts per square meter of 6,, Kelvin or higher, aquarium light actinic blue may control the height a bit.
The lights should go on shortly before the other lights are turned off and stay on for about an hour. Cooling the plants by lowering the temperature 10 degrees for an hour before the lights go on also controls stem growth. Place fans in the room to create a strong draft shakes the plants to the point where the stems bend results in shorter, stouter stems.
Time waits for no one, but you must wait for sativas. They often ripen in November, December or January outdoors. Indoors they have a 10 to 16 week ripening time. Indoors, they should never receive more than 12 hours of light.
Ripening is hastened a bit by lowering the light duration to 10 hours as soon as the plants germinate. Even when flowering, young sativas also continue to grow vegetatively. Outdoors, the plants are well suited for the southern tier of the U. One of the best strategies for growing these plants is to start them outdoors in September in an area where plants can be grown in winter. The short days induce flowering and keep the plants relatively short.
Height Width shorter than northern elongated Christmas tree, long branches, mediumsized leaves conical, but squatter than Col. Some coldresistance Adaptable, good weather resistance. Susceptible to fusarium wilt Will run without intense light. Susceptible to fusarium wilt Rarely seen commercially. Needs lots of light and warmth to develop thick colas The standard commercial plant.
Good breeding material Many hermaphodites make growing hard. Buds ripen but plant sends out new flowers Vigorous warmweather plant. The branches are short and stay close to the main stem.
The center bud is very prominent. The plant uses relatively little space and has a heavy yield. This is a typical Indica plant. The plants have long spreading branches with thin, long buds. The plant uses a large space for a moderate yield. This is typical of a Sativa plant. All of the descriptions are guidelines. Growth is affected by cultivation technique, microenvironmental conditions, variations in climate, available nutrients, latitude and other factors.
Other, several distinctive varieties can be found in the same areas. The most common varieties are described. Most modern varieties are many hybridizations away from the original landraces. They have been domesticated to produce more higher quality buds in less time.
The sun's rays reach the earth at varying intensities. The equator, where large tree-like sativas originated, consistently gets the brightest, most intense light. Indicas developed in the regions north or south of the equator.
The latitude of the region you plan to grow should be taken into account when choosing what variety to grow outdoors. Some varieties are clone only, reproduced by rooting cuttings of one particular unique plant. See Getting Started. Friends who are growing a variety can often provide you with clones, and in medical states patients often have access to them through dispensaries.
Whether you use seeds or clones, choosing the right variety is extremely important because varieties differ not only in their effects but also in how they grow. Outdoor varieties need more light than indoor. Some varieties spread out and others grow more compactly. They differ in height, time to maturity, and yield. So choosing varieties can be a daunting, but thoroughly pleasurable task. Use your own taste and circumstance to choose what you grow. If you prefer certain varieties or types, select a variety that provides that and is adapted to grow in your garden.
First, you want a plant that will do well in the environment that you are going to provide. Second, you want to grow varieties whose qualities you like; the high, taste, aroma and personality of the bud all play a role in the decision making process. Each variety has its own genetic blueprint that determines how the plant reacts within its environment.
A complex interplay between nature and nurture controls everything from maturation time to the size and shape of all the plant parts—not to mention the color, taste, potency, high, and yield of your crop. You can think of nature as the genetic potential of the plant under ideal conditions and nurture as providing the conditions to realize that potential.
New varieties are the result of intense competition among seed breeders, and the popularity of varieties tend to wax and wane with the seasonality of couture fashion. The upshot of this, as far as you are concerned, is that you can try new varieties each crop while sticking with the varieties that you like.
Gardeners can grow a garden with only one or two varieties or a potpourri—each style of growing has its advantages. Seeds for different varieties are available in stores throughout many countries, including Canada, Great Britain, Holland, and Spain.
In the U. Commercial growers prefer homogeneous gardens. To assure uniformity, they usually use clones rooted cuttings from one plant or one variety so that the garden is genetically identical, or at least closely related. Using clones from the same plant allows commercial growers to maximize their crop, because the plants grow identically, thrive under the same conditions, mature at the same time, and provide predictable potency.
Commercial growers also typically choose fast-maturing plants for a quick turnaround. They often grow mixed groups of plants so they harvest at different times and can choose from a selection of potencies, qualities of high, and tastes. The mix of varieties and maturation times in a heterogeneous garden typically results in lower yields, when compared to homogeneous gardens.
Heterogeneous gardens also take more individualized care because the plants grow at different rates, have different shapes, and require varying amounts of space. Breeding is not easy. It requires a keen eye, an acute sense of taste, and most importantly, an ability to discern a plant with outstanding potency.
Not many people have this ability—a sort of perfect pitch in the area of THC and cannabis. In addition to skill, an inspired breeder has an intuitive ability to choose the right one. Seed breeding has socially redeeming values. It helps us change not what we think, but how we think it. The plant has developed a wonderful symbiotic relationship with humans.
Its decision has had an enormous effect on our development, as we have had on its fortunes. From its start in the Himalayan foothills, the plant has traveled the world. Humans carried it to every climate and every continent and helped it fit into its new homes.
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In return, Cannabis has helped societies progress time and time again, over thousands of years. The experience of the two species in the last 50 years has been just another turn on the spiral of their coexistence. Two things are certain as this journey continues: The following pages show some of the breeding done by seed companies around the world.
California; High: Indica; Flowering: Sativa; Flowering: Herbal, floral, minty, spicy, tropical High: Ruderalis-Indica; Flowering Time: Indica; Flowering Time: Sativa; Flowering Time: Musky, dank, sweet citrus, creamy.
Blueberry Muffins. Cannabis resin contains the group of substances collectively known as cannabinoids, of which tetrahydrocannabinol, usually referred to as THC, is the chief psychoactive component. Marijuana varieties differ in many ways, including growth characteristics such as height, width, branching traits, leaf size and shape, flowering time to yield, as well as potency, taste, type of high, and aroma.
In choosing a variety, you should select for both the quality of the high and the conditions in which you are growing. Cannabis is the only dioecious annual—that is, each plant is distinctively either male or female—though some individual plants may be or become hermaphrodites, producing both male and female flowers.
In nature, marijuana is a fast growing annual plant, although some varieties in warm areas over-winter, or go dormant as the days shorten and return to flowering the next summer. When grown outdoors, marijuana has an annual cycle that begins with germination in the early spring. Most aromas we associate with plants are the result of terpenes. Terpenes are major components of marijuana resin as well as make up the largest percentage of aromatic oils contained in most plants.
Many plants, including marijuana, are used in different forms of therapy including but not limited to pain management, moods, and aromatherapy. While terpenes affect the brain in their own way, they also modify the effect of THC within the brain, adding subtleties to the high. Age, maturation, and the time of day can affect the amount, and perhaps ratios, of terpenes. Cannabis seeds are rich in oil and protein and are used as a food and animal feed, as well as a source of oil or fuel and skin care products.
Cannabis fiber, produced from the stalk of the plant is used to make tough cloth, paper, and rope. The flowers and the resin that coats them are used therapeutically and recreationally. Plants are rooted into the ground and are immobile. They have evolved protection mechanisms such as the production of terpenes. Plants produce terpenes for one of three reasons; to attract pollinators, to repel or kill herbivores, and to attract predators of herbivores.
Things to Know Marijuana has been developed from two potent sub-species or varieties: Most marijuana plants today fall between the two ends. Indicas, which include kush varieties sometimes called Afghan , generally mature early, have compact short branches and wide, short leaves which are dark green, sometimes tinged pruple.
Their buds are usually tight, heavy, wide, and thick rather than long. Sativas require a long time to mature because they originated in areas that have a long season. They are usually very potent, containing large quantities of THC. Ruderalis is a wild or feral variety of auto-flowering marijuana, which does not wait for shorter days to begin budding.
Feminized seeds are now the standard for most seed companies, these are seeds that have been treated to produce only female plants and are an ideal choice for marijuana cultivation. The qualities of the useable marijuana produced by feminized seed plants—its taste, flavor, and potency—is better than buds produced by either regular seed plants or clones.
However, some varieties are clone only, which means they are reproduced by rooting cuttings of one particular unique plant and propagating them. Are their height or security restrictions? The second factor in determining which variety to choose is your personal preference: Inside the seed shell, a tiny embryo that has been in a state of suspended animation begins to produce a set of three chemicals that induce growth: Auxin is found in the growing tips of both the roots and the stem.
The root continues to grow and absorb water, but it still depends on the nutrients packed in the seed with the embryo. Then from the other end of the soonto-be main stem, a pair of embryonic leaves cotyledons emerge.
Sensing Left: Mature seeds are dark tan to dark brown.
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Light tan, green or broken seeds are not viable. Seedling with the cotyledons embryonic leaves , and first set of true leaves. Seedlings transplanted to 3-gallon 13 l containers using a coir medium. Cytokinins promote lateral growth and cell division. Gibberellin directs stem and leaf growth. Together, these plant chemicals induce germination.
Within a short time—typically one gravity, the plant orients itself so the roots point down and the leaves grow upward. Once the initial shoot emerges from the growing medium, plant growth follows the source of light.
Seedlings started in peat pots are transplanted, pot and all. Roots quickly grow through the fiber. After three weeks the plants are ready to transplant. The cotylydons immediately start producing sugars using the process of photosynthesis. The roots continue to gather water and nutrients as they grow farther into the planting medium. They send the water and nutrient solution to the leaves, which the leaves convert to sugar to ship to the roots.
The top-most new growth, known as the apical meristem, emerges from between the cotyledons where it was hidden and grows more prominent. It soon becomes apparent that another pair of leaves, the first true pair, is emerging. Within a few days, the leaves have unfolded and reached their full size, while a new set of leaves emerge from the growing tip.
The second pair typically consists of threebladed leaves. The following pair may be five-bladed. As the plant continues to produce new leaves from its apical meristem, branches begin to grow at the nodes, the site where the stem meets the leaf petiole, the small stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
These branches continue to grow as new ones appear further up the stem. Then new branches may appear on the nodes of the side lateral branches. Left untrimmed, plants take one of several characteristic shapes, ranging from Christmas or fir tree to bushy or single stem with little branching, or even an asymmetrical shape. Shortening light periods prompt it to respond by beginning to flower. It regulates its growth and flowering stages by measuring the hours of uninterrupted darkness to determine when to flower.
The plant produces a hormone called phytochrome Pr beginning at germination. The red spectrum of light, which is found in both daylight and lamp light, turns the chemical Pr to its inactive form, Pfr.
Under long dark periods, in the absence of red light, Pr builds to a critical level. Dur- Within three or four days of initiation to a daily dark period of hours, marijuana changes its growth pattern from vegetative to flowering. After that it is on a course that ends with bud ripening. Most modern plants take seven to nine weeks, although some sativas take longer. The plants shown here were all ready within eight weeks.
WEEK 1: The plant slows down its growth. WEEK 2: The first flowers appear at the nodes. WEEK 3: WEEK 4: Vegetative growth has ended and the plants concentrate more of their energy into flowering.
Odor becomes more noticeable as the plants start to produce capitate trichomes. WEEK 5: Flower growth proliferates quickly. The flowers become thicker in areas where they have previously grown and they appear in new places along the top of the branch. The odor increases as more trichomes are noticeable and the odor intensifies a little.
WEEK 6: Flower growth continues in varieties that take longer to mature. It slows and then stops in seven-week varieties as the plants begin to ripen. The calyx behind the stigmas begins to swell. The odors of the seven-week varieties intensify. WEEK 7: The calyxes in the seven-week varieties swell to near bursting as THC is produced in the glands.
At the end of the week they will be ready. The trichomes stand more erect and the caps swell with newly produced resin. At the end of the week the flowers reach the peak zone. The odor is intense and the glands, filled with resin, fluoresce. Growth stops in the eight-week varieties as the flowers start to mature. WEEK 8: The flowers are ripe by the end of the week, and reach the peak zone in the last 72 hours.
Rachael Szmajda, Courtesy: During the second week, the first flowers appear along the nodes. During the third week, the number of flowers increases, and the area that they cover increases as well. Flowering and ripening times differ by variety. Thanks to careful breeding, modern varieties grow far faster and ripen more quickly than their predecessors. Buds typically grow and ripen in six to ten weeks. The growth trajectory of the bud after the third week of flowering depends on how long the variety takes to mature.
Two or three weeks before maturity, the bud starts its descent into ripening. While it continues to grow and fill out, the stigmas—small protrusions of the female flower that it uses to pollinate— turn brown. The trichomes—where cannabinoids and terpenes are produced and stored—become more prominent.
The trichomes stand erect from the plant tissue, and each has a cap that looks something like a mushroom head. As the bud matures, the trichomes continue to fill with THC and terpenes until the cap on top of the gland is so full that the oil-filled membrane looks like a balloon about to burst. At maturity, trichomes cover the whole reproductive area. They fluoresce and sparkle when light shines on them, creating an appearance of white crystals. The stigmas have all turned brown.
In most varieties, the ovary, where the seed would grow if the flower had been fertilized, swells in a sort of false pregnancy. The entire bud seems to vibrate. The smell of the plant also changes. During the vegetative stage, the plant has some odor. However, as the days grow shorter and there are longer periods of uninterrupted darkness during late summer, Pr reaches a critical level each evening. When this happens for about five days, the plants transition from vegetative growth to flowering.
Pr is changed back to its inactive state in the presence of even a few moments of light, which is why uninterrupted darkness is so important to flowering. In the Northern Hemisphere, the days get shorter after June When the dark period reaches between 9 and 11 hours— usually in late July or August depending on latitude—the critical time period is reached.
This triggers the plant to start flowering, rather than continue to grow vegetatively. Indoors, the gardener controls flowering time by regulating the light cycle.
While the plant is growing under continuous light or a long-day regimen of a minimum of 18 hours, plants continue to grow vegetatively, producing only leaves, stems, and roots, bu no flowers. When the light cycle is turned down to 12 hours on and 12 hours off, Pr reaches a critical level each dark period, and the plant is triggered to flower.
Watching a plant grow from a vegetative state to flowering is a surreal experience. Indoors, during the long-light period of vegetative growth, the plants have lightly filled the canopy, with their leaves barely touching.
Then, when the light period is changed to a flowering regimen, the plants receive a daily long uninterrupted dark period. After about five days, vegetative growth slows or stops. As the bud matures, its odor becomes more pungent and pervasive. At maturity, the smell can become overpowering, seeping through plastic bags and contaminating entire structures.
One of the factors indoor marijuana breeders select for is fast finishing, meaning flowering happens quickly. The gene for this is linked to the critical number of hours of darkness a plant needs in order to switch from vegetative growth to flowering.
The faster the variety, the fewer hours of darkness it requires to flower. Nevertheless, the plants respond to the artificial light cycle in the same way that they do to the natural seasonal cycles. If you become familiar with the critical time period of the variety in mono-crop gardens those with a single variety or that of the slowest-ripening variety of a garden containing several strains, you can increase the light period closer to the critical time period.
The more light the better, so long as the plant still flowers strongly. The potency of marijuana is based on, for the most part, first its genetics and then the maturity of the bud.
Mature flowers of genetically identical three-month and six-monthold plants have the same potency. Sugar is used by the plant as a tissue building block to power metabolism—i. Photosynthesis started between 3. The biochemical process of photosynthesis in green plants takes place in an inner cellular organelle called the chloroplast, which captures the energy of sunlight and converts it to electrical charges used to make sugar. It is thought that chloroplasts which developed as cyanobacteria established an endosymbiotic relationship with their hosts.
In fact, chloroplasts, like their counterparts the endosymbiotic mitochondria, still maintain enough of their original DNA genome to code for around different proteins.
These genes are inherited separately from the cell genome. The overall formula is: Kronenberg, in ratio of Far-Red Plants absorb reflect mostand wavelengths of light. Martinus nijoff Publishers, Dordrecht. Plants use the Far-Red ratio to detect being in the shade; they grow longer stems to try to reach the light. Notice the peak of green in the visible spectrum of the canopy light; since green light more than other visible colors is reflected or passes through leaves, plants appear green.
The stroma are inside this double barrier. Another membrane holds the thylakoid membranes that surround the innermost compartment, the lumen. The light-harvesting mechanism for photosynthesis is found in the area where the thylakoid membrane separates the stroma from the lumen.
Chloroplasts contain a number of photoreceptors, including the principal pigment chlorophyll, as well as beta carotene. These pigment molecules are arranged in large symmetrical protein structures called light-harvesting complexes. These complexes serve as antennae and channel the light-excited electrons to a chlorophyll molecule at the main reaction center, where photosynthesis occurs.
Photosystems I and II. Because the photosystems were named in their order of discovery, not function, the first set of photosynthesis reactions takes place in Photosystem II, not I. The three pigments that capture most of the light used for photosynthesis are two forms of chlorophyll, A and B and Beta-Carotene. They are most efficient at capturing light in various wavelengths of the red and blue bands.
They are not efficient at using green and yellow light. The active photosynthetic spectrum gets most of its energy in the red and blue light. However the drop-off of efficiency of use of light for photosynthesis in the orange, yellow and green bands is not as great as would be expected if only chlorophyll and carotene were considered. Light in these wavelengths is harvested by other pigments called accessory pigments that transfer the energy to chlorophyll. They are held in structures called thylakoids.
They are extremely efficient at converting captured light to energy, which powers photosynthesis. Each photosystem contains hundreds of chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and carotenoid molecules packed together and integrated into the thylakoid membrane.
There are hundreds of these photosystems in each chloroplast and there are dozens of chloroplasts per cell and hundreds, if not thousands, of cells per leaf. The chances for absorption of photons is enormous. The absorption spectra for purified chlorophylls A and B in vitro , have peaks only in the red and blue portions of the spectrum. In the leaf the dense packing of photo-active molecules and the transfer of electrons between the molecules allows photosynthesis to function across the spectrum, including in the green portion, where absorption is minimal.
It also explains how minimally absorbed wavelengths are able to affect photosynthesis. Far-red light between and nm is able to enhance the rates of photosynthesis under low light conditions by altering the distribution of PSI and PS2 leading to increased grana stacking and a closer association between the photosystems.
Shown closed and cross-section below The plant stomata regulate the exchange of gasses and liquids to and from the leaf.
They function sort of like human pores. In their open position they absorb carbon dioxide as well as moisture and nutrients. In the closed position they retain water. Plants regulate water content and temperature using the stomata.
When they transpire water, it cools the plant in much the same way that sweating helps us. These electrons are supplied by the oxygen-evolving center OEC which separates electrons from water molecules in a process that leaves behind protons and oxygen. This very rapid reaction can produce as many as 50 oxygen molecules per Marijuana plants are dependent on their environment for materials and energy.
There are five essential factors that affect marijuana growth: Each photosystem contains hundreds of chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and carotenoid molecules, which are packed together in the thylakoid membrane of the leaf. Since there are hundreds of these photosystems in each chloroplast, dozens of chloroplasts per cell, and hundreds if not thousands of cells per leaf, plants have an enormous number of chances to absorb light photons. The quantity of light chlorophylls A and B will absorb in laboratory tests peaks only in the red and blue portions of the spectrum, but the dense packing of photo-active molecules in the leaf allows photosynthesis to function across the spectrum, even at wavelengths that are only minimally absorbed.
For instance, far-red light between and nm enhances the rates of photosynthesis under low light conditions by altering the distribution of Photosystem I and Photosystem 2 to increase thylakoid stacks in chloroplasts and more closely associate the photosystems. After the OEC has separated oxygen and protons from the water molecule, the extra electron is transferred in a process that removes protons from the stroma and adds them to the lumen.
The electron is then passed to a water-soluble protein that delivers it to Photosystem I. Photosystem I uses a higher wavelength of light than Photosystem II to reexcite the electron. It is used to produce ATP adenosine triphosphate. The sugars generated this way are processed further and stored in the plant as glucose polymers called starches for use later.
They become the building blocks for tissue building and are used to power metabolism. No matter how well other factors are supplied they cannot be utilized. If light is limited, lower the nutrient, CO2 and temperature levels plant to reach its potential. The limiting factor—that is, the factor that is not supplied adequately—determines the rate of growth.
Insufficient supplies of any one factor slows or stops growth. It is unlikely that either water or nutrients are limiting factors in an indoor garden, since they are easily supplied. Oxygenating the water and using porous mediums keep the roots supplied.
That leaves three factors that are likely to limit plant growth: Warm-blooded animals, such as humans, maintain a steady metabolic rate by regulating their temperature internally. In cool weather they function slowly, and their metabolism speeds up as it warms.
For this reason, all the factors in the garden must be considered in relation to each other. As the amount intensity of light increases, cannabis r e quires more CO2 to use as raw material for photosynthesis. But the most amazing thing that they do with light is photosynthesis, the process that provides the foundation for most of life on Earth. Plants also use it to convert the sugars they make into starches and then into complex molecules such as cellulose.
Add some nitrogen atoms, and you get nucleic acids and amino acids, the building blocks of all proteins. Plants draw the energy they need from light across a spectrum broader than the human eye can see, from nm blue light to nm red.
Plants do different things with different wavelengths of light. Understanding the differences can help the careful cultivator ensure that the plants are getting everything they need to thrive. For photosynthesis, light energy is captured by chlorophylls A and B primarily from the red and blue portion of the spectrums. Light absorption by chlorophyll A peaks at nm in the blue band and nm in the red, and chlorophyll B peaks at nm in the blue and nm in the orange-red bands.
Chlorophyll syn- thesis peaks at nm and nm in the blue spectrum and and nm in the red wavelengths. Chlorophyll is not the only light-sensitive part of the plant. Carotenoids, are a group of orange pigments that capture light in the blue portion of the spectrum, primarily at about nm in the blue spectrum and nm in the blue-green range. Carotenoids not only contribute to photosynthesis but also protect the chlorophyll frm excess light that could have destructive effects.
Anthocyanin and other flavinoid pigments also absorb blue and UV light to protect chlorophyll from photo-destruction. Another pigment that appears to play a role in plant health is xanthophyll. This yellow pigment captures light in the range from nm, but is usually hidden from our view by the green of chlorophyll.
Xanthophyll has several functions.
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First, it acts as a light and heat regulator. At dawn, it is in its low-energy form, violaxanthin, which has peak reactions to light at nm and nm. Plants use a portion of that light to power photosynthesis. They use red and blue light most efficiently, but use light from other spectrums as well. Blue light contains more energy than red light and more electricity is used to produce it than red light.
However, plants obtain the same amount of energy no matter the spectrum. This is one reason why it is more cost effective to provide plants with mostly red rather than blue light. When light intensity decreases, the zeaxanthin returns to its low energy state, violaxanthin, in a cycle that can take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. Plants bank energy during the day and release it at night by shifting xanthophyll to its low-energy form, releasing heat. During the day, some of the light energy may also be transferred to chlorophyll by releasing an electron to be used for photosynthesis.
The basic principles of how light is measured are also helpful for planning how to deploy lamps for maximum effectiveness and checking how much light your plants are getting. As anyone who has purchased a lightbulb is aware, bulbs are sold by wattage.
But a quick comparison between fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, for instance, reveals that a 20w fluorescent may produce as much light as a 75w incandescent. Watts only measure how much power a given bulb draws; output depends on the bulb technology. Light output or intensity is measured in several different units, including candelas, foot-candles, lumens, lux, and moles.
Many of these units are based on each other, and some are more commonly used than others. They measure three basic things: The candela or candle or candle-power is the most basic international unit for measuring emitted light and is defined as the illumination created by a common candle.
While that once meant an actual candle with a burning wick, scientists devised more precise and replicable standards over the years, but all aimed at maintaining the basic unit. The foot-candle fc is a closely linked unit of measure, defined as the amount of light at a distance of one foot from a single-candle light source.
The lux is similar to the foot-candle in that it measures the visible light intensity luminous flux that reaches a particular area, defined as one lumen per square meter. So lumens concentrated in an area of one square meter equals lux; if that same lumens is spread over a space ten square meters, you have 10 lux.
All of these ways of quantifying light intensity measure the amount of light at one instant in time. When measuring the light reaching a garden, growers are concerned with the amount of light the plants get over the entire lit period.
But for outside or in greenhouses, the light intensity varies depending on the time of day and season of the year. An advantage of using moles or micromoles millionths of a mole is that the light quanta measured is not just the spectrum of light visible to the human eye, which is all candelas, foot-candles, lumens, and lux measure.
Plants use far more of the light spectrum for photosynthesis than humans can see. In fact, the light we see best is some of the least useful to plants. Humans see light best in the the yellow-green wavelengths around nm, but PAR ranges from to nm, and plants make most use of light in the red and blue spectrums. Measuring quantum light is the only way to be certain your plants are getting all the usable light they need.
The DLI for outdoor gardens varies considerably depending on latitude, season, and weather. For example, in the middle latitudes of the U.
UVA light is at the wavelength of the invisible portion of emissions from blacklights. It helps reverse damage done to plant DNA by UVB light, as well as stimulating the production of anthocyanin and other flavonoids.
UVB light affects the potency of high-quality plants. This light can be provided to indoor plants with proper lighting. Outdoors, the amount of UVB light is highest at the beginning of summer. By late September, the amount is a fraction of summer levels. For more information on using UVB light to increase potency, see Visible and near visible light ranges from about nm in the UVC region to about nm in the far-red region, with human vision able to detect light from about nm in the blue-violet to about nm in the far-red, with a peak sensitivity at nm in the green region.
There have been no reports of THC overdose leading to death. Marijuana Effects on the Heart Shortly after smoking marijuana the heart rate increases drastically and may remain elevated for up to 3 hours.
This effect may be enhanced if other drugs are taken with marijuana. One study from Mittleman, et al has suggested that the risk of heart attack may increase by up to 4. The effect may be due to the increased heart rate, as well as altered heart rhythms.
The risk of heart attack may be greater in those with specific risk factors such as patients with high blood pressure, heart arrhythmia, or other cardiac disease. Harvard Health also reports that the risk of a heart attack is several times higher in the hour after smoking marijuana than it would be normally, and this should be a red flag for anyone with a history of heart disease.
The risk of stroke may be increased, as well. Marijuana Effects on the Lungs After smoking marijuana, the bronchial passage relaxes and becomes enlarged. Marijuana smoke contains many of the same cancer-causing chemicals found in cigarette smoke, often in greater quantities, as reported by Mehmedic and colleagues.
Both types of smoke contain cancer-causing nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, vinyl chlorides, and phenol per research reported by Martinasek. Studies have shown that marijuana smoke contains 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke, and is an irritant to the lungs. Marijuana users tend to inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers do, which further increases lung exposure to carcinogenic smoke.
People who smoke marijuana often have the same respiratory problems as cigarette smokers. These individuals may have daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing and more frequent chest colds. A systematic review of the respiratory effects of inhalational marijuana from Martinasek, et al indicates that there is a risk of lung cancer from inhalational marijuana as well as an association between inhalational marijuana and spontaneous pneumothorax, emphysema, or COPD.
In the review, eight of the 12 studies indicated an increased risk of lung cancer from cannabis use or cases indicating lung cancer occurrence. Drug Interactions With Marijuana Combining marijuana with other CNS depressant drugs that also cause drowsiness or sedation such as alcohol, barbiturates, sedating antihistamines, anti-anxiety medications, opiate pain killers, etc can magnify the drowsiness.
DO NOT drive if you are under the influence of marijuana, alcohol or any sedating drug. A study from Hartman, et al shows that low doses of alcohol can significantly elevate the concentrations of THC in the blood. Marijuana use can raise the heart rate tachycardia and may be dangerous if used with other drugs that may also increase the heart rate. People with cardiovascular disease should avoid marijuana use.
The cannabinoids in marijuana THC, cannabidiol can affect liver enzymes and may alter the blood levels and effects of medications. Drug interactions are often unpredictable or undocumented with marijuana and extreme caution should be exercised.
These numbers could rise as more states continue to legalize marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes. Due to possible adverse effects of marijuana on the fetus, ACOG recommends that marijuana should be avoided during pregnancy. Any drug of abuse can affect a mother's health. THC appears to cross the placenta, according to Davies et al.
Human fetuses exhibit the cannabinoid receptor type 1 in the nervous system as early as 14 weeks of gestation, and animal studies suggest cannabinoid exposure may lead to abnormal brain development. As reported by de Moraes Barro and colleagues, babies born to adolescents who used marijuana during pregnancy have shown adverse neurological behavior effects of the newborns in the first 24 to 78 hours after delivery.
Most reports do not show an association between marijuana use and preterm birth. However, as noted by ACOG, studies have suggested the use of marijuana with tobacco may increase the risk for preterm delivery. In addition, research demonstrates that babies born to mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy at least once per week or more were smaller than those born to mothers who used the drug less frequently.Some of these are already well known and represented among widely available cannabis varieties, while others require some cross-breeding to achieve.
There are some good reasons for this: A study from Hartman, et al shows that low doses of alcohol can significantly elevate the concentrations of THC in the blood. Chemically speaking, terpenes are composed of repeating units of isoprene, which is a five-carbon unit chain or ring with eight hydrogen atoms attached C5H8. Far-red light between and nm is able to enhance the rates of photosynthesis under low light conditions by altering the distribution of PSI and PS2 leading to increased grana stacking and a closer association between the photosystems.
WEEK 4: Kronenberg, in ratio of Far-Red Plants absorb reflect mostand wavelengths of light. In addition, research demonstrates that babies born to mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy at least once per week or more were smaller than those born to mothers who used the drug less frequently.
When measuring the light reaching a garden, growers are concerned with the amount of light the plants get over the entire lit period. It imparts aroma to beer, but also has both anti-inflammatory effects and is used as a sedative and to relieve stress.