JEFF SMITHS STUDIO FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY PDF
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A scene that has strong linear lines like a row of columns on a porch or portico communicates a sense of structure and strength; scenes that have curved lines like the draping branches of a tree provide a softer, more painterly look.
Because of their traditional associations, linear backgrounds are often considered more masculine, while ones with curved lines tend to be considered more feminine. Plus, there are factors beyond gender that must be considered when selecting a background.
For example, you will find that some scenes work better with more elegant types of clothing, while others are better suited to casual outfits. If you have strong vertical lines in a scene, for example, you can tilt your camera to make the lines more diagonal; this will change the feeling of the background. If the background has a great deal of detail but you need a softer feeling, open up the lens and the background will soften to produce the look you want.
Outdoor settings are typically easier to read than indoor locations. As a result, coordinating the clothing and posing to the scene to achieve an overall sense of style becomes easier. A typical park or garden scene is a more casual setting, therefore more casual clothing and posing are required. An outdoor setting with columns and fountains is obviously more elegant and requires more elegant clothing.
An important point for selecting a location is to look for more natural, ungroomed locations. This happens because the garden is pruned for a manicured, elegant look. In contrast, when you go to a large park or natural river area, everything merges together to fill in the background. When it comes to lighting portraits Shadows are your friends when creating portraits.
They slim the subject and enhance the feeling of depth. If the ambient light in the setting you choose for your location portrait is too soft or lacks direction, you will need to modify it to create the effect you want.
This usually occurs when the photographer uses an enormous area of open sky as the main light. Shadows are our friends when working to make our clients look their best.
Shadows thin the face, slim the body, and increase the sense of depth in our portraits. Deep shadows over a wide transition area can actually take ten to fifteen pounds off of an overweight person by slimming their face, arms, waistline, hip and thighs! When working outdoors, you can reduce the size of the mainlight source by finding an obstruction building, hedge, grove of trees, etc. Then, pose the subject with their body turned toward the obstruction the shaded area and with their face turned back toward the main-light source.
This sculpts the body and provides a thinner view. In most of my outdoor portraits, I actually use the ambient light in the scene as the fill. I then add reflectors, mirrored sunlight through a translucent panel, or studio flash for the main-light source.
This is a business decision you must make. But to learn posing you need to be able to distinguish between the various types of posing and know what type of situation each is suited for. Traditional Posing. Traditional posing is used for portraits for business, yearbooks, people of power, and people of distinction. This style of posing reflects power, and to some degree wealth, respect, and a classic elegance.
Whether these portraits are taken in a head-and-shoulders- or full-length style, the posing is more linear, with only slight changes in the angles of the body.
Traditional posing is subtle, involving only slight changes in the angles of the body. The posing needs to be subtle. Most of the time, these clients will feel more comfortable in a standing rather than a seated position because of the clothing they are in.
The expressions should be more subtle as well.
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But at the same time, serious expressions need to be relaxed. Casual Posing. Casual posing is a style of posing in which the body is basically positioned as it would be when we are relaxing. Observe people as they are watching television, talking on the phone, or enjoying a picnic, and you will see the most natural and best casual poses for your clients. Casual poses are most often used when the portrait is to be given to friends and family. Casual poses are resting poses.
The arms rest on the legs, the chin rests on the hands. The back is posed at more of an angle. It is common to use the ground to pose on, laying on the side or even on the stomach. The purpose is to capture people as they really are. Journalistic Posing. It is recording people as they interact with their environment.
It is capturing the child, bride, or family as they are engaged in an activity so they basically forget you are are recording their image.
This is a very specific type of portrait and not one that the majority of people will respond to when it comes time to purchase, unless they have requested it and have a complete understanding of what the outcome of the session will look like. Glamorous Posing. Glamorous posing is sensual or sexy; it makes the subject look as appealing and attractive as possible. I am not talking about boudoir or the type of glamour that achieves its look by having the client in little or no clothing.
You can pose a fully clothed human being in certain ways and make them look extremely glamorous and appealing. The photographers who create these images are masters of making the human form look its best. Your client will just have more clothing on.
Many of my traditional poses are much more glamorous in their look than what the average pho- Glamorous posing is designed to make the subject look as appealing as possible. It is more dramatic and stylized than traditional or casual posing. This is because, as human beings, I think we all want to appear attractive. I show the client the poses by posing myself first. The second step is something I call variations. In every basic pose, there are variations that can be created simply by changing the hands or arms the angle of the head, the expression, or in the case of full-length poses the feet and legs.
While clients do get a laugh at me as I model these variations for them, it helps them select the pose they like best.
It is also good posing practice for me. As a result the portrait on the left has a fun, casual feel, while the image on the right is more glamorous. Many times I also think up new poses as I go through the variations. Once the client selects the pose, we put to use the rules of posing the body. The first thing is to turn the body toward the shadow side of the frame to make sure the subject appears as trim possible. The arms will be posed away from the waist, slimming its appearance, and the legs will be posed so that one leg supports the body and the other creates an accent.
The hands will rest on a surface a tree trunk, leg, table, etc. Although flat shoes would be more comfortable, I ask women to wear high heels to make sure their legs and thighs look as good as possible. If this is not appropriate to the outfit, their heels should be raised or toes pointed to create the same effect. Now we are ready to pick up the camera. This is a key difference between students and professionals. Students start shooting right away, notice all the imperfections only when they see the final images, and then vow to correct them in the future.
Professionals carefully study every aspect of the scene and only shoot when they are satisfied that everything is the way it should be to create a flawless portrait. Once the subject is in the pose and I have everything just the way I want it, I explain exactly what I want them to do. After that, we will do a series of photos that are smiling, then a series of images with a relaxed expression, and then a few big cheesy smiles at the end.
With each expression, I myself display the expression I want them to have more on this in the next chapter. Only when you take control of these elements will your portraits achieve a sense of style that will ensure your clients enjoy them for a lifetime.
Flatter the Client n one chapter I am going to tell you how to pose every part of the I human body.
Okay, I might be exaggerating—but I am going to give you some important tips for posing each part of the body to look its best. These are ideas that we will discuss further in subsequent chapters. In my experience, there is a difference between what you learn in school and what actually works in the real world. Classic posing rules have their place, but the overriding concern must be that the client looks good and likes their picture. I think this is because most of the classic posing rules have become outdated.
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One reason for this is that the roles of men and women in our society have changed. Outside of wedding photography, the average buyer of portrait photography is a woman between 35 and She holds the purse strings, and she wants to see her family members as they really are. This is very obvious in senior photography and even in the photojournalistic style of wedding photography that many brides and their mothers prefer. The big exception to this trend toward the casual is in images with a fashion edge.
Clients see this kind of imagery on television and in magazines, and they often love the edgy, dramatic, and unusual poses it features.
A client who favors this kind of portrait expects to be posed to create an effect that is not natural looking or relaxed—something that is definitely not in keeping with so-called classic posing.
I am not saying that you should not learn classic posing. There are times when that type of posing is appropriate, and everyone has to start somewhere.
I am simply sharing with you my experience from over twenty years of working with my clients; what you see in this book are the best-selling poses and ideas from a very successful studio. There are many ways in which you can pose the human body, ways that will complete the overall look of the image and make your client look beautiful. Potential problems need to be addressed at the start of the session.
This is why we suggest wearing long sleeves. Now, you can try one sleeveless top, but most woman stick to long sleeves just to be safe. In referring to other clients and not specifically to her, you save her feelings and the final sale. You can apply these same principles to dealing with other appearance problems you may encounter.
Observe the Details. The key to good posing is being observant. Many photographers are in too much of a hurry to start snapping off pictures.
I tell my young photographers to take one shot and wait for that image to completely download and be visible on the screen. At that point, I want them to study the image for at least ten seconds. By forcing them to take the time to notice problems in posing, lighting, and expression, the number of obvious problems have gone down considerably.
They constantly find problems coming out in the final proofs when they show them to the client—problems they should have picked up on before the portrait was The key to good posing is being observant.
Catching problems before you shoot the picture will result in better images and less need for retouching. If this is your shortcoming, hire someone with a good eye for detail to assist you in your sessions.
Their eyes and focus on detail will save you the cost of their salary in lost or reduced orders.
This is the only way to ensure client-pleasing images. He, like most mature men, has no idea what makes one hairstyle look good and another look messy.
She can spot a stray hair or a bad outfit from across the studio. Between the two of them, we have excellent portraits for clients. Every time an employee told a client we could fix something, I would sit them down at a computer station and tell them to fix it. Problems with posing need to be dealt with at the shoot, not fixed later.
Jeff Smith's Posing Techniques for Location Portrait Photography
Your client also needs to know how to dress to look their best and hide their flaws before the session day. This information has to be given to them verbally and in writing in a session brochure or in the form of a video consultation. The head, and especially which direction to tilt it, is a bit of a mystery for some people.
How I wish that every college teaching photography would just avoid this one subject. I have never seen one aspect of photography that so many photographers leave school doing so badly. I have had some truly talented photographers work for me, and that is the one obstacle I have had to overcome with almost every one of them.
Classic posing taught photographers to tilt the head toward the lower shoulder for a man and toward the higher shoulder for a woman. Essentially, tilting the head toward the lower shoulder shows strength, while tilting the head toward the higher shoulder makes the subject look more passive. Therefore, the real rule of tilting the head is that there is no rule.
The easiest way to learn about the head tilt is to first pose the body. Then, turn the face to achieve the perfect lighting and look. Then stop. If the perHere are two poses that are very similar aside from the tilt of the head. As you can see, the tilt just adds a different flavor to the shot.
If the subject is very uncomfortable and starts tilting their head in an awkward di- rection, correct it. Note: If the subject is nervous, they will instinctively tilt their head toward the high shoulder, making themselves look very awkward.
When photographing a woman with long hair, I look to the hair to help decide the direction the head will be tilted and the direction the body will be Long hair is beautiful, turned.
Long hair is beautiful, and there must be an empty space to put it. The and there must be tilt will go to the fuller side of the hair and the pose will create a void on the an empty space to put it.
This means she will sometimes be tilting toward the lower shoulder. Guys typically, on the other hand, generally do look better tilting the head toward their lower shoulder or not tilting at all.
But again, the pose and the circumstance dictate the direction the head is tilted or whether it is not tilted at all. With guys, the head usually looks best tilted toward the low shoulder or not tilted at all. Poses with direct eye contact are usually the most popular among portrait buyers.
If the eyes are not properly lit and properly posed, When it comes to how much to tilt the head, less is better than more— the portrait will not be salable.
The Eyes. The eyes are the windows to the soul and the focal point for any portrait. You can create the most stunning pose in the most stunning scene, but if the eyes are not properly lit and properly posed, the portrait will not be salable. Position of the Eyes. There are two ways to control the position of the eyes in a portrait. Second, you can have the subject change the direction of their eyes to look higher, lower, or to one side of the camera. Typically, the center of the eye is positioned toward the corner of the eye opening.
This enlarges the appearance of the eye and gives the eye more impact. This is achieved by turning the face toward the main light while the eyes come back to the camera. This works well for all shapes of eyes, except for people with bulging eyes.
When this is done on bulging eyes, too much of the white will show and draw attention to the problem. Eye Contact. First and foremost, the subject should always be looking at someone, not something. To do this, I put my face where I want their eyes to be.
Usually, I position my face directly over the camera. This puts the eyes in a slightly upward position, increasing the appearance of the catchlights see page If the camera position is too high to make this possible, I position my face on the main-light side of the camera, never beneath it and never to the shadow side of it. Both would decrease the catchlights. With my face directly to the side of the camera, the eyes appear to be looking directly into the lens, even though the subject is actually looking at me.
When looking from the side of the camera, a common mistake that my new photographers make is getting their face too far from the camera. This makes the eyes of the subject appear to be looking off-camera—which is fine if that is the intention and not a mistake.
When the eyes of the subject look into the lens or very close to it , the portrait seems to make eye contact with the viewer. An overwhelming majority of our senior clients prefer the intimate feeling of eye contact as opposed to the more reflective portraits where the eyes look off-camera, but Having the subject look at your eyes rather than a spot on the wall or some other inanimate object gives their eyes more spark in the portrait.
Read more on getting backgrounds right. The problem with this is that you might just be getting rid of some of the more interesting and useable images. Change Your Perspective Get a little creative with your shots. This might mean getting tall ladder, using a balcony or even climbing on a roof. The key is to be able to get everyone to the place you want them to stand quickly and to be ready to get the shot without having everyone stand around for too long.
I found the best way to get everyone to the spot is to get the bride and groom there and to have a couple of helpers to herd everyone in that direction. Read more on how to take Group Photos. I tend to dial it back a little a stop or two so that shots are not blown out — but particularly in backlit or midday shooting conditions where there can be a lot of shadow, fill in flash is a must.
Read more about using Fill Flash. Continuous Shooting Mode Having the ability to shoot a lot of images fast is very handy on a wedding day so switch your camera to continuous shooting mode and use it. Expect the Unexpected One more piece of advice that someone gave me on my own wedding day.
Attempt to capture them and you could end up with some fun images that sum up the day really well. I still remember the first wedding I photographed where the bride and grooms car crashed into a Tram on the way to the park where we were going to take photos. Further information: History of the camera Before Turin Shroud and light sensitive materials[ edit ] The notion that light can affect various substances -- for instance, the suntanning of skin or fading of textile -- must have been around since very early times.
Ideas of fixing the images seen in mirrors or other ways of creating images automatically may also have been in people's minds long before anything like photography was developed. The actual method that resulted in this image has not yet been conclusively identified. It first appeared in historical records in and radiocarbon dating tests indicate it was probably made between and Georg Fabricius —71 discovered silver chloride , later used to make photographic paper.
He also noted that paper wrapped around silver nitrate for a year had turned black. After experiments with threads that had created lines on the bottled substance after he placed it in direct sunlight for a while, he applied stencils of words to the bottle.
The stencils produced copies of the text in dark red, almost violet characters on the surface of the otherwise whitish contents.
The impressions persisted until they were erased by shaking the bottle or until overall exposure to light obliterated them. Schulze named the substance "Scotophorus" when he published his findings in He thought the discovery could be applied to detect whether metals or minerals contained any silver and hoped that further experimentation by others would lead to some other useful results.
The first effect of this cloth is similar to that of a mirror, but by means of its viscous nature the prepared canvas, as is not the case with the mirror, retains a facsimile of the image. The mirror represents images faithfully, but retains none; our canvas reflects them no less faithfully, but retains them all.
This impression of the image is instantaneous. The canvas is then removed and deposited in a dark place. An hour later the impression is dry, and you have a picture the more precious in that no art can imitate its truthfulness.
The hour of drying in a dark place suggests that he possibly thought about the light sensitivity of the material, but he attributed the effect to its viscous nature. Scheele's forgotten chemical fixer [ edit ] In , the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was studying the more intrinsically light-sensitive silver chloride and determined that light darkened it by disintegrating it into microscopic dark particles of metallic silver.
Of greater potential usefulness, Scheele found that ammonia dissolved the silver chloride, but not the dark particles. This discovery could have been used to stabilize or "fix" a camera image captured with silver chloride, but was not picked up by the earliest photography experimenters. He originally wanted to capture the images of a camera obscura, but found they were too faint to have an effect upon the silver nitrate solution that was recommended to him as a light-sensitive substance.
Wedgwood did manage to copy painted glass plates and captured shadows on white leather, as well as on paper moistened with a silver nitrate solution. Attempts to preserve the results with their "distinct tints of brown or black, sensibly differing in intensity" failed. It is unclear when Wedgwood's experiments took place. He may have started before ; James Watt wrote a letter to Thomas Wedgwood's father Josiah Wedgwood to thank him "for your instructions as to the Silver Pictures, about which, when at home, I will make some experiments".
This letter now lost is believed to have been written in , or Davy added that the method could be used for objects that are partly opaque and partly transparent to create accurate representations of, for instance, "the woody fibres of leaves and the wings of insects". He also found that solar microscope images of small objects were easily captured on prepared paper. Davy, apparently unaware or forgetful of Scheele's discovery, concluded that substances should be found to eliminate or deactivate the unexposed particles in silver nitrate or silver chloride "to render the process as useful as it is elegant".
He died at age 34 in Davy seems not to have continued the experiments. Although the journal of the nascent Royal Institution probably reached its very small group of members, the article must have been read eventually by many more people.
It was reviewed by David Brewster in the Edinburgh Magazine in December , appeared in chemistry textbooks as early as , was translated into French and was published in German in Readers of the article may have been discouraged to find a fixer, because the highly acclaimed scientist Davy had already tried and failed. Charles died in without having documented the process, but purportedly demonstrated it in his lectures at the Louvre.
He later wrote that the first idea of fixing the images of the camera obscura or the solar microscope with chemical substances belonged to Charles. Later historians probably only built on Arago's information, and, much later, the unsupported year was attached to it. This was a step towards the first permanent photograph from nature taken with a camera obscura. It is a view of a busy street, but because the exposure lasted for several minutes the moving traffic left no trace.
Only the two men near the bottom left corner, one of them apparently having his boots polished by the other, remained in one place long enough to be visible. Disenchanted with silver salts , he turned his attention to light-sensitive organic substances. On the back is written, "The first light picture ever taken". One of the oldest photographic portraits known, or ,  made by John William Draper of his sister, Dorothy Catherine Draper Not all early portraits are stiff and grim-faced records of a posing ordeal.
This pleasant expression was captured by Mary Dillwyn in Wales in General view of The Crystal Palace at Sydenham by Philip Henry Delamotte , A midth century "Brady stand" armrest table, used to help subjects keep still during long exposures. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
If you want to use train tracks as your background, you should not work on operational tracks. When I was done I was exhausted. Successive flashing of strategically placed flash mechanisms results in shadows along the depths of the scene. This is particularly helpful in the family shots. As you look for a scene in which to pose people for a group portrait, look for uneven areas, slopes, or even stairs.
Wedding Photography Family Photo Coordinator I find the family photo part of the day can be quite stressful.
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