HISTORY OF INDIA ROMILA THAPAR EBOOK
A History of India eBook: Romila Thapar: resourceone.info: Kindle Store. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Romila Thapar is Emeritus Professor of History at Kindle Store; ›; Kindle eBooks; ›; Politics & Social Sciences. Read "The Penguin History of Early India From the Origins to AD " by Romila Thapar available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get RS. off your.
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A history of India upto AD introducing the beginnings of India's cultural dynamics. PENGUIN BOOKS. THE PENGUIN HISTORY OF EARLY INDIA. Romila Thapar was born in India in and comes from a. Punjabi family, spending her early. "Romila Thapar is the most eminent Indian historian. This superb book is not only the basic history of how India came to be and an introduction to how the writing.
The invasion was necessary to this view of history. For those concerned with a Hindutva ideology, the invasion had to be denied. The definition of a Hindu as given by Savarkar was that India had to be his pitribhumi ancestral land and his punyabhumi the land of his religion.
A Hindu therefore could not be descended from alien invaders. Since Hindus sought a lineal descent from the Aryans, and a cultural heritage, the Aryans had to be indigenous. This definition of the Hindu excluded Muslims and Christians from being indigenous since their religion did not originate in India. Historians initially accepted the invasion theory and some even argued that the decline of the Indus cities was due to the invasion of the Aryans, although the archaeological evidence for this was being discounted.
But the invasion theory came to be discarded in favour of alternative theories of how the language, Indo-Aryan, entered the subcontinent.
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In , I had argued at a session of the Indian History Congress that invasion was untenable and that the language—Indo-Aryan—had come with a series of migrations and therefore involving multiple avenues of the acculturation of peoples.
The historically relevant question was not the identity of the Aryans identities are never permanent but why and how languages and cultures change in a given area. Why then do Hindutva ideologues—Indian and non-Indian—keep flogging a dead horse and refuse to consider the more recent alternative theories?
For them the only alternative is that if the Aryans were not invaders, they must have been indigenous. That there is a range of possibilities between the two extremes of invaders or indigenes does not interest them. The insistence on the indigenous origin of the Aryans allows them to maintain that the present-day Hindus are the lineal descendants of the Aryans and the inheritors of the land since the beginning of history.
This then requires that the presence of the Aryans be taken back into earliest history. Hence the attempt to prove, against the prevailing evidence from linguistics and archaeology, that the authors of the Rigveda were the people of the Indus cities or were possibly even prior to that.
The equation is based on identifying words from the Rigveda with objects from the Indus cities.
That the village-based, pastoral society of the Rigveda could not be identical with the complex urban society of the Indus cities is not conceded. Yet there are no descriptions of the city in the Rigveda or even the later Vedic corpus, that could be applied to the Indus cities: no references to structures built on platforms, or the grid pattern of streets and the careful construction of drainage systems, to granaries, warehouses and areas of intensive craft production, to seals and their function, and to the names of the places where goods were sent.
If the two societies were identical, the two systems would at least have to be similar.
In order to prove that the Indus civilisation was Aryan, the language has to be deciphered as a form of Sanskrit and there has to be evidence of an Aryan presence, which currently is being associated with the horse and the chariot. Attempts to decipher the language have so far not succeeded and those reading it as Sanskrit have been equally unsuccessful.
But there are linguistic rules that have to be observed in any decipherment. These make it necessary for a claim to stand the test of linguistic analyses. The readings also have to show some contextual consistency. These have been demonstrated as lacking in the decipherment claimed by Rajaram and Jha.
To insist that a particular seal represents the horse as Rajaram does, was an attempt to foreclose the argument and maintain that the horse was important to the Indus civilisation, therefore it was an Aryan civilisation.
Quite apart from the changes made in the computer-enhanced image of the seal to give the impression of a horse, which have been discussed in the article by Witzel and Farmer, the animal in the photograph of the seal is clearly not a horse. Furthermore, if the horse had been as central to the Indus civilisation as it was to the Vedic corpus, there would have been many seals depicting horses.
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Burjor Avari.Other Editions The author frequently referred to geographic areas of India which I couldn't place in my head the maps were This book may have all the information one might require for a general survey of India before the coming of the Mughals and the Portuguese, but the style is listless and documentary.
Evolving political patterns; the rise of the kingdom of Magadha; the rule of the Nandas; North-western India and contacts with Persia; the growth of towns; the rise of heterodox sects; Jainism and Buddhism 4. However, the prevalent views are more subtle. I would not She had written a somewhat leftist though not strictly Marxist version of ancient and early medivial Indian History.
English Download options: She gives only a brief overview of pre-history and starts with the first urbanisation in the Indus valley civ This is an erudite and impressive work. I would recommend! Related Articles. Pass it on!