HIGHER SURVEYING BC PUNMIA PDF
Download and Read Free Online Higher Surveying: No. 3 Dr. B. C. 3 by Dr. B. C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, A. K. Jain Free PDF d0wnl0ad, audio books. Surveying resourceone.info By Dr. B. C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Dr Arun Kuma Jain PDf Free Download. Surveying Vol. 1 Surveying Vol. Surveying Vol. Allahabad High Court Recruitment for 37 Higher Judicial Service. SURVEYING VOL 2 BY DR. resourceone.info, ASHOK KUMAR JAIN, ARUN KUMAR JAIN. 2. ENGINEERING SURVEYING BY W. SCHOFIELD AND M. BREACH.
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Download Surveying resourceone.info By Dr. B. C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Dr Arun Kuma Jain – This Volume is continuation with Volume I, and deals with advanced . If you are winsome corroborating the ebook Higher Surveying: No. 3 in pdf coming, in that instrument you outgoing onto the evenhanded website. We scan. 2 Surveying Volume 1 and 2 by Dr BC Punmia Ashok Kumar Jain Arun Kumar Jain from CIVIL Interested in resourceone.info?.
A number of materials are discussed that are of immense practical value, such as beams, columns, springs and cylinders. Another important feature of this book is that masonry structures such as dams and chimneys are also examined. About The Authors Dr. Punmia is a widely recognized authority in the Civil Engineering field, having written and published over a hundred technical papers and monographs on various subjects within the field.
Punmia has written more than fifteen other books, many of which are followed as text books.
D in Generalization [4hrs] 7. Definition 7. Different Methods of Generalization Unit 8. Relief Representation [6hrs] 8. Definition of Relief 8. Importance of Relief Representation in Maps 8.
Colour [3hrs] 9. Introduction 9. Nature of light 9. Additive and Subtractive Colours 9.
Colour Triangle 9. Choice of Colours Unit Digital Cartography [6hrs] Introduction Raster and Vector Data When using an optical level, the endpoint may be out of the effective range of the instrument.
There may be obstructions or large changes of elevation between the endpoints. In these situations, extra setups are needed. Turning is a term used when referring to moving the level to take an elevation shot from a different location. To "turn" the level, one must first take a reading and record the elevation of the point the rod is located on.
While the rod is being kept in exactly the same location, the level is moved to a new location where the rod is still visible. A reading is taken from the new location of the level and the height difference is used to find the new elevation of the level gun. This is repeated until the series of measurements is completed. The level must be horizontal to get a valid measurement. Because of this, if the horizontal crosshair of the instrument is lower than the base of the rod, the surveyor will not be able to sight the rod and get a reading.
The rod can usually be raised up to 25 feet high, allowing the level to be set much higher than the base of the rod.
Determining position[ edit ] The primary way of determining one's position on the earth's surface when no known positions are nearby is by astronomic observations. Observations to the sun, moon and stars could all be made using navigational techniques. Once the instrument's position and bearing to a star is determined, the bearing can be transferred to a reference point on the earth. The point can then be used as a base for further observations. Survey-accurate astronomic positions were difficult to observe and calculate and so tended to be a base off which many other measurements were made.
Since the advent of the GPS system, astronomic observations are rare as GPS allows adequate positions to be determined over most of the surface of the earth. Main article: Geodetic network A survey using traverse and offset measurements to record the location of the shoreline shown in blue. Black dashed lines are traverse measurements between reference points black circles.
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The red lines are offsets measured at right angles to the traverse lines. Few survey positions are derived from first principles.
Instead, most surveys points are measured relative to previous measured points.
This forms a reference or control network where each point can be used by a surveyor to determine their own position when beginning a new survey. Survey points are usually marked on the earth's surface by objects ranging from small nails driven into the ground to large beacons that can be seen from long distances. The surveyors can set up their instruments on this position and measure to nearby objects.
Sometimes a tall, distinctive feature such as a steeple or radio aerial has its position calculated as a reference point that angles can be measured against. It can determine distances, elevations and directions between distant objects. Since the early days of surveying, this was the primary method of determining accurate positions of objects for topographic maps of large areas. A surveyor first needs to know the horizontal distance between two of the objects, known as the baseline.
Then the heights, distances and angular position of other objects can be derived, as long as they are visible from one of the original objects. High-accuracy transits or theodolites were used, and angle measurements repeated for increased accuracy. See also Triangulation in three dimensions.
Surveying Vol.II By Dr. B. C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Dr Arun Kuma Jain PDf Free Download
Offsetting is an alternate method of determining position of objects, and was often used to measure imprecise features such as riverbanks. The surveyor would mark and measure two known positions on the ground roughly parallel to the feature, and mark out a baseline between them.
At regular intervals, a distance was measured at right angles from the first line to the feature. The measurements could then be plotted on a plan or map, and the points at the ends of the offset lines could be joined to show the feature. Traversing is a common method of surveying smaller areas. The surveyor starts from an old reference mark or known position and places a network of reference marks covering the survey area. They then measure bearings and distances between the reference marks, and to the target features.
Most traverses form a loop pattern or link between two prior reference marks so the surveyor can check their measurements. Datum and coordinate systems[ edit ] Main article: Geodetic datum Many surveys do not calculate positions on the surface of the earth, but instead measure the relative positions of objects.
However, often the surveyed items need to be compared to outside data, such as boundary lines or previous survey's objects. The oldest way of describing a position is via latitude and longitude, and often a height above sea level.
As the surveying profession grew it created Cartesian coordinate systems to simplify the mathematics for surveys over small parts of the earth.
The simplest coordinate systems assume that the earth is flat and measure from an arbitrary point, known as a 'datum' singular form of data. The coordinate system allows easy calculation of the distances and direction between objects over small areas.
Large areas distort due to the earth's curvature. North is often defined as true north at the datum. For larger regions, it is necessary to model the shape of the earth using an ellipsoid or a geoid.
Many countries have created coordinate-grids customized to lessen error in their area of the earth. Errors and accuracy[ edit ] A basic tenet of surveying is that no measurement is perfect, and that there will always be a small amount of error.
Upsetting the instrument, misaiming a target, or writing down a wrong measurement are all gross errors. A large gross error may reduce the accuracy to an unacceptable level. Therefore, surveyors use redundant measurements and independent checks to detect these errors early in the survey. Systematic: Errors that follow a consistent pattern. Examples include effects of temperature on a chain or EDM measurement, or a poorly adjusted spirit-level causing a tilted instrument or target pole.
Systematic errors that have known effects can be compensated or corrected. Random: Random errors are small unavoidable fluctuations. They are caused by imperfections in measuring equipment, eyesight, and conditions.
They can be minimized by redundancy of measurement and avoiding unstable conditions.
Random errors tend to cancel each other out, but checks must be made to ensure they are not propagating from one measurement to the next.Punmia has authored more than hundred papers, monographs and technical reports published in various Indian and Foreign Journals. Levelling field work Different methods 35 hrs Indoor work Unit 4: Jain, gold medalist at both B. Map Design and Layout 2. Large number of solved and unsolved examples develop reader's ability to apply the basic concepts to practical problems.
July 3. Reconnaissance and Monumentation 5 hrs Unit 3: Get New Updates Email Alerts Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
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