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Users will rarely need to modify these. Note that these are parameters to be set with the -d switch in the command line e. Xdefaults file. Because of bugs in the SCO Unix kernel, Ghostscript will not work if you select direct screen output and also allow it to write messages on the console. If you are using direct screen output, redirect Ghostscript's terminal output to a file.
Because Ghostscript must initialize the PostScript environment before executing the commands specified by this option it should be specified after other setup options. Specifically this option 'bind's all operations and sets the systemdict to readonly. Note that by "library files" here we mean all the files identified using the search rule under " How Ghostscript finds files " above: Ghostscript's own initialization files, fonts, and files named on the command line.
However, device parameters set this way PageSize , Margins , etc. As noted above, -d and -s define initial values for PostScript names. Some of these names are parameters that control the interpreter or the graphics engine. Otherwise, images are rendered using the nearest neighbour scaling Bresenham's line algorithm through the image, plotting the closest texture coord at each pixel.
When downscaling this results in some source pixels not appearing at all in the destination. When upscaling, each source pixels will cover at least one destination pixel. This allows for a performance vs. Every source pixel will contribute partially to the destination pixels. Computationally, image interpolation is much more demanding than without interpolation lots of floating point muliplies and adds for every output pixel vs simple integer additions, subtractions, and shifts.
In all but special cases image interpolation uses a Mitchell filter function to scale the contributions for each output pixel. When upscaling, every output pixel ends up being the weighted sum of 16 input pixels, When downscaling more source pixels will contribute to the interpolated pixels.
Every source pixel has some effect on the output pixels. Note that because of the way antialiasing blends the edges of shapes into the background when they are drawn some files that rely on joining separate filled polygons together to cover an area may not render as expected with GraphicsAlphaBits at 2 or 4.
Further note; because this feature relies upon rendering the input it is incompatible, and will generate an error on attempted use, with any of the vector output devices.
PCL andPostScript cannot be handled in ths way, and so all the pages must be interpreted. Adobe specifies GenericResourceDir to be an absolute path to a single resource directory. Ghostscript instead maintains multiple resource directories and uses an extended method for finding resources, which is explained in "Finding PostScript Level 2 resources". Due to the extended search method, Ghostscript uses GenericResourceDir only as a default directory for resources being not installed.
Therefore GenericResourceDir may be considered as a place where new resources to be installed. The default implementation of the function ResourceFileName uses GenericResourceDir when 1 it is an absolute path, or 2 the resource file is absent. The extended search method does not call ResourceFileName. Pages can be printed in reverse or normal order, or selected pages, including all even or all odd, and multiple collated copies can be produced.
Notes to read before you download
Since pages are saved until the flush command, pages can be printed multiple times, in any order. Because its possible as of PDF 2. Instead this option takes a string, which is first compared against the OutputConditionIdentifier in each OutputIntent in the array. If the OutputConditionIdentifier is not a standard identifier then it should be Custom and the UseOutputIntent string will be matched against the value of the Info key instead.
If the current directory is the first path a test is made for the iccprofiles directory. Next, the remaining paths with the string Resource in it are tested. The prefix up to the path separator character preceding the string Resource, concatenated with the string iccprofiles is used and if this exists, then this path will be used for ICCProfilesDir.
This also requires that the input be from stdin, otherwise an error will result Error: Example usage is: This mode should be used with caution, and. This mode also sets the. Ghostscript attempts to find an optimum balance between speed and memory consumption, but there are some cases in which you may get a very large speedup by telling Ghostscript to use more memory.
Please note that this discussion relates to devices which produce a bitmap format as the output. These parameters have no effect on the vector devices, such as pdfwrite. All devices may use a display list "clist" and use banding when rendering PDF 1. This prevents allocation of excessively large amounts of memory for the transparency buffer stack. The number of threads should generally be set to the number of available processor cores for best throughput.
This can also be useful in processing large documents when using a high-level vector output device like pdfwrite that maintains significant internal state. In fact, the. For pattern tiles that are very large, Ghostscript uses an internal display list memory based clist , but this can slow things down.
The current default threshold is 8Mb -- pattern tiles larger than this will be cached as clist rather than bitmap tiles. There are several debugging switches that are detected by the interpreter.
These switches are available whether or not Ghostscript was built with the DEBUG macro defined to the compiler refer to building a debugging configuration. Previous to 8. Now there are several debugging flags to allow more selective debugging information to be printed containing only what is needed to investigate particular areas.
The -Z and -T switches apply only if the interpreter was built for a debugging configuration. In the table below, the first column is a debugging switch, the second is an equivalent switch if any and the third is its usage. The following switch affects what is printed, but does not select specific items for printing:.
In addition, calling ghostscript with --debug will list all the currently defined non visual trace debugging flags, both in their short form as listed above for use with -Z and in a long form, which can be used as in: All the short form flags for -Z have an equivalent long form.
Future flags may be added with a long form only due to all the short form flags being used already. Visual Trace allows to view internal Ghostscript data in a graphical form while execution of C code.
Special instructions to be inserted into C code for generating the output. Client application rasterizes it into a window. Currently the rasterization is implemented for Windows only, in clients gswin There are two important incompletenesses of the implementation:.
The graphical output uses a hardcoded scale. An advanced client would provide a scale option via user interface. Breaks are not implemented in the client. If you need a step-by-step view, you should use an interactive C debugger to delay execution at breakpoints. The table here lists them by name and size. A guide to international paper sizes can be found at. Initially the B paper sizes are the ISO sizes, e.
In this environment, the relevant section of the resource file should look like this:. FreeType is now the default font renderer for Ghostscript.
Please ignore issues about UFST if you haven't got it. Important note: Third-party font renderers may be incompatible with devices that can embed fonts in their output such as pdfwrite , because such renderers may store fonts in a form from which Ghostscript cannot get the necessary information for embedding, for example, the Microtype fonts supplied with the UFST.
Ghostscript can be configured to disable such renderers when such a device is being used. As of Ghostscript version 9. With this change, we added a new switch: With version 9. Both bridges may run together. There are 2 ways to handle fonts with a third-party font renderer FAPI.
Ghostscript searches the specified file names as explained in How Ghostscript finds files. Default values for these arguments are equal to argument names.
Font files, which are being handled with FAPI, may reside in any directory in your hard disk. Paths to them to be specified in FAPIfontmap and with special command line arguments, explained below. The path may be either absolute or relative. Relative ones are being resolved from the path, which is specified in FAPIconfig file. It may include records of 2 types: A general record describes a font, which is being rendered with FAPI.
They must end with semicolon. Each general record is a pair. The first element of the pair is the font name the name that PostScript documents use to access the font, which may differ from real name of the font which the font file defines.
The second element is a dictionary with entries:. Each record of a group occupy a single line, and contains a number and 1, 2 or 3 names. The number is the font index in the FCO file, the first name is the Postscript font name, the secong is an Encoding resource name, and the third is a decoding resource name. CID fonts to be listed in another map file.
The format is similar to FAPIfontmap , but dictionaries must contain few different entries:. The last ones defines the configuration for handling resident UFST fonts only. Follow instructions in it.
If UFST needs it and the command line argument is not specified, Ghostscript prints a warning and searches plugin file in the current directory. If you want to run UFST with resident UFST fonts only and allow Ghostscript font renderer to handle fons, which may be downloaded or embedded into documents , you should run Ghostscript with these command line arguments: Some configurations of UFST need a path for finding symbol set files.
If UFST needs it and the command line argument is not specified, Ghostscript prints a warning and searches symbol set files in the current directory. Note that UFST and Free Type cannot handle some Ghostscript fonts because they do not include a PostScript interpreter and therefore have stronger restrictions on font formats than Ghostscript itself does - in particular, Type 3 fonts.
Contact Us. Table of contents Invoking Ghostscript Help at the command line: Paper sizes known to Ghostscript Appendix: Running Ghostscript with third-party font renderers For other information, see the Ghostscript overview and, if necessary, how to install Ghostscript.
Invoking Ghostscript This document describes how to use the command line Ghostscript client. For instance, to invoke Ghostscript on unix-like systems type: Here are some basic examples. The details of how these work are described below. To view a file: To convert a figure to an image file: Help at the command line: The message shows for that version of the Ghostscript executable: You can set the output device and process a file from the interactive prompt as well: You can switch devices at any time by using the selectdevice procedure, for instance like one of these: To select the resolution on such a printer, use the -r switch: Output to files Ghostscript also allows you to control where it sends its output.
For example, in order to create two PDF files from a single invocation of ghostscript the following can be used: The general form supported is: Some examples are: For instance, to convert somefile. There are two ways to select other paper sizes from the command line: Sometimes the initialization files are compiled into Ghostscript and cannot be changed.
Interacting with pipes As noted above, input files are normally specified on the command line. This option is also set by the -dFitPage option. If neither of these is specified, the output will use the screen options for any output device that doesn't have an OutputFile parameter, and the printer options for devices that do have this parameter.
This may include any extra bleed area needed to accommodate the physical limitations of cutting, folding, and trimming equipment. The actual printed page may include printing marks that fall outside the bleed box. The trim box defines the intended dimensions of the finished page after trimming. Some files have a TrimBox that is smaller than the MediaBox and may include white space, registration or cutting marks outside the CropBox. Using this option simulates appearance of the finished printed page.
The art box defines the extent of the page's meaningful content including potential white space as intended by the page's creator. The art box is likely to be the smallest box. It can be useful when one wants to crop the page as much as possible without losing the content.
Unlike the other "page boundary" boxes, CropBox does not have a defined meaning, it simply provides a rectangle to which the page contents will be clipped cropped. By convention, it is often, but not exclusively, used to aid the positioning of content on the usually larger, in these cases media. For files created with encryption method 4 or earlier, the password is an arbitrary string of bytes; with encryption method 5 or later, it should be text in either UTF-8 or your locale's character set Ghostscript tries both.
Annotations are shown by default. By default, AcroForm is not enumerated because Adobe Acrobat doesn't do this. This option may be useful for debugging or recovery of incorrect PDF files that don't associate all annotations with the page objects. This may be useful for backward compatibility with old versions of Ghostscript and Adobe Acrobat, or for processing files with large values of UserUnit that otherwise exceed implementation limits.
On TrueType fonts, this is often a hollow sqaure. Ghostscript now attempts to mimic this undocumented feature using a user parameter RenderTTNotdef.
Pages of all documents in PDF collections are numbered sequentionally. A list can include single pages or ranges of pages. Ranges of pages use the minus sign '-', individual pages and ranges of pages are separated by commas ','.
A trailing minus '-' means process all remaining pages. The differences in appearance of files with overprinting and spot colors caused by the differences in the color model of the output device are part of the PostScript and PDF specifications.
They are not due to a limitation in the implementation of Ghostscript or its output devices. In Adobe Acrobat, viewing of the effects of overprinting is enabled by the 'Overprint Preview' item in the 'Advanced' menu. This feature is not available in the free Acrobat Reader. The free Acrobat Reader also uses the tint transform functions to convert spot colors to the appropriate alternate color space.
Otherwise it tries directories in this order: Finding PostScript Level 2 resources Adobe specifies that resources are installed in a single directory. It concatenates: The value of the system parameter GenericResourceDir ; The name of the resource category for instance, CMap ; The name of the resource instance for instance, Identity-H.
In this case it concatenates: A directory listed in the section How Ghostscript finds files , except the current directory; The value of the system parameter GenericResourceDir ; The name of the resource category for instance, CMap ; The name of the resource instance for instance, Identity-H Due to possible variety of the part 1, the first successful combination is used.
Font lookup Ghostscript has a slightly different way to find the file containing a font with a given name. First, it looks up the font name in the combined Fontmaps. If this process fails at any step, Ghostscript looks for a file whose name is the concatenation of the value of the FontResourceDir system parameter and the font name, with no extension. If such a file exists, can be loaded, and defines a font of the desired name, that again is the end. If that fails, Ghostscript then looks for a file on the general search path whose name is the desired font name, with no extension.
It goes to the first directory on the list, and it's descendants, looking for all files that appear to contain PostScript fonts also Truetype fonts ; it then adds all those files and fonts to the combined Fontmaps, and starts over. Finally, if all else fails, it will try to find a substitute for the font from among the standard 35 fonts. Font-name-to-file-name mapping given in Fontmap files; aliases are possible, and there need not be any relation between the font name in the Fontmap and the FontName in the file.
Font-name-to-file-name mapping is implicit — the FontName in the file is used. Aliases are not possible. Only fonts and files named in Fontmap are used. Every Type 1 font file in each directory is available; if TrueType fonts are supported the ttfont. This must be an absolute path. This is ignored if Path doesn't specify a collection. The first font in a collection is 0.
Default value is 0. Environment Variables It is also possible to influence the path using standard, or your own environment variables, using the custom Postscript operator getenv. Format 1: Instead, try something like: To render an UTF encoded text, one must do the following: Provide a True Type font with Unicode Encoding. Notes on specific platforms Word size 32 or 64 bits The original PostScript language specification, while not stating a specific word sise, defines 'typical' limits which make it clear that it was intended to run as a bit environment.
However this is, obviously, dependent on the operating system and compiler support available. Not all builds of Ghostscript will support bit integers, though some bit builds eg Windows will. Unix The Ghostscript distribution includes some Unix shell scripts to use with Ghostscript in different environments. If the "directory" name ends with a colon ": Although VMS DCL itself converts unquoted parameters to upper case, C programs such as Ghostscript receive their parameters through the C runtime library, which forces all unquoted command-line parameters to lower case.
To preserve the case of switches, quote them like this: This definitely matters if Ghostscript was compiled with DEC C; we are not sure of the situation if you use gcc. Because of this, if you transfer files by FTP, you probably need to do one of these two things after the transfer: If the FTP transfer was in binary mode: MS Windows The name of the Ghostscript command line executable on MS Windows is gswin32c so use this instead of the plain ' gs ' in the quickstart examples.
For example: Xdefaults on Unix in a form like this: Xdefaults Ghostscript doesn't look at the default system background and foreground colors; if you want to change the background or foreground color, you must set them explicitly for Ghostscript. This is a deliberate choice, so that PostScript documents will display correctly by default -- with white as white and black as black -- even if text windows use other colors.
The geometry resource affects only window placement. The font tolerance gives the largest acceptable difference in height of the screen font, expressed as a percentage of the height of the desired font.
The palette resource can be used to restrict Ghostscript to using a grayscale or monochrome palette. Ghostscript never preallocates more than half the cells in a colormap. Working around bugs in X servers The " use Some servers do not implement backing pixmaps properly, or do not have enough memory for them.
Notes to read before you download
If you get strange behavior or "out of memory" messages, try setting useBackingPixmap to false. The scope of variables begins at the first statement after their declaration and lasts until the end of the innermost block that includes the declaration. Because of the lexical scoping rules, local variables can be freely accessed by functions defined inside their scope.
A local variable used by an inner function is called an upvalue, or external local variable, inside the inner function.
Notice that each execution of a local statement defines new local variables. Each of these closures uses a different y variable, while all of them share the same x. Whenever an error occurs during Lua compilation or execution, control returns to C, which can take appropriate measures such as printing an error message.
Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the error function. If you need to catch errors in Lua, you can use the pcall function. This metatable is an ordinary Lua table that defines the behavior of the original value under certain special operations.
You can change several aspects of the behavior of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable. If it finds one, Lua calls this function to perform the addition.
We call the keys in a metatable events and the values metamethods. In the previous example, the event is "add" and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition. You can query the metatable of any value through the getmetatable function. You can replace the metatable of tables through the setmetatable function. Tables and full userdata have individual metatables although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables.
Values of all other types share one single metatable per type; that is, there is one single metatable for all numbers, one for all strings, etc. A metatable controls how an object behaves in arithmetic operations, order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, and indexing.
A metatable also can define a function to be called when a userdata is garbage collected. For each of these operations Lua associates a specific key called an event. When Lua performs one of these operations over a value, it checks whether this value has a metatable with the corresponding event.
If so, the value associated with that key the metamethod controls how Lua will perform the operation. Metatables control the operations listed next. Each operation is identified by its corresponding name. The semantics of these operations is better explained by a Lua function describing how the interpreter executes the operation.
The code shown here in Lua is only illustrative; the real behavior is hard coded in the interpreter and it is much more efficient than this simulation. All functions used in these descriptions rawget , tonumber , etc. The function getbinhandler below defines how Lua chooses a handler for a binary operation. First, Lua tries the first operand. If its type does not define a handler for the operation, then Lua tries the second operand. Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
The function getcomphandler defines how Lua chooses a metamethod for comparison operators. A metamethod only is selected when both objects being compared have the same type and the same metamethod for the selected operation.
Like metatables, environments are regular tables and multiple objects can share the same environment. Threads are created sharing the environment of the creating thread.
Non-nested Lua functions created by loadfile , loadstring or load are created sharing the environment of the creating thread. Nested Lua functions are created sharing the environment of the creating Lua function. Environments associated with userdata have no meaning for Lua. It is only a convenience feature for programmers to associate a table to a userdata. Environments associated with threads are called global environments. They are used as the default environment for nested Lua functions created by the function.
You can copy music right from the PDF view to a raster image: See also: Edit in Place , After engraving a score, the Music View does not show the music. With the tools in the Quick Insert Panel you can add various music elements to the current note or selected music.
The Direction chooser specifies if articulations, dynamics or slurs appear in a neutral position e. Click on a tab to select a tool. All buttons in the Quick Insert Panel have configurable keyboard shortcuts; you can change them by right-clicking a button.
These musical symbols can be added to a note or rest or a selected range of music. If you add them to a selection, rests will be skipped. If there is no text selected, the cursor will automatically move to the next pitch, rest, skip or chord. If Allow shorthands is checked, Frescobaldi will use short signs for articulations if they exist e. Dynamics can also be added to a note or rest. If you select a range of music, you can add spanners which will automatically terminate at the last note, rest or chord in the selection.
If you then click a sign, it will replace the terminator. This tool lets you add arpeggio, glissandos and other spanners like slurs, phrasing slurs, manual beams or trills.
Arpeggios and glissandos apply to the current note; they need no music to be selected. The slurs, beams or trill apply to the current note and the next one if no music is selected, or to the first and the last note or chord in the selection. With the snippets manager you can store often used pieces of text called "snippets", and easily paste them into the text editor. Snippets can be searched by browsing the list or by typing some characters in the search entry.
Snippets can also have keyboard shortcuts applied to them. Some snippets have a special mnemonic short name which you can also type in the search entry to select the snippet. Pressing the Return key will then apply the snippet to the text editor and hide the snippets manager. Add new snippets using Ins. Edit the selected snippet with F2. Snippets can also be put in the menu see Snippet editor. And finally, there are snippets which can include or alter selected text.
Some snippets do this by using special variables, while others are small scripts written in Python.
The following variables can be used:. The other lines of the snippet define the text to be inserted in the editor. The following variables are recognized:. Python snippets can read and should set the variable text. The variable text contains the currently selected text which may be an empty string.
To keep a certain group of snippets manageable as a snippet library, you can of course prefix the snippet titles with some sort of special name. But a smarter way is to use a snippet variable. It is suggested to use the " set " variable, and set it to the name of the library you want the snippet to belong to. Then in the snippet manager, you can easily select all the snippets belonging to the library by entering: And then e.
To export snippets, either select them in the snippet manager, or filter the snippets using the search bar and select none, so that all the snippets visible in the snippet manager are exported. You may also drop an XML file on the snippet manager. A dialog will be displayed where you can select which snippets you want to import. When transposing music, two absolute pitches need to be given to specify the distance to transpose over. The pitches may include octave marks.
The pitches must be entered in the pitch name language used in the document. It is also possible to use the transpose function to change a piece of music from C-sharp to D-flat, or to specify quarter tones if supported in the pitch name language that is used. The transpose function can transpose both relative and absolute music, correctly handling key signatures, chordmode and octave checks. The rhythm functions of Frescobaldi alter the durations written after notes, chords, rests, etcetera.
Also it is possible to change the way rhythm is specified: Some users may prefer the option implicit per line, which always specifies the duration for the first note, chord or rest on a line. It can use hyphenation dictionaries of OpenOffice. To use this feature you must first select the text you want to hyphenate. In the dialog that appears, select the language. Click OK or press Enter to have the hyphenation take place. A small limitation is that word processor hyphenation dictionaries often don't want to break a word right after the first letter e.
So it can happen that you have to add some hyphens after the first letter of such lyrics. There is also a command to remove hyphenation. This can be useful if you have a stanza of lyrics that you just want to display as a markup below the music.
In this part the features of the editor are discussed, e. It is possible to search for plain text or regular expressions. Regular expressions are advanced search texts that contain characters that can match multiple characters in the document. When replacing text, it is also possible to refer to parenthesized parts of the search text. Document variables are variables that influence the behaviour of Frescobaldi.
They can be written in the first five or last five lines of a document. If a name ends with a directory separator, output files are looked for in the specified directory. A session is basically a list of open files. When you switch sessions, all current documents are closed first and then the documents of the other session are opened.
This can be useful if you want to keep the list of documents in session the same, even if you open or close documents while working. Under General Preferences , you can choose in which language Frescobaldi's user interface is translated, which user interface style you want to use, and whether you want to use the built-in Tango iconset or to use the system-wide configured icon set. Language and style take effect immediately, but the new iconset is visible after Frescobaldi has been restarted. Under Session to load if Frescobaldi is started without arguments you can configure which session to load if Frescobaldi is started without a filename.
You can choose whether to start with one empty document, with the last used session, or with a specific session. See also Sessions. Also, you can specify a default folder in which you keep your LilyPond documents.If there are no port names visible in the drop-down box, it may be necessary to connect a hardware MIDI synthesizer to your computer, or to start a software synthesizer program such as TiMidity or Fluidsynth.
Parentheses or added space "escape" the position parameter.
On Christmas version 1. Most of the Ghostscript output devices do not have file formats which support spot colors. The garbage-collector pause controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle.
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