FUNDAMENTALS OF ALGORITHMS PDF
sage and win one hundred dollars. This sounded safe: it was estimated at the time that the fastest existing computer using the most efficient known algorithm. Gilles Brassard and Paul Bartley, Fundamental of Algorithmics. Pages · Horowitz and Sahani, Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms, 2ND Edition. Introduction 1. What is an algorithm? 1. Notation for programs 6. Mathematical notation 7. Propositional calculus 7. Set theory 8.
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Technische Universit ät M ünchen. Part I. Overview. M. Bader: Fundamental Algorithms. Chapter 1: Introduction, Winter / 2. Lecture 1 - Introduction to Design and analysis of algorithms. Lecture 2 - Growth of Functions (Asymptotic notations). Lecture 3 - Recurrences, Solution of. Mathematical Background. • We will review: › Powers and Logs. › Series. • We will formally define the Big Oh notation. › Important functions for algorithm analysis.
Oussama Khatib Stanford, California July 8. Preface Tell me and I will forget. Show me and I will remember. Involve me and I will understand. Chinese proverb The practice of robotics and machine vision involves the application of algorithms to data.
For many robotic applications the amount of data that needs to be processed, in real-time, is massive. For vision it can be of the order of tens to hundreds of megabytes per second.
Progress in robots and machine vision has been, and continues to be, driven by more effective ways to process data. Over the intervening 25 years computing power has doubled 16 times which is an increase by a factor of 65 In the late s systems capable of real-time image processing were large 19 inch racks of equipment such as shown in Fig. Today there is far more computing in just a small corner of a modern microprocessor chip.
Over the fairly recent history of robotics and machine vision a very large body of algorithms has been developed — a significant, tangible, and collective achievement of the research community. However its sheer size and complexity presents a barrier to somebody entering the field. Given the many algorithms from which to choose the obvious question is: What is the right algorithm for this particular problem?
One strategy would be to try a few different algorithms and see which works best for the problem at hand but this raises the next question: How can I evaluate algorithm X on my own data without spending days coding and debugging it from the original research papers?
Once upon a time a lot of equipment was needed to do vision-based robot control. The author with a large rack full of image processing and robot control equipment 9. The first is the availability of general purpose mathematical software which it makes it easy to prototype algorithms. All these tools deal naturally and effortlessly with vectors and matrices, can create complex and beautiful graphics, and can be used interactively or as a programming environment.
The second is the open-source movement. Many algorithms developed by researchers are available in open-source form. The Toolboxes have some important virtues. Firstly, they have been around for a long time and used by many people for many different problems so the code is entitled to some level of trust.
Secondly, they allow the user to work with real problems, not trivial examples. For real robots, those with more than two links, or real images with millions of pixels the computation is beyond unaided human ability. Thirdly, they allow us to gain insight which is otherwise lost in the complexity. Fourthly, the Toolbox code makes many common algorithms tangible and accessible.
You can read the code, you can apply it to your own problems, and you can extend it or rewrite it. At the very least it gives you a headstart. The Toolboxes were always accompanied by short tutorials as well as reference material. Over the years many people have urged me to turn this into a book and finally it has happened! The purpose of this book is to expand on the tutorial material provided with the Toolboxes, add many more examples, and to weave it into a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together.
I want to show how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. By inclination I am a hands on person.
I like to program and I like to analyze data, so it has always seemed natural to me to build tools to solve problems in robotics and vision. The topics covered in this book are based on my own interests but also guided by real problems that I observed over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision.
I hope that by the end of this book you will share my enthusiasm for these topics. I was particularly motivated to present a solid introduction to machine vision for roboticists.
The treatment of vision in robotics textbooks tends to concentrate on simple binary vision techniques. In the book we will cover a broad range of topics including color vision, advanced segmentation techniques such as maximally stable extremal regions and graphcuts, image warping, stereo vision, motion estimation and image retrieval. We also cover non-perspective imaging using fisheye lenses and catadioptric optics.
These topics are growing in importance for robotics but are not commonly covered. Vision is a powerful sensor, and roboticists should have a solid grounding in modern fundamentals. The last part of the book shows how vision can be used as the primary sensor for robot control. This book is unlike other text books, and deliberately so. Firstly, there are already a number of excellent text books that cover robotics and computer vision separately and in depth, but few that cover both in an integrated fashion.
Achieving this integration is a principal goal of this book. Respectively the trademarks of The Mathworks Inc. Preface Secondly, software is a first-class citizen in this book. Software is a tangible instantiation of the algorithms described — it can be read and it can be pulled apart, modified and put back together again. There are a number of classic books that use software in this illustrative fashion for problem solving. The emphasis on software and examples does not mean that rigour and theory are unimportant, they are very important, but this book provides a complementary approach.
It is best read in conjunction with standard texts which provide rigour and theoretical nourishment. The end of each chapter has a section on further reading and provides pointers to relevant textbooks and key papers.
Writing this book provided a good opportunity to look critically at the Toolboxes and to revise and extend the code. The rewrite also made me look more widely at complementary open-source code. The complication is that every author has their own naming conventions and preferences about data organization, from simple matters like the use of row or column vectors to more complex issues involving structures — arrays of structures or structures of arrays.
My solution has been, as much as possible, to not modify any of these packages but to encapsulate them with light weight wrappers, particularly as classes. I am grateful to the following for code that has been either incorporated into the Toolboxes or which has been wrapped into the Toolboxes.
Robotics Toolbox contributions include: Machine Vision Toolbox contributions include: Along the way I got interested in the mathematicians, physicists and engineers whose work, hundreds of years later, is critical to the science of robotic and vision today.
Some of their names have become adjectives like Coriolis, Gaussian, Laplacian or Cartesian; nouns like Jacobian, or units like Newton and Coulomb. They are interesting characters from a distant era when science was a hobby and their day jobs were as doctors, alchemists, gamblers, astrologers, philosophers or mercenaries. In order to know whose shoulders we are standing on I have included small vignettes about the lives of these people — a smattering of history as a backstory.
In my own career I have had the good fortune to work with many wonderful people who have inspired and guided me. The genesis of the Toolboxes was my xiii Laszlo Nemes provided sage advice about life and the ways of organizations and encouraged me to publish and to open-source my software. Much of my career was spent at CSIRO where I had the privilege and opportunity to work on a diverse range of real robotics projects and to work with a truly talented set of colleagues and friends.
Mid book I joined Queensland University of Technology which has generously made time available to me to complete the project. My former students Jasmine Banks, Kane Usher, Paul Pounds and Peter Hansen taught me a lot of about stereo, non-holonomy, quadcopters and wide-angle vision respectively.
I would like to thank Paul Newman for generously hosting me several times at Oxford where significant sections of the book were written, and Daniela Rus for hosting me at MIT for a burst of intense writing that was the first complete book draft.
Springer have been enormously supportive of the whole project and a pleasure to work with. I would specially like to thank Thomas Ditzinger, my editor, and Armin Stasch for the layout and typesetting which has transformed my manuscript into a book.
I have tried my hardest to eliminate errors but inevitably some will remain. Please email bug reports to me at rvc petercorke. Peter Corke Brisbane, Queensland June Note on the Second Printing The second printing of the book provides an opportunity to correct some of the errors in the first printing.
I am very grateful to the following people for their help in finding these errors: Contents 1 1. Representing Pose in 2-Dimensions.
Representing Pose in 3-Dimensions. Wrapping Up. Further Reading. Time Varying Coordinate Frames. Car-like Mobile Robots. Dead Reckoning. Using a Map. Creating a Map. Localization and Mapping.
Monte-Carlo Localization. Notes on Toolbox Implementation. Describing a Robot Arm. Forward Kinematics. Inverse Kinematics.
Advanced Topics. Contents 7.
The plot Method. Manipulator Jacobian. Resolved-Rate Motion Control. Force Relationships. Inverse Kinematics: Equations of Motion. Drive Train. Forward Dynamics. Manipulator Joint Control. Color Image. Data Sources. Camera Classes. Contents Sources of Image Data. General Software Tools. Perspective Correction. Image Matching and Retrieval. Image Sequence Processing.
Fundamentals of algorithms
Arm-Type Robot. Mobile Robot. Aerial Robot. Linear Algebra Refresher. Gaussian Random Variables. Kalman Filter. Homogeneous Coordinates. Peak Finding.
Index of People. Index of Functions, Classes and Methods. General Index. Nomenclature The notation used in robotics and computer vision varies considerably from book to book. The symbols used in this book, and their units where appropriate, are listed below. Some symbols have multiple meanings and their context must be used to disambiguate them. The elements of a vector x[i] or a matrix x[i, j] are indicated by square brackets.
The elements of a time series xhki are indicated by angle brackets. Nomenclature xxiii A set of points is expressed as a matrix with columns representing the coordinates of individual points. A rectangular region is represented by its top-left and bottom-right corners [xmin xmax; ymin ymax].
A robot configuration, a set of joint angles, is expressed as a row vector.
Time series data is expressed as a matrix with rows representing time steps. Image coordinates are written u, v so an image represented by a matrix I is indexed as I v, u. Matrices with three or more dimensions are frequently used: Chapter 1 Introduction The term robot means different things to different people. Science fiction books and movies have strongly influenced what many people expect a robot to be or what it can do.
Sadly the practice of robotics is far behind this popular conception. One thing is certain though — robotics will be an important technology in this century. Products such as vacuum cleaning robots are the vanguard of a wave of smart machines that will appear in our homes and workplaces. These machines, complex by the standards of the day, demonstrated what then seemed life-like behaviour. The duck used a cam mechanism to sequence its movements and Vaucanson went on to explore mechanization of silk weaving.
Jacquard extended these ideas and developed a loom, shown in Fig. The pattern to be woven was encoded as a series of holes on punched cards. This machine has many hallmarks of a modern robot: The robots were artificial people or androids and the word, in Czech, is derived from the word for worker.
In the play, as in so many robot stories that follow, the robots rebel and it ends badly for humanity. These stories have influenced subsequent books and movies which in turn have shaped the public perception of what robots are. The mid twentieth century also saw the advent of the field of cybernetics — an uncommon term today but then an exciting science at the frontiers of understanding life and creating intelligent machines.
The first patent for what we would now consider a robot was filed in by George C. Devol and issued in The device comprised a mechanical arm with a gripper that was mounted on tracks and the sequence of motions was encoded as magnetic patterns stored on a rotating drum. The first robotics company, Unimation, was founded by Devol and Joseph Engelberger in and their first industrial robot shown Fig. Early programmable machines. It was driven by a clockwork mechanism and executed a single program; b The Jacquard loom was a reprogrammable machine and the program was held on punched cards photograph by George P.
Landow from www. Universal automation. Devol in Fig. The original vision of Devol and Engelberger for robotic automation has become a reality and many millions of arm-type robots such as shown in Fig.
The use of robots has led to increased productivity and improved product quality. Rather than take jobs it has helped to keep manufacturing industries viable in high-labour cost countries.
Today many products we buy have been assembled or handled by a robot. These first generation robots are now a subclass of robotics known as manufacturing robots. Other subclasses include service robots which supply services such as cleaning, personal assistance or medical rehabilitation; field robots which work outdoors such as those shown in Fig. A manufacturing robot is typically an arm-type manipulator on a fixed base that performs repetitive tasks within a local work cell.
High-speed robots are hazardous and safety is achieved by excluding people from robotic work places. Field and service robots face specific and significant challenges.
The first challenge is that the robot must operate and move in a complex, cluttered and changing environment. A delivery robot in a hospital must operate despite crowds of people and a timevarying configuration of parked carts and trolleys. A Mars rover must navigate rocks and small craters despite not having an accurate local map in advance of its travel. The second challenge for these types of robots is that they must operate safely in the presence of people.
The hospital delivery robot operates amongst people, the robotic car contains people and a robotic surgical device operates inside people. Domin Sulla, let Miss Glory have a look at you. Helena stands and offers her hand Pleased to meet you.
It must be very hard for you out here, cut off from the rest of the world [the factory is on an island] Sulla I do not know the rest of the world Miss Glory. Please sit down. Helena sits Where are you from? Sulla From here, the factory Helena Oh, you were born here. Sulla Yes I was made here. Helena startled What? Helena Oh, please forgive me … The full play can be found at http: Image on the right: Library of Congress item Fig. A modern six-axis robot from ABB that would be used for factory automation.
This type of robot is a technological descendant of the Unimate shown in Fig. Specifically it described a track-mounted polarcoordinate arm mechanism with a gripper and a programmable controller — the precursor of all modern robots.
In he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Photo on the left: Devol Joseph F. He received his B. Engelberger has been a tireless promoter of robotics. In , he appeared on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson with a Unimate robot which poured a beer, putted a golf ball, and directed the band.
He promoted robotics heavily in Japan, which led to strong investment and development of robotic technology in that country, and and gave testimony to Congress on the value of using automation in space.
He has written two books Robotics in Practice and Robotics in Service , and the former was translated into six languages. Engelberger served as chief executive of Unimation until , and in founded Transitions Research Corporation which became HelpMate Robotics Inc.
He remains active in the promotion and development of robots for use in elder care. Non land-based mobile robots. There are many definitions and not all of them are particularly helpful. A definition that will serve us well in this book is a goal oriented machine that can sense, plan and act.
A robot senses its environment and uses that information, together with a goal, to plan some action. The action might be to move the tool of an arm-robot to grasp an object or it might be to drive a mobile robot to some place.
Sensing is critical to robots. Proprioceptive sensors measure the state of the robot itself: Exteroceptive sensors measure the state of the world with respect to the robot. The sensor might be a simple contact switch on a vacuum cleaner robot to detect collision.
It might also be an active sensor 3 Cybernetics flourished as a research field from the s until the s and was fueled by a heady mix of new ideas and results from neurology, feedback, control and information theory.
Research in neurology had shown that the brain was an electrical network of neurons. Walter Pitts and Warren McCulloch proposed an artificial neuron in and showed how it might perform simple logical functions. In Marvin Minsky built SNARC from a B24 autopilot and comprising vacuum tubes which was perhaps the first neural-network-based learning machine as his graduate project.
Maybe an electronic brain could be built! Programming Fundamentals 13 High-level Programming Languages cont.
Such operating systems are called multitasking systems. During the s, C compilers were written for other flatforms, including PCs. Software schedules were late, costs exceeded budgets and finished products were unreliable. Programming Fundamentals 21 Object Oriented Programming cont.
The procedures associated with an object are referred as functions or methods. Analyse the problem Analyse the problem requirements to understand what the program must do, what outputs are required and what inputs are needed. Develop a Solution We develop an algorithm to solve the problem. Algorithm is a sequence of steps that describes how the data are to be processed to produce the desired outputs.
Code the solution This step consists of translating the algorithm into a computer program using a programming language.These are big topics and the combined coverage is necessarily broad. MatthewTucker51 the mvp goes to u. We discuss how motion between two poses can be decomposed into elementary translations and rotations, and how elementary motions can be composed into more complex motions.
We also cover non-perspective imaging using fisheye lenses and catadioptric optics. To my family Phillipa, Lucy and Madeline for their indulgence and support; my parents Margaret and David for kindling my curiosity; and to Lou Paul who planted the seed that became this book.
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