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Howatt states: 'The Reform Movement consisted of non-native teachers who accepted the basic sense of the monolingual principle, but did not see any advantage in an extremist view.

The law of association was recognized by the newly emerging science of psychology, whereas the learning material consisting of absurd, disconnected sentences illustrating points of grammar was strongly criticized.

To be learned, the material had to be internally connected to allow associations. Translation was discouraged for fear of undesirable associations between the native and the foreign language preventing the development of the language to be learned. The text was treated as the material for learning rules of grammar inductively, rather than the illustration of the rules already learned.

Many authors suggested learning grammar after the text's presentation. The contrast between inductive and deductive learning of grammar rules should be clear by now. Induction is the reasoning operation in which we draw conclusions from the particular to the general. In the case of language learning, this means progressing from sample sentences in which certain forms appear to a generalization about forms and their context, expressed in the form of a rule a statement about the principle governing the occurrence of the form.

Deduction is a reverse process in which we start with the generalization and make inferences regarding the specific instances of the rule. In the case of learning grammar, this starts with the presentation of a grammar rule, which is subsequently illustrated with various sample sentences. The Natural and the Direct Methods The essence of the Direct Method can be explained with a quote from Howatt : 'The Direct Method originated in a desire to do something that the schools of the time were not doing, and could not do, namely to teach foreign languages as practical skills for everyday purposes of social survival.

Questions of educational value and 'worthwhileness' were irrelevant, what mattered was the ability to communicate effectively in ordinary 'trivial' life. Foreign language teaching in a historical perspective 'Direct' comes from the absence of any mediating role of grammar, translation, or dictionary.

Language learning is a natural ability of humans and can be done intuitively provided there are opportunities for interaction or conversation, in other words, to quote Howatt : 'someone to talk to, something to talk about, and a desire to understand and make yourself understood.

Interaction is at the heart of natural language acquisition, or conversation, as Lambert Saveur called it when he initiated the revival of interest that led eventually to the direct method. As has been mentioned above, the source of inspiration for the Direct and Natural Methods often came from various informal observations of children playing with their mother tongue and the effortless way in which they were able to master it without explicit instruction in grammar.

The use of such methods was certainly prevalent in those families, not necessarily only aristocratic, who could afford to have their children educated at home with a live-in tutor, a native speaker of the language, most often French, but also English and German.

The principle of the Direct Method was learning the language in situational context, linking new words to their meaning, e.

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One of the representatives of the Natural Method is Heinrich Pestalozzi , who lived and worked in Switzerland and is still considered to be an important figure in the history of education. His 'object lessons' involved learning foreign language vocabulary items through naming the respective objects as well as commenting on them and building all kinds of sentences with them.

However, Howatt points out critically that it is hard to envisage what happens in the method once the teacher runs out of objects to be used and the learners are ready for more complex material.

He adds that in fact it is hard to envisage the method beyond the intermediate level. Another representative of this movement was Gottlieb Henness in Germany, who used Pestalozzis technique to teach standard German to speakers of other dialects, established his own language school and added French as a foreign language. He emigrated to the United States and met Lambert Sauveur , with whom he collaborated to open a school in Boston.

Its programme was quite intensive: a hundred hours of intensive instruction, two hours a day, five days a week for four and a half months. The most important element of the method was the dialogue of the teacher with the students, naming various classroom objects, stress on oral work and written material used mainly to consolidate oral work, delayed at least by a month.

He did not use the native language so the learners had to understand the material on the basis of situational clues. Error correction was not used. Sauveur realized that there was a difference between earnest questions, through which the teacher genuinely seeks information, and other questions which are asked merely 1. The Natural and the Direct Methods 25 for the sake of language practice. He stressed the role of context, for example, the need to ask questions so that one would give rise to another because this continuity would guide the learners in the process of understanding.

An important figure in the commercial implementation of the Direct Method was Maximillian Berlitz , who opened his first language school in Providence, Rhode Island, making foreign language learning available through the Direct Method in the United States and Europe. The need for learning the spoken language was so strong at that time that his schools mushroomed in Europe and America. He also wrote textbooks and reference grammars for his method.

The teachers he employed were all native speakers of the target language and under no circumstances was the student's native language allowed to be used in the classroom. The emphasis was on oral work with everyday phrases and vocabulary, on intensive practice, ample use of the question-and-answer technique and delayed introduction of grammatical explanations.

The Berlitz Method was quite systematic and replicable. Berlitz himself was proud that the courses in various places were coordinated in such a way that a student leaving school in one city could continue in another. Critics of the Direct Method stressed that it was insufficiently focused on grammatical accuracy and systematicity and that it put high demands on the teachers' language proficiency and energy resources.

However, the Direct Method addressed the practical needs of language learners Richards and Rodgers, Below is a list of its characteristic features: 1.

The emphasis in this method was on speaking and listening. Correct pronunciation was of primary importance. The main forms of activity were oral, especially dialogues and question-and answer exchanges. New material was first introduced orally. Vocabulary was chosen on the basis of its practicality and its meaning was demonstrated directly, with the use of objects, pictures and gestures.

Grammar of the target language was taught inductively in a variety of oral activities. In most general terms, the characteristic tenets of the Direct Method responsible for its name centre on using language rather than talking about it. More specifically, instead of explanation, these tenets stress interaction and focus on the learner's active involvement, as well as practice, the primacy of speech over writing, the role of the natural pace of speaking and the use of connected text.

One of the specialists who recognized the limitations of the Direct Method was Henry Sweet. He postulated the need for the teaching method to have a sound and systematic linguistic basis. As a result, he saw a way to combine the Direct Method, especially its emphasis on language learning from text and conversation where language was arbitrary with the formal focus on grammar rules of the Grammar Translation Method where language was logically organized, on condition that the study of grammar be made more practical and linked to meaningful material.

Foreign language teaching in a historical perspective Henry Sweet was a distinguished British phonetician and polyglot, the man who taught phonetics to Europe Howatt , thought to have been portrayed by Shaw as Professor Higgins in Pygmalion. His most important work on foreign language teaching The Practical Study of Languages is not only an outstanding contribution to the reform in language teaching but to a balanced framework firmly based on linguistics. This book starts with the statement that all language study must be based on phonetics, which provides the basis for acquiring accurate pronunciation, and on a system of notation.

Phonetics must be learned as a tool to accurate pronunciation. He stressed the role of intelligibility of cross-linguistic contrasts between sounds now called phonemes.

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Literary texts were considered of lesser value to the language learner than the colloquial spoken language. Sweet believed in using texts which would be natural yet simple enough to be comprehensible as opposed to 'monstrosities' aimed at illustrating points of grammar.

The content or the story line would hold the text together as a connected whole. His criteria for grading text difficulty were based on their typology as well as subject matter, starting with descriptions, then narratives and finally dialogues. As far as the learning component is concerned, he followed the principles of associationism in psychology and stressed the need of repetition and learning by heart after the material has been studied thoroughly.

Sweet stressed the need to control the number of vocabulary to be presented 3, common words would be sufficient for general purposes he also grouped them thematically. There were five stages in his approach: 1 the mechanical stage aimed at learning good pronunciation and phonetic transcription, 2 the grammatical stage, focused on building the knowledge of grammar and basic vocabulary, 3 idiomatic stage, devoted to the lexical material, and finally 4 the literary and 5 archaic stages, devoted to literature and philology.

The Reading Method Another method which stressed the need of learning the language from text was the Reading Method. It was supposed to provide the answer to the criticisms addressed to the Direct Method, especially its attempts to attain the impossible in the school context.

The Reading Method offered a solution to problems of foreign language teaching based on the reevaluation of the teaching goals: the focus was not on oral work or oral practice but on the written language. Its primary aim was comprehension of the written text to develop the ability of rapid silent reading. The texts were based on controlled and limited vocabulary but since reading is an individual matter, the teachers introduced some speaking activities to talk about the target language and culture Mackey, The features which this approach shares with the Reading Method include, first and foremost, the emphasis on language comprehension and retardation of speaking activities until the learner has been exposed to a sufficient amount of input for production to emerge 1.

The Reading Method 27 naturally.

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The approach stresses the need for the learner to be exposed to authentic material and to really link the forms to their exact meaning. Understanding the material is the key to language learning. Harold Palmer , a British applied linguist, had an enormous impact on the field of foreign language teaching, especially teaching English as a foreign language Howatt, , in that he was able to logically derive the principles of foreign language teaching from linguistics phonetics, grammar, lexicology , psychology the laws of memory and pedagogy the role of concretization in teaching Titone, Palmer began his career as a teacher of English as a foreign language in Belgium.

He also collaborated with Daniel Jones and was offered a job as a lecturer on foreign language teaching to foreign language teachers. During that time he took a keen interest in foreign language teaching in general and developed many innovative ideas about his field which were published in The Scientific Study and Teaching of Languages, This is the book in which he, unlike Berlitz, takes a balanced view toward translation, especially as an exact device to semanticize the meaning of unknown words.

Considering the complexity of language, Palmer argues for a multiple line of approach in language teaching, tapping all our capacities. Moreover, the key figure in the learning process is the learner, especially his language proficiency, abilities and incentive to learn.

His general principles include: 'ears before eyes', 'reception before production', 'oral repetition before reading', 'immediate memory before prolonged memory', 'chorus work before individual work', 'drill work before free work', 'equal attention to the four skills', 'learning by heart', as well as the emphasis on concreteness of the material and the interest factor. In the latter, he made a distinction between the spontaneous and the studiai capacities of the learner, which, in current terms, correspond to the communicative and cognitive aspects of language processes.

Practical language learning is contingent both in direct contact with the language, frequent listening practice and repetition, and conversation as well as the purely theoretical work of the intellect. The Institute was an Anglo-American undertaking with the aim of organizing annual conferences as well as disseminating professional information among teachers of English in Japan.

During that time he was developing and advocating the Oral Method of teaching English as a foreign language, which, unfortunately, did not suit the traditional culture of a typical Japanese classroom.

At the same time, he was also keenly interested in the criteria of frequency for vocabulary selection and produced various lists of most frequently used words for teaching English as a foreign language. This interest was reflected in his publication from called The Grading and Simplifying of Literary Material.

In addition to the above, he was a brilliant phonetician as testified by his publication of English Intonation. In he wrote A Grammar of Spoken English, on a strictly phonetic basis, aimed at advanced learners and teachers of English, which is considered to be the first large-scale description of standard spoken English for pedagogical purposes Howatt, A year later, in , he and his daughter Dorothe produced English Through Actions, a set of classroom materials, especially drills, which systematically linked language learning to various activities, often likened to Gouin's ideas.

He returned to Britain in to collaborate with Michael West as well as to act as a British Council Adviser on matters of teaching English oversees. As pointed out by Howatt , Palmer was instrumental in turning the field of foreign language teaching into a full-fledged profession, which is now called applied linguistics. Foreign language teaching in a historical perspective To conclude the section on historical developments in foreign language teaching, we should acknowledge a considerable growth and diversification of ideas at this stage.

The notion of grammar as the key to foreign language learning is juxtaposed by the idea that foreign language learning should be direct, i. The Direct and Natural Methods, outlined above, are inspired by fairly random and informal insights into the process of first language acquisition. Nevertheless, they are significant to the development of the field in that they enrich the spectrum of possibilities in language teaching with an important alternative to sentence-based and explicit grammar-oriented strategies.

The Direct and Natural Methods are timeconsuming because their impact depends on the sheer quantity of the learning material and contact hours.

This remains in sharp contrast with the qualitative grammar-based strategies which strive to provide the learner with the material for language learning in a condensed form. The demise of the Grammar Translation Method is certainly accelerated by the changing social demands regarding foreign language mastery. The world is shrinking. Greater possibilities of travel as well as its amazing speed by new means of transportation, such as the steam ship, the train, the automobile as opposed to the horse-drawn carriage, migration waves from Europe to the United States, the intensity of international contacts and the dynamic development of mass communication, i.

Foreign languages are introduced to schools on a regular basis, whereas the educational system becomes more and more accessible to young generations of learners.

Unquestionable progress has been made in various areas of foreign language teaching; many activities which are used nowadays have been well-known and established in the foreign language classroom for quite a long time, as documented by Kelly , e.

Nevertheless, the state of the field of foreign language teaching in the first half of the 20th century is considered far from satisfactory to meet the challenges of the real world.

The current view on the role of grammar Following a wave of studies of the relationship between language learning and grammar instruction, it is nowadays possible to formulate rather specific expectations regarding the function of grammatical rule in foreign language teaching. First of all, we must recognize the irony of the explicit presentation of the rule: the learner ends up learning what he or she has been taught, that is information about language, expressed as a sentence explaining some principle which governs the use of the given forms.

Technically, this is an observation, a thought expressing a regularity in the grammatical system, but not the ability to behave communicatively 1. The current view on the function of translation 29 according to this observation. For example, if we explain to the learner that the third person singular of the verb in the simple present tense must have either the -s or -es ending, the learner will understand and learn this principle as an idea expressed in a sentence, but not as the ability to implement the principle in the act of speaking.

In order to accomplish the latter, the learner must have numerous, if not endless, opportunities to practise the use of third person singular simple present sentences in meaningful contexts.

Observing language to notice regularities in the use of forms as in linguistic description is a cognitive operation not to be mistaken for the act of producing an utterance in the same language as a communicative operation. Unfortunately, the two aspects used to be regarded as if they had been one and the same operation: grammar rules used to be erroneously identified with the material for producing utterances. It is now recognized that they possess their distinct specificity and that each of them taps different and specialized knowledge sources in our mind.

Rules are fed by metalinguistic or metalingual knowledge which comes from reasoning, while speech production - by largely automatized procedural knowledge which comes from practice. Explicit rule presentation cannot function as a substitute for communicative language practice, but it can provide the learner with useful guidance about the forms to make communicative language practice more effective. It does not matter whether we emphasize the inductive or deductive strategy for rule presentation, as long as the illustrative material is meaningful and there are plenty of opportunities for communicative practice distributed in time.

For these reasons, the explicit teaching of grammar cannot be expected to provide the learner with the key to language. The key to foreign language learning is its use in meaningful practice and interaction.

Considering the communicative goals of foreign language teaching, rule presentation and learning is no longer a leading activity, the core of a teaching method. Instead, its status is reduced to one of many form-focused techniques of 'teaching grammar' and fostering accuracy with the function to intensify the benefits of communicative language practice. Additionally, there are two important conditions attached to this limited use of explicit rule presentation: 1 the learner must be cognitively ready to deal with the abstract information about language, which is to say, be at least at the developmental stage of formal operations, around the age of ; and 2 the rule must be relevant to the learner, i.

The current view on the function of translation In the wake of its uses and abuses in the Grammar Translation Method, translation used to be given a bad press.

The Grammar Translation Method relied too heavily on translating from the target to the native language turning it into a dominating activity. The results of such an emphasis were predictable: the learners became skilled in what they were engaged in doing - converting sentences or even whole texts into their native language.

Understandably, such ability has little to 30 1. Foreign language teaching in a historical perspective do with the practical use of language in communication to express and understand meaning. But it certainly was an effective way of rendering the meaning of the text in focus. After a period of strong objections to any use of translation in foreign language teaching, a more balanced attitude has evolved.

To begin with, translation is a cover term for a variety of activities depending on the educational context. It may be either a part of specialized translation training or of a general foreign language programme. It may be from or into the native language.

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Fantastic - Great recipes available, only issue is the sound not working on the videos. I have tried the online help for this issue and still have had no luck resolving which leads me to believe there may be an issue with the app itself.

I would appreciate if you could look into this.Instead, its status is reduced to one of many form-focused techniques of 'teaching grammar' and fostering accuracy with the function to intensify the benefits of communicative language practice. Apr 09, 7jane rated it really liked it. The Natural and the Direct Methods 23 reading when their pronunciation was correct.

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