CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF CHINA PDF
When The Cambridge History of China was first planned, more than two Cambridge Modern History in twelve volumes, and The Cambridge. Файлы. Исторические дисциплины. История стран Азии и Африки. История Китая. The Cambridge History of China. 中文名: 剑桥中国史【英文版】 英文名: The Cambridge History of China 资源格式: PDF 发行时间: 年3月23日 地区: 美国 语言: 英文 简介: 代码声明：所有资源均.
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publisher's note In the months from September to the beginning of December , reportedly Helen scribed the section. HISTORY OF. CHINA. Volume 9. Part One: The Ch'ing Empire to edited by published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridge. The Pitt. The Cambridge History of China is the largest and most comprehensive history of China in the English language. Planned in the s by the late, distinguished.
Joseph Xeedham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, William Skinner, and others have built a picture among other things of the commercial revolution, the interdependence of urban and rural sectors, and the growth of national markets: in short, the economic functions that made a growing pattern of urbanization central to Chinese social history. And, the changing character of urban labor, noted by late Ming writers, also should form an important aspect of any study of urbanism.
To turn to the physical aspects of Ming cities, those aspects of architectural tradition and urban planning concepts that gave the great Ming capitals and hundreds of other larger and smaller cities their distinctive pattern and appearance, have been studied in some depth. A recent study of the third Ming capital, Chung-tu in Anhwei, built in the s and s, now shows us that Chung-tu was the essential effort from which stemmed the planning and design of both Nanking and Peking. A large book recently appeared in China devoted entirely to various social and economic aspects of Ming cities4 that signals a growing interest among Chinese scholars in Chinese urbanism as a field of study in its own right.
This places urbanism in the broadest social framework and systematically assembles a great quantity of information from traditional sources. Our sense of Ming cities and large towns, which existed in impressive number and were of surprising size and prosperity is greatly advanced by such recent studies.
The Cambridge History of China
Other readers undoubtedly will find further lacunae in the present volume. The place of women in Ming society appears to be coming into clearer focus, particularly as popular and entertainment literature becomes more fully studied. Many related issues, including child-rearing, adoption, marriage, concubinage, women's property, suicide, the new flourishing of eroticism, the history of medicine as it relates to women and children, are all among the set of historical issues awaiting mature 3 Wang Chicn-ying, M'mgChung-tu, Peking, The Ming military still needs a broad study touching on its management, its social composition, its training and specialized skills, its employment on the battlefield, and its role in preserving civil order.
While the present volume includes a masterly treatment of Ming Confucian thought, other aspects of the mentality of the elite and the literate sub-elite could round out our sense of the texture of Ming life, in which a rapidly changing merchant community also was becoming an ever more significant component. All these and, no doubt, other special aspects of Ming China that are either wholly overlooked or not specifically treated in depth in this volume will occur to the reader, and as the period attracts an ever-growing group of specialists these gaps will become more and more apparent.
We hope that the awareness of this volume's lacunae will stimulate others to undertake new research, and will lead to further publications. It is inevitable in the production of a general work on this scale that limits must be imposed both on what it covers and also on how up-to-the-minute its coverage can be.
Moreover, its editors must accept that, in a rapidly growing field of history such as this, where we are still scratching at the surface of vast riches in source material and beginning to put the data from many detailed investigations into a broader context and to apply new methodologies to our materials, it is inevitable that within a few years it will be overtaken by ongoing scholarship in some specific areas.
Nevertheless, we believe that Volume 8fillsa present need, presents a good picture of current knowledge, has achieved a new level of synthesis in thefieldsit covers, and can now properly take its place in The Cambridge History of China.
Although in the end die dynasty collapsed under the pressures of domestic rebellions and foreign invasions, it had long seemed the most secure and unchallengeable ruling house the Chinese had known, and its institutions were largely perpetuated with admiration by the succeeding Ch'ing dynasty.
The system of governance that matured in Ming times was the culmination of trends that became evident after the mid-T'ang period, developed markedly in Sung times, and were further stimulated by the Mongol occupation of China during the Yuan dynasty. The emperor was a supreme autocrat. Administration of the empire on his behalf was entrusted to Confucian-indoctrinated scholars who were selected for service on the basis of their scholastic merit as demonstrated in competitive recruitment examinations, who made career progress very largely on the basis of service judged by their peers to be meritorious, and who constituted a civil service that was significandy self-regulating.
The civil service dominated government to an unprecedented degree. It was not seriously challenged by hereditary nobles or military officers, although eunuch agents or manipulators of emperors often disrupted civil service dominance. Society at large was thoroughly integrated into the state to such an extent that, during thefinaldecades of the Ming dynasty, rulers were securely in control of everything they wished to control, and no other group in society rivaled the status of the civil officialdom as the natural leaders of society.
This chapter describes the major characteristics of the Ming governmental system as it changed through decades of development and decline, considering in sequence the territorial organization of the Ming empire, the diverse groups that constituted the government, and the structure of the governmental establishment. Sprawling roughly from the 40th to the 20th degrees of latitude and from the th to the th degrees of longitude, it was a squarish area of some 1,, square miles, stretching from the Great Wall southward some 1, miles to the South China Sea, and from the Pacific Ocean westward some 1, miles to the Tibetan foothills.
For a generation early in the dynasty, the territory of modern North Vietnam to the southwest was also incorporated into the Ming empire, and throughout the dynasty Ming armies garrisoned and dominated frontier marches to the northeast, north, and northwest of China proper, so that Ming governmental power was felt from Hami in Inner Asia, to the Amur River and the Korean frontier in the far northeast. In more remote regions, kings and chieftains from Southeast Asia, farther Inner Asia, Mongolia, Korea, and at times, even Japan, paid homage, regularly or irregularly, to the emperor of Ming China as their overlord.
From on, the Ming emperors presided over their empire from a dynastic capital at modern Peking.
Earlier, from to , the capital was in the southern heartland of the founding emperor's power, at modern Nanking. English-language publications that are broadly descriptive include Charles O. Bishop, ed. These are drawn from extensively in this presentation, and titles are rendered in English here in accordance with those found in A dictionary of official titles in Imperial China. A few other traditional and modern works are cited in the following notes, but no effort has been made to provide exhaustive bibliographic references.
The original Metropolitan Area around Nanking, which was divided into the provinces of Kiangsu and Anhwei after Ming times, was redesignated the Southern Metropolitan Area Nan-ching, whence comes the name Nanking; often called Nan Chih-li , and the original capital city now became an auxiliary capital with a skeletal central government.
Retention of these special statuses for the Southern Metropolitan Area and the city of Nanking was an act of deference to the memory of the founding emperor. Transfer of the capital from Nanking to Peking created some terminological confusion that students of fourteenth-century documents ignore at their peril. Until , advance echelon agencies of the central government established at Peking, and the titles of appointees there, were prefixed with the designation auxiliary hsing-tsai.
In such usage was terminated, and the distinguishing prefix Nanking was applied to the shrunken central government agencies left at the original capital with skeletal staffs and largely ceremonial functions, so that the Ministry of Revenue at Peking, for example, had a shadowy counterpart in the south called the Nanking Ministry of Revenue. This reasonable pattern of nomenclature was reversed, however, from to During that period there was a never-realized plan to move the functioning central government back to Nanking.
Accordingly, the prefix Nanking was dropped in reference to the still skeletal southern agencies and the prefix auxiliary was restored to the northern agencies, so that the functioning Ministry of Revenue in the real central government at Peking, for example, was unrealistically designated as the Auxiliary Ministry of Revenue. Its counterpart in the largely symbolic establishment at Nanking was unrealistically designated the Ministry of Revenue.
For the convenience of readers, Western writers normally avoid this tangled pattern of nomenclature by consistently using the term Ministry of Revenue, for example, to mean the agency at Nanking through and the agency at Peking from on; by consistently using the prefix Nanking for all agencies and offices of the auxiliary central government at Nanking from on; and by applying the prefix auxiliary only to appropriate agencies and offices at Peking during the pre era of transition.
The founding emperor was himself not certain that Nanking was the most appropriate site for his dynastic capital and investigated alternative permanent locations in the north. Late in , he designated the old Sung capital city, K'ai-feng in Honan province, as his Northern Capital Pei-ching , but Honan did not become a metropolitan area. Within a year the prospect of establishing a central government there was abandoned, and in the designation was revoked.
More enduring was the Hung-wu emperor's honorific designation of Feng-yang in Anhwei, his native prefecture, as Middle Capital Chung-tu in Until there were ceremonies of aggrandizement and flurries of new construction at Feng-yang, and it long continued to be honored; but it never played a functional role in Ming government. Similar honors were later given the city of Ch'eng-t'ien in modern Hu-pei by the Chia-ching emperor r.
Ch'eng-t'ien, his native place and the home of his parents, was given honorific capital status as Hsing-tu, Hsing being the name of his father's princely domain. Outside the metropolitan areas, China proper in Ming times was divided for administrative purposes into thirteen provinces sheng along traditional and, for the most part, natural borders.
In the chronological order in which they came under Ming control, the provinces were: 1. Chekiang: "the Che River," signifying the drainage area of the river that empties into Hangchow Bay 2.
Kiangsi: "west of the Yangtze" 3. Hu-kuang: literally, the territory of Tung-t'ing Lake hu in the central Yangtze region combined with the Canton Kuang-chou region, a name borrowed from Yuan usage even though the Canton region was not included; after Ming times, it was divided into Hu-pei and Hu-nan provinces 4. Fukien: "Fu-chou and Chien-chou," signifying the region in which these two cities were prominent 5. Kwangtung: "from Kuang-chou eastward," signifying modern Canton and its eastern hinterland 6.
Kwangsi: "west of Kuang-chou," signifying the western hinterland of Canton 7. Shantung: "east of the mountains" 8. Honan: "south of the Yellow River" 9.
the cambridge history of china
Shansi: "west of the mountains" Shensi: "west of the pass" at the sharp eastward bend of the Yellow River toward the North China Plain, extending into modern Kansu Szechwan: "the four streams," signifying the highland valley dominated by tributaries of the upper Yangtze Yunnan: "south of the clouds" over Szechwan Thus, in the early decades of the Ming the number of provinces fluctuated: from three to nine in , to eleven in , to twelve in , to thirteen in , back to twelve in , to thirteen again in , to fourteen in , and finally to thirteen again in This figure remained unchanged for the rest of the dynasty.
In addition to the pattern of provincial administration in China proper, Ming rulers exercised authority in the frontier marches of the northeast, north, and northwest in a different pattern: one of military jurisdictions called defense areas cheri or frontiers pieri that, to some extent, overlapped provincial jurisdictions, but, for the most part, applied only beyond China proper.
There were repeated rearrangements of these zones in the early decades of the Ming, but the mature system included the following nine defense areas stretching from Manchuria, along the northern borders of China proper, westward into Inner Asia: 1. Chi-chou: from Shan-hai Pass, westward to the region north of Peking; 3.
Hsiian-fu: northwest of Peking; 4. To create a series or add a work to it, go to a "work" page. The "Common Knowledge" section now includes a "Series" field. Enter the name of the series to add the book to it. Works can belong to more than one series. In some cases, as with Chronicles of Narnia , disagreements about order necessitate the creation of more than one series.
If the series has an order, add a number or other descriptor in parenthesis after the series title eg. By default, it sorts by the number, or alphabetically if there is no number. If you want to force a particular order, use the character to divide the number and the descriptor. So, " 0 prequel " sorts by 0 under the label "prequel.
Series was designed to cover groups of books generally understood as such see Wikipedia: Book series. Like many concepts in the book world, "series" is a somewhat fluid and contested notion.
A good rule of thumb is that series have a conventional name and are intentional creations , on the part of the author or publisher. For now, avoid forcing the issue with mere "lists" of works possessing an arbitrary shared characteristic, such as relating to a particular place.
Avoid series that cross authors, unless the authors were or became aware of the series identification eg. Also avoid publisher series, unless the publisher has a true monopoly over the "works" in question.
So, the Dummies guides are a series of works. But the Loeb Classical Library is a series of editions, not of works.
This is the second of two volumes of this authoritative history which review the Republican period. Sung Dynasty. Communication and transportation, although well organized by contemporary European standards, were far from easy.
This places urbanism in the broadest social framework and systematically assembles a great quantity of information from traditional sources. This is the second of two volumes on the Sung Dynasty, which together provide a comprehensive history of China from the fall of the T'ang Dynasty in to the Mongol conquest of the Southern Sung in Much intricate and laborious work is then required to make the volume as a whole consistent and uniform in style.
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