BERLIN THE DOWNFALL 1945 PDF
Berlin the Downfall - Author's Cuts - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Find more encounters as well as expertise by reviewing guide entitled Berlin: The Downfall By. Antony Beevor This is a publication that you are searching. The Red Army had much to avenge when it finally reached the frontiers of the Reich in January Political instructors rammed home the message of.
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[Mobi] Read Berlin: The Downfall: Antony Beevor PDF File file For Android Get now: resourceone.info Stalin was warned in by German Communists that the rapes were In , Antony Beevor's popular “Berlin: The Downfall,” along. Berlin: The Downfall (also known as The Fall of Berlin in the US) is a narrative history by Antony Beevor of the Battle of Berlin during World War II. . Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March Antony Beevor, Berlin: The.
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No notes for slide. Yuri Polyakov. The German Ernst Horling b. His daughter Gertrude who was raped repeatedly stated that Germans in the rear of the Red Army would suffer starvation and epidemics and face repression by NKVD troops who would soon arrive.
It is going to be exceptionally hard to control all these animal instincts which have got out of hand. We even have some officers who admire German things. In area of Hirschberg in Lower Saxony half a million refugees were stuck because railway system come to a halt for everything except Wehrmacht use. And when our Red Army soldier. Of course. Siegen des Bolschewismus nicht sicher sei. How much hatred had accumulated in my chest. Former medical instructor Sofia Kuntsevich: Why should I feel pity yet I.
The Party commission tried to sort him out. Nazi officials wanting to turn this into a propaganda coup. I had not forgotten anything.
When his battalion was advancing in February. From 29 January to 19 February inclusive And including Danzig. Severe problem of fodder because the trekkers. Using Kriegsmarine communications. Issuing estimates and orders which bore little relation to the reality on the ground.
Hamburg to Gotenhafen took 6 to 8 days by sea because of danger from mines. Evacuated by train to Karlsbad. Danzig now had a population of 1. On roads. In one district near Halle they found that the Nazi officials finally realised that with Lower Silesia 2.
Thaw meant that ice of Frisches Haff could only be crossed on foot. Wartheland Mark Brandenburg Total 8. Danzig and West Prussia Pomerania They included 2. Estimated only East Prussia 1. Upper Silesia Mothers holding on to dead babies refusing to believe that they were no longer alive. Many were slaughtered for food. Dresden raid.
Danzig On 21 February alone Liberation of Auschwitz 27 January Report by Shikin. They had worked closely together during the withdrawl from the Dneiper to Bessarabia.
Lieutenant caught a heifer. Most of them had been too weak to be marched off. Slaughter of cattle. He also knew the chief of staff of the Second Army to the north.
Cording killed by a shell. Agranenko papers. Eismann knew Busse well. Announcements in six languages for foreign workers. Stalinskoe Znamya. A Free French officer: The Russians found the others. Defending autobahn embankment. Red Army soldiers swore not to take any prisoners In the meantime the Ninth Army had been so badly smashed that General Busse had pulled his headquarters back to Frankfurt on the Oder. Freezing cold.
Evacuation of the camp had started nine days before. Madeleine Motte. Mass lavatory in centre of yard covered by some coarse planks.
The photographs showed bundles of human hair. Details of Auschwitz complex published on 9 February in the Red Army newspaper. One of the sailors speared her to death. People were deceived at first by the illusion of order and music playing.
Sie denken nicht an das. But soon they smelt the dead bodies and when prisoners were separated according to their physical state. Most were killed on the autobahn. East Prussia Elbing. Needless to say.
Other Gauleiters. In Brandenburg. One Gauleiter issued Italian weapons for which there was no ammunition. BLHA Pr. These were distributed from depots. The bulk of the Volkssturm could expect little better than superannuated weapons captured early in the war — such as French and Yugoslav rifles or Russian fieldguns. The Grossdeutschland. Battalions were organised according to Nazi Party districts. The Gau system of the Nazi Party meant huge disparities in strength.
Chapter 4 Volkssturm The system. This meant that hardly a single unit ended up with proper equipment or training. NA RG List of Kommandierenden Dienststellen of Wehrmacht headquarters overrun by Red Army crossed out on list. A desperate shortage of weapons. Replacement list has a large number of question marks against whereabouts or existence of formation headquarters. B The German army also had to contend with Gauleiters interfering with arms and munition production within their Gaus.
Fall of Berlin : The Downfall 1945
There were also four different call-up categories. The Party was so obsessed with the propaganda value of the Volkssturm that it insisted that all units should receive some arms.
I mustered all my courage. One of the Waffengenerale had denounced him to the Gestapo. Also six divisions will be needed for four of the most important cities — Berlin. The only hope for the Germans is to withdraw from Baltic and from Italy. Only heard as a prisoner of war that she had been there and that Hitler had married her. The Neisse is not a serious obstacle. I gave the order to fire with canister. Had been in bunker fifteeen times.
The only possible line of defence was the Oder-Neisse line. If spring comes early. We broke into one of the streets and civilians ran up to crying that we were their liberators. Ostrava and Bratislava. Interrupt conversations with generals. He was removed from generalstaff. At least twenty divisions are needed. If he could not do anything. This was before 20 July. Freytag von Loringhoven. Fegelein acted on this favour.
We then brought up a self-propelled gun and when I saw the same people come out and hug the Germans. It is doubtaful that such a number can be deployed when needed. Fegelein got him out. Very unpleasant. Below and other adjutants never talked of it. Half of the divisions should be panzer divisions as a reserve. After supper conversation. They put seals on the door.
Monday 12 February. The same. Home was almost a dreamworld because it was so far away in time and space from their present experience. The fat. Supper with Himmler. Most of them wrote out of filial duty to let mothers know that they were still alive and to make sure that they still received letters themselves.
A fat old Nazi on the day of his ruin. After a long time she chose a postcard showing a little girl wearing a beautiful dress standing near a broken egg from which a chick is emerging.
Den An. Sunday 11 February. Sepp Dietrich. That evening he was lying dead in his bed. The old man took 25 pfennigs from her and put them in his cashbox. Chats with Himmler lunch and dinner. You had to live from one day to. Schwerin A stationary shop. To think about it too much was a dangerous weakness. In the morning MB had a conversation with Kaltenbrunner.
The girl was choosing with great care. Few had enjoyed more than one spell of leave during the whole war. After lunch conversation with Himmler then with Lammers.
Berger and Fegelein. Glaube an den Sieg. In the morning a small girl came to his shop and asked him to show her the postcards he had. During the Vistula- Oder operation the same formation used up 2.
And now the whole of Germany is becoming a gigantic Stalingrad. When it suits them. Are the German people so ignoble? Have they deserved such a punishment? In the 4th Tank Army alone. Captured German dumps helped. By the end of the. Fuel was the other difficulty. We Germans have been cunningly deceived by a man who usurped power. In that respect. The only solution was to allocate most of the fuel to spearheads and leave other formations to follow on in fits and starts. I am fed up with their attitude towards me as a canary.
Never before in history has lying been such a powerful weapon in diplomacy and policy. The Soviet tank and motorized forces had to cannibalize vehicles to keep going almost as much as the retreating Germans. Agranenko corrected her. Agranenko claims that he pushed her. Agranenko says that she finally replied: She was reluctant to reply.
I am a Jew. Letters are starting to arrive very late and very few of them get through. And when a detachment. Because his marine infantry uniform was different to the Red Army. Transport and supply problems. On 1 December Vistula-Oder operation most formations had less than a reserve tank per vehicle left.
Ehrenburg wrote in Krasnaya Swjesta: A woman. I would have sent you a letter. Unable to resist testing her reaction. Petr Markarovich Garkusha. One should also not forget the quality of the transport vehicles themselves. The family of the man sentenced to death shall answer for the crimes of the person condemned with its property.
At the same time a copy of the sentence accompanied by the corresponding report should be sent via the relevant institutions to the OKW and the RSHA. I therefore order: If the fact of desertion to the enemy is established as a result of the investigation the trial must be end in a death sentence and the sentence will be approved.
Measures against deserters. By doing this they not only betray their comrades. Jonas Wilkus. Apparently many of the women were raped before they were killed.
Degrelle recommended that they be split. French Waffen SS in a bad state. When there is a suspicion that a soldier has deserted. The German women who lived in the attic of his building committed suicide after being repeatedly raped. Not one step back. MA The figures were almost certainly exaggerated for propaganda purposes. Goebbels Speech 10 February In Marienburg. Nun braust der Mongolensturm des Forward to the Spree.
Bodies of people. River metres wide. Vistula crossing [after Marienwerden]. Sank several boats [with refugees?? Feather mattresses had been torn to pieces. This order should be read out to the troops and thoroughly explained to them.
Bridge across thirty barges. Clearly thought he might be a member of the NKVD. Quiet streets. Take the Oder. Regiment reached the Bay of Stettin on the evening of 6 March. Units of the Division should be notified immediately of a death sentence and punishment of the family in each case.
Portraits of Zhukov and Rokossovsky. Photos of them. He asked Tedder to take a letter to Eisenhower. It is striking how Stalin was able to give the impression of frankness over Red Army plans at this stage. Major A. The young ones do not even know their names. Goebbels self-congratulation over help for refugees from East.
Lodz and Konigsberg. Consider that this was one of the most satisfactory and encouraging meetings. He explained Soviet plans clearly. As he dislikes fulsome compliments. Immediate objectives Cracow. Still Most of the Jews from Lodz were gassed in the concentration camp of Belzec. Getting out only 8 to Care for orphans and separated ones.
He was impressed by frank reference to our difficulties and showed great interest in our air effort in west and need for bombing oil targets. Report by interpreter. This was meeting us more than half-way.
Tedder concerned that the crossing of the Rhine would be taking place in March just when Russian momentum slowing. US had done bulk of the fighting.
Stalin knew that Churchill had always wanted the western Allies to attack Germany and Austria from the south in the hope of forestalling the Soviet occupation of central Europe. Fortunately for Stalin. General Deane. At Christmas. Soviet Union very nearly managed to occupy north island. Stalin visited Churchill on first afternoon of Yalta conference.
Roosevelt disliked de Gaulle. True that U.
The American president also disagreed with Churchill over the role the French should be allowed to play in the post-war settlement. General Antonov. Churchill could only suppress his frustration. In fact. He had understood the situation at once and. Dislikes idea of visiting officers having direct access to Stalin on their own. Letter 18 January.
Churchill addressed the House of Commons on the Yalta conference. The large French army had not only failed to weaken Hitler. He of course emphasized. In It would appear that he had never forgiven either Marshal Tukhachevsky. Churchill did. He suspected that the British supported France more as a fellow member of the colonial powers club than as a counter-balance to Germany. He had admitted as much on 23 January when he said to an aide: Depopulation of the East Prussian countryside.
Stalin had been one of those blamed for the disaster. Road to Victory. Churchill was proud of his speech. Even Harold Nicolson. Influenced by Admiral Leahy. Churchill to House of Commons. Roosevelt was certain that de Gaulle would turn out to be a military dictator. The Soviet leader had another. He paid far more attention to unity rather than division which would immediately be seized upon by German propaganda.
Back in London. Roosevelt was as unenthusiastic as Stalin that Churchill should insist on allowing the French a zone of occupation in Germany and recognizing them as fellow victors to soothe their wounded pride. The invasion of the Soviet Union the following year had been greatly helped by all the French military vehicles taken as war booty.
On 6th and 7th February. Tsanava was the NKVD rep. Now that the organized evacuation of civilians has stopped. Consequently the old buildings in the centre of the town were crowded with refugees. New general orders that any German male from who dioes not report for front line service. They searched 2. Up to 9 March The population of the town dejected by the continual bombardment opposes continued resistance. Soldiers put on civilian clothes and desert. A placard was erected above them: Armee Kraiova For example in the village of Wollitz in the district of Brandenburg.
Polish Communists wore a red armband.
In the same village the German Grunwald threw his wife and nine children into a well and tried to kill himself as well. Main Polish round up behind 1st Belorussian Front. The population is influenced by propaganda which persuaded them that the Red Army would eliminate them all. Grunwald said that Germans realised that they are responsible for all the destruction and murder which the. Suppression of Polish nationalism was clearly just as important a priority as dealing with genuine German agents.
When arrested. Significant that out of the 2. Armee Kraiova members captured.
In this connection suicides have taken place. Germans trying to avoid internment 3. They all deserted in February from 18 Rifle Division.
Fearing this responsibility. Captured Nazi officials said that the suicides were due to the fact that evacuation had proved impossible due to the rapid advance of the Red Army. March 7. On 15 December nine people from Armia Kraiova broke into a flat in which a meeting was taking place. Three Party members and 1 Komsomol member. For example. On 9 December an unknown band shot at a group of Polish militiamen. On 4 December a Lieutenant Koslov was poisoned.
When combing the area near the town of Bublitz on 27 March. When the squadron approached the village.
For one and a half months they had been committing looting and robbing. One deserter escaped from a shtraf unit. The corpse of the militsiaman who was killed was buried only on 20 December when a cavalry squadron entered this village. A police officer and three men were killed. German Army carried out on Russian territory. They included an Uzbek lieutenant who was a Party member.
Commander of the plane [was] Donald Bridge. Then King landed again at Shchuchin aerodrome. The crew was fed and put up for the night. Tried in Russia. Finlly allowed to leave Russia 27 April [King case ran to 45 cables.
Lieutenant King announced that this was not a member of the crew. On 6 December bandits hanged a collective farm manager. But on going into the plane started up the engines and regardless of the signals forbidding the flight.
An American Liberator which landed at Melets airfield on 24 March was directly forbidden to depart. In this manner. A women who had refused to reveal where he lived was hanged. The crew of the plane [amounted to] 10 people. Cases of British and US planes landing on our territory. These actions of the American crew called forth extreme indignation and perplexity on the part of the personnel of the Red Army Air Force.
At 24 march King st Bomb Group. Spaatz and Marshall]. He was dressed in US Air Force uniform. The senior Soviet cheif Colonel Kozhemykin personally through an interprter at hours 24 March frobad the commander of the Liberator to fly the plane away without permission.
On 22 March. Three pages of relatively minor incidents. Minor incidents of revolt repressed with great cruelty. The plane was placed under guard. All Germans who assist the Red Army will be shot by this organisation hich will mainly act during the night. The places where Germans can join Werwolf are indicated by leaflets and previously agreed passwords.
Franz Krebs. One was killed. They were apparently convinced that these two had killed their daughters and sons. Werwolf played into hands of NKVD paranoia. The mine exploded and wounded one. A huge camp.
Perhaps invented to keep NKVD troops alert. They broke their bones and even carried on beating their bodies after they were dead. Following day. The enemy is appealing to all Germans who stayed behind in occupied territory to become members of the Werwolf organisation. Stories about German paratroopers. Minsk partisans beat two German prisoners with agricultural tools. Poland 5 March [Beria from Gorbatyuk.
We have information that Germans have already started to organise such groups in our rear areas. People are sitting in the streets in armchairs with belongings outside destroyed houses with all kinds of strange objects.
In the pursuit by NKVD troops. Ambush Red Army officers in a car. Sometimes sign was false written by soldiers who had occupiued the building and wanted to keep others out. About To cmdrs all Frontier Guards Regiments. Members of Werwolf will resist us using their weapons and using terror. An order was issued. Not cleared of mines. March 45 Syphilis 5 cases whole of NKVD 1st Ukrainian Front in 16 Frontier Guards Regiment including chief political officer who had sexual intercourse with one of the women evacuated to the rear.
They preferred to be under Soviet rule rather than Polish. Many of the infected men were sent before a military tribunal. Immoral events increased due to contacts with doubtful people and the incidence of venereal disease increased from 43 case in first quaretr to 80 cases in the second quarter. The Soviet Union had to show the peoples of Europe that it was not hordes of Asians who had. The number of immoral events has decresed from 35 to 27 among Party members and increased from 20 to 40 among Komsomol memebrs but the main immoral acts were carried out by non-Party members.
Negative phenomena in the army of liberation caused significant damage to the prestige of the Soviet Union and the armed forces and could have a negative influence in the future relations with the countries through which our troops were passing. Among officers and sergeants number of immoral acts decreased from from 46 to 36 but among privates increased from 45 to in the second quarter.
In percentage terms. All had disciplinary penalties imposed on them. Grunwald said that Germans realised that they are responsible for all the destruction and murder which the German Army carried out on Russian territory. On 12 March Major Sluntayev and Mubarakov were reduced to the ranks. Afraid that the woman would tell everything.
In the evening Sluntayev and Mubarakov drank and invited the woman to their dugout. The soldiers Chavkin and Romano.
Even though they were ordered by the commandant to leave the dormitory. One of them Maria Shapoval said: Comrade Tsigankov: Mahor Mubarakov ordered Chavkin to kill her and he shot her.
They were drunk and Major Sluntayev invited two Red Army soldiers Chavkin and Romanov and took all the valuables from the French and ordered them to shoot the Frenchmen. Only in the morning in one of the dormitories. This is not the only incident. Senior Tankist Seregin Ivan. They live in a separate building not far from the kommandantur. Being in the military headquarters.
They shot them and then they all raped that women back in their shelter. Major Kravchenko. On 5 February they found the bodies of three of the Frenchmen and the other five had disappeared. I am not happy to be alive. I waited for my liberation. Sinyavskaya p. He sent a group of his guards which did not carry out the order. On 5 March late at night. Most of them were drunk. Also Tsigankov recounts that several headquarters work badly in the political and educational work among young Soviet citizens.
It happens every night and because of this. All these incredible incidents did not provoke the necessary reaction from the commandant. Clearly the German women feared that the Soviets were about to deal out SS medicine as an act of revenge.
Golikov as well as representatives of the Central Committee of the Komsomol to the Front assembly and transit points and to oblast and regional points for the reception and distribution in order to undertake measures on improving political and cultural work with repatriated Soviet citizens and improvment of their living conditions.
One private overheard them discussing desertion when joining regiment. Whole Polish Army around Orders explained to officers. Doubled number of regimegtal guards. Reporting all this to you. They did not appear when the battalion was lined up for supper. Tilsit and other towns. Order on forbidding marriages with female citizens of foreign countries. Poplavsky 1st Polish Army General K. There are rumours among arrested women that they have been rounded up for sterilization.
Cases had taken place in communications company. Goebbels is said to have urged the use of chemical retaliation against London using V rockets.
During the three days from 9 March to morning of 12 March the estimate by Front staffs of enemy captured so far is This was apparently rejected by the senior Wehrmacht officers present. Hitler at this time was not averse to using chemical weapons against the Red Army but was ambivalent in his feelings about its deployment against the western allies.
To Beria from Kryvenko and Kobulov. If they knew about the microphones. British and American prisoners of war sent to 47th Army for repatriation. Of the total. Captured Germans represent 1.
To Beria from Abakumov of 3rd Belorussian Front. They finally realized that they had been completely exploited by the NKVD.
We interrogated prisoners and found on 14 February near the Masurian lakes in the triangle Rastenburg- Letzen-Angeburg. The cam. On the left hand side there were barrack blocks where the guards lived. Forbidden zone of 10 kilometres. Frontier guards green flash. Roads and alleys covered with green camouflage nets. The headquarters area contains 12 huge bunkers up to fourteen metres deep.
Gate No. Airfield 5 kms to south. All bunkers and other ferro-concrete constructions were painted the colours of the forest. The roads and approaches to the headquarters were lit by dark blue electric lamps with shades. Seconmd barrier. It was fobidden to step off the road.
High voltage cables. It is difficult to imagine that anyone who did not belong directly to the headquarters could enter this inaccessible lair of iron and concrete.
Military Site. Lighting with dark blue lamps. In this barracks epaulettes and uniforms of soldiers of the SS and the Grossdeutschland Regiment were found.
Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Antony Beevor, 0143029177
The paths and roads around the buildings are covered with green camouflage nets. To the right of the entrance barrier there are several stone blockhouses which contained mines. Found telephone directory for the headquarters. Furniture is very simple.
We thoroughly visited the buildings and the sites. Linked by passages. Abakumov had translator. Troops and flak detachments.
Near the barracks there were stores of grenades and heicle parts. Inner perimeter fence of barbed wire. German army stayed when visitng Hitler. Four square kilometres. NKVD crimson flash. Deeper into the foresrt were camouflaged watchtowers up to 35 metres high. It is carefull camouflaged. Trenches on both sides of road. Special camouflage nets and artificial trees and bushes hide the tops of the bunkers. Entrance Forbidden to Civilians.
There we found epaulettes and uniforms of SS soldiers in the Grossdeutschland regiment. Behind there are ferro-concrete fire pillbox positions. Mines either side of road. An empty safe in one room.
We have checked on this.
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State that documents found relating to construction and security at the site which are supposedly dated January Surrounded by more than ten emplacements and an underground garage capable of taking 18 cars.
SS evacuation much more thorough. Destruction of transmitter in bombing. A third inner perimeter in the headquarters area. Broadcasting in Russian on Ostfront. Maria hat furchtbares durchgemacht. Only certain that they had found the right place when they discovered evidence.
Railroad camouflaged. We were also told that the name came from the nacient origin of the name Adolf. Bunker there had bullet-proof armoured shutters. Moved to Barstrasse south off Fehrbelliner Platz after being bombed out. A sign: Approaches mined on all sides. Himmler in carefull camouflaged train. Controlled by Reichssicherheitshauptamt.
This was a list of telephone numbers in the headquarters which reveals the structure and apparatus.
Reorganised 15 February. Utrikesavdelningen KA-FU.
Was this because the ration was over-supplemented from captured sources? He confessed under interrogation that in February he was engaged as a spy by a resident of German intelligence.
Orlov had been in a German prison camp. Keitel and Dr Lammers. Much lower than earlier on. Hauptmann Schrap.
Behr recruited twelve agents. Fulfilling this task. When he asked about the whereabouts of the Lieutenant chief of the personnel dept of the 65th Army on 17 May. Did he desert because he had been in a German prison and had discovered that he might be sent to the Gulag. On 7 March we arrested Ulrich Behr. Red Army ration in March grams of bread. His mission was to stay in the rear of the Red Army to recruit agents and to carry out sabotage. Vodka ration was grams two or three times a week.
Lieutenant Orlov was sent back to 15th Rifle Division where he still has not arrived. The relations between arrested Poles and Germans are extremely strained. Belgians and Czechs. Included French. One of the women said that they had been promised evacuation to Konigsberg.
Emma Korn: They had heard that the Red Asiatics committed unhread of atrocities. There are frequent clashes. Front troops of the Red Army entered the town.
The following night six drunken soldiers broke into our cellar and. His daughter Gertrude who was raped repeatedly stated that Germans in the rear of the Red Army would suffer starvation and epidemics and face rtepression by NKVD troops who would soon arrive. Great fear of being sent to work in the Soviet Union. In the yard twelve soldiers in turn raped me and other soldiers did the same to my two neighbours.
SA soldiers and the police. It was discoverd in the course of screening by the NKVD group of 43rd Army that German women from Schpaleiten and all their children had cut wrists. They came into the cellar where we were hiding and pointed their weapons at me and the other two women and ordered us into the yard. This group is formed from SS soldiers. Greetings and best wishes and a strong kiss from your son Sergei.
We have a short break now and I decided to write a brief letter to you.They should stand on the roads, fulfill their duties without mercy, do all they can to return each soldier who has lost his unit to the battle.
Agranenko corrected her. General Berzarin and I wished them success and said goodbye. Just before dawn, the tanks approached the airfield. All party and administrative organisations should stay too. Nobody will forget the artillerists who kept their mouths open to stop their ear drums bursting as they fired their guns; the little boys in Landsberg who played war games with wooden swords amid the bombed-out ruins of their house; or the rhododendrons that were coming into bloom as mortar-fire rained down on Berlin, darkening the street with smoke and dust.
There was little glass available to repair windows and people opened their windows wide before going down into the cellars in the hope of saving any remaining panes from bomb blast. Many of those soldiers assigned to directing traffic run down and killed. Chats with Himmler lunch and dinner.