ANNE FRANK PDF
Anne Frank's The Diary of a Young Girl is among the most enduring For those who know and love Anne Frank, The Definitive Edition is a. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Dec 18, , Luisse Zanther Carreos and others In , Anne Frank, a girl of 13 receives a diary as her birthday present.
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pdf> by AAARGH Editions colossal hoax surrounding the Anne Frank diary is so immense, the implications so profound that mankind must. THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL: THE DEFINITIVE EDITION Anne Frank Edited by Otto H. Frank and Mirjam Pressler Translated by Susan Massotty BOOK FLAP . View and download resourceone.info on DocDroid.
The vast majority of Dutch Jews in the Netherlands, however, lacked the financial resources, necessary permits and paperwork, or the impetus Jennifer L. Foray to undertake this voyage. Like their fellow co-religionists elsewhere throughout German-occupied Europe, most Dutch Jews simply settled into life under the new regime and consoled themselves with the knowledge that the first anti-Jewish laws instituted during the summer of appeared relatively inconsequential.
But over the course of the next few months, Reichskommissar Arthur Seyss-Inquart dramatically expanded the scope and pace of these anti-Jewish efforts. Seen in retrospect, however, the most ominous of these new German directives was the January 10, decree requiring that all Jews register with their local government authorities or population registry. Identified in this fashion, Jews in the Netherlands were thus marked for further discriminatory measures, including detainment, deportation, and, ultimately, death.
Beginning in April , all new anti-Jewish laws—and the punishments to be assessed for violation of these laws—would appear solely in Het Joodsche Weekblad, the weekly paper published by the main Jewish Council offices in Amsterdam. Since relocating Anne Frank and the Holocaust of the Dutch Jews to the Netherlands in , Otto Frank had directed a number of related enterprises producing spices, jam-making supplies, and other household products.
For all intents and purposes, however, Otto would retain executive authority over his business enterprises, which allowed him to draw upon a regular source of income.
This access to funding would prove absolutely essential for a family in hiding, which continued to require the necessities of daily life but at a higher wartime premium. In , he had applied for visas to the United States, but for American purposes, the Franks were considered German Jews, albeit residents in the then-unoccupied Netherlands.
With the immigration quota for Germany already exceeded, the Franks would continue to languish on the waiting list for the next three years. In April , Otto reactivated his quest for a visa, prompted to do so, apparently by the blackmail efforts of a local Dutch Nazi.
Having intercepted a letter reporting anti-German utterances made by Otto Frank, this Dutch Nazi approached Otto and demanded money. Documents recently unearthed at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York reveal that, between April 30, and December 11, , Otto frantically searched for financial and other forms of support—advice, affidavits, personal intervention with State Department officials—from these contacts, including his college friend Nathan Straus Jr.
These efforts would come to naught. By the summer of , the State Department had tightened visa conditions and entry requirements, and the German authorities had closed American consulates in their occupied territories. Personal intervention from even the wealthy and well-positioned Straus could not have assured the entire Frank family safe passage from occupied Europe.
At some point late or early , Otto and Edith Frank made the decision to go underground.
Like the Franks, the van Pels had fled Nazi Germany in the s. Having made the fateful decision to hide together, the two families stocked the hiding place with food, furniture, bedclothes, and other necessities, careful not to arouse suspicion amongst warehouse workers downstairs, neighbors, and visitors to the company.
Apparently, the Franks wished to shield their children from the worst of the anti-Jewish persecution then underway but also minimize the risk that friends, neigh- bors, and classmates would learn of these plans. Furthermore, Anne and Margot Frank had enough to worry about.
With the beginning of the fall school year, Jewish children in the Netherlands were removed from their regular schools and forced to attend special Jewish schools containing only Jewish students and teachers. Anne had to leave her beloved Montes- sori school, located near her home, and travel across town to the Jewish Lyceum.
She and her friends could frequent only Jewish-owned cafes and places of entertainment, since Jews were prohibited from cinemas, public parks and zoos, swimming pools, and museums, to cite but a few examples.
In early May of , the German authorities introduced the yellow Star of David, which was to be worn by all Jewish men, women, and children. As part of a total travel ban instituted the following month, Jews were now forbidden to use public transportation. And, because her bicycle had been stolen around Easter of that year, Anne was forced to walk an hour and a half, each way, to school.
In any case, this theft soon ceased to matter because shortly thereafter, German authorities announced that Jews would no longer be allowed to ride or own bicycles. Unbeknownst to the Franks and, indeed, nearly all Dutch Jews save for select members of the Jewish Council, deportations from the Netherlands would commence later in this summer of Such was the beginning of the massive deportations that would continue throughout this year and the next.
By this point, the Dutch Jews had been identified and marked, stripped of nearly all property and assets, their livelihoods and freedom of movement severely restricted. Seen in retrospect, we know that deportation and extermination would soon follow, but neither Anne nor other contemporary observers could write about round-ups and deportations yet to begin.
Secondly, and despite her rapid maturation within the walls of the secret annex, Anne Frank was a child during the first two years of the occupation, and she experienced the anti-Jewish regulations as a child.
By virtue of her age and position in society, Anne simply did not have the access to observe, understand, and report upon the workings of the Jewish Council, as did, for instance, Etty Hillesum, fifteen years her senior. This is not to say that the young diarist remained entirely unaware of the persecutory efforts directed against the Dutch Jews, but, rather, she wrote about those circumstances directly affecting her life: the travel restrictions, the nightly curfews, the fact that all Jewish students needed to enroll in special Jewish schools as of the fall of But this perspective is hardly unique to the diary, since countless diaries, memoirs, and ego- documents provide but partial views into the persecution of European Jews.
If we discount the diary, we must discount these works, too. Another criticism of the diary centers upon the atypical wartime situation of the Frank family. Whereas most Jews sought shelter as individuals, the Franks hid as a unit, and, perhaps even more surprisingly, remained together until their arrest in August And, indeed, most of those who lived underground in the Netherlands did so alone. Hiding places Jennifer L. Foray were typically small and improvised, large amounts of food difficult to procure, and official documentation—necessary for ration cards and other items—constantly in short supply.
As a result, few people were willing to take on siblings and couples, let alone entire nuclear families. Perhaps the Frank family ran a greater risk by hiding together, that is, if the odds of detection increased exponentially with each additional person.
In the Netherlands, individuals in hiding were betrayed, detected, and arrested quite frequently, as were groups large and small. The most recent and reliable figures cite a range of 20, to 30, Dutch Jews in hiding during the wartime years, with approximately 16, to 17, surviving the war.
In November , Anne described the scenes of brutality ensuing in the streets outside, as relayed by Dr. Pfeffer, the dentist who had recently become the eighth member of the group.
Extracts from the diary of Anne Frank (1942-44)
If found, entire families were taken away on the spot. No one is spared—old people, babies, expectant Anne Frank and the Holocaust of the Dutch Jews mothers, the sick—each and all join in the march of death. But few contemporary observers in the occupied Netherlands would have had reason to observe those horrors we associate with the Holocaust, since the German authorities in the Netherlands outsourced the extermination process to foreign soil.
Public violence would not win over the Dutch to the Nazi New Order but, on the contrary, could stimulate protest and acts of resistance, which the Germans wished to avoid.
On October 9, , Anne reported that those in the transit camp received nothing to eat, water was available only once day, and toilets and sinks were in short supply.
We assume that most of them are murdered. The English radio speaks of their being gassed. Perhaps that is quickest way to die. The end result, of course, was the same, no matter where and how it occurred.
And before they, too, were killed, Dutch Jews were forced to exist in a constant state of worry, fear, and denial. From the diary of Anne Frank emerges this palpable anxiety, although one can argue that, in comparison to the tens of thousands of their fellow citizens who had already met their deaths in these camps, the Franks and all those in hid- Jennifer L.
Foray ing were rather fortunate.
Anne Frank didn’t want us to read these newly discovered diary entries. Should we?
All Dutch Jews were subjected to a deliberate yet incremental process of destruction, initiated and enforced by German officials and agencies that seemed to delight in changing the rules of the game and speaking in euphemisms.
Those who possessed these coveted numbers—workers in the all-important diamond industry; members of the Portuguese Jewish community; those in mixed marriages; the leaders and family members of the Jewish Council—were thus assured that they would be spared deportation.
Yet, as the deportations continued, one group after another was stripped of its immunity and its members made to acknowledge that they, too, would be sent east to an unknown fate. Life underground presented particular logistical obstacles, too, which only further compounded this generalized fear and anxiety.
For instance, if the residents of the Secret Annex had been arrested in the summer of , they likely would have been sent to Sobibor, an extermination center located in eastern Poland.
Most Dutch Jews—including all eight residents of the Annex—were deported to Aus- chwitz-Birkenau via the Westerbork transit camp. Of the 60, Dutch Jews sent to Auschwitz, approximately 4, would survive—a tragically small percentage of survivors, but thousands of survivors nonetheless. But during the four-month period of March to July , all trains minus one departed Westerbork for the extermination center of Sobibor in eastern Poland.
At Sobibor, 34, Dutch Jews would be killed upon arrival, with less than twenty—most of whom spent only a few hours here before being sent somewhere else—surviving their deportation to this camp. Again, none of this would have been known to the diarist and her family at the time.
Most likely, she would have heard the same vague rumors and snippets of information noted by those who did write while interned in Westerbork. In lengthy letters to her large circle of Dutch friends outside the camp, she meticulously documented, amongst other facets of life in this transit camp, the weekly Tuesday morning trans- ports to the east. The extraordinarily astute Hillesum knew that nothing positive awaited the deportees upon their arrival in the camps, but, like many others at time, assumed that Auschwitz was a work camp of sorts, similar to Westerbork.
We know noth- ing of their fate. In other words, one must seek out more explicit testimonies and stories as evidence of an authentic Holocaust experience. With ample evidence, American writers Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett have been accused of stripping Anne of her Jewish identity and position as Holocaust victim.
In their screenplay, Anne appears as a normal and perhaps American teenager, her adolescent penchant for the melodramatic matched only by her relentlessly optimistic outlook on life. Her persecution as a Jew stands in the background as a tangential concern, for Goodrich and Jennifer L.
Foray Hackett present a universal tale of hope and human perseverance. Often neglected by those who rightfully focus on post-war adaptations and misinterpretations is the fact that diarist herself completed extensive revisions, and with an eye towards eventual publication.
The diary may have come into existence as a collection of spontaneous observations and reflections, but it did not end as such. If our descendants are to understand fully what we as a nation have had to endure and overcome during these years, then what we really need are ordinary documents. She condensed or omitted discussions she now deemed too immature, uninteresting, or imprudent, and she expanded upon other entries and topics.
Over the course of the next five months, she created an entirely new version of her diary, complete with pseudonyms for all members of the group in hiding and their Dutch helpers. While editing her original text during the spring and summer of , Anne continued to document and reflect upon her experiences in hiding. Her writings from this time reflect a savvy understanding of the tempest raging outside the doors of the annex, but they also contain a steady dose of optimistic prognoses for the future.
On April 11, , she proclaimed that just as God had allowed the Jews to suffer so terribly until this point, so too would God raise them up again. Who knows, if it might even be our religion from which the world and all peoples learn good, and for that reason and that reason only do we have to suffer now.
Yet I keep them, because in spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart. I see the world gradually being turned into a wilderness, I hear the ever approaching thunder, which will destroy us too, I can feel the sufferings of millions and yet, if I look up into the heavens, I think that it will all come right, that this cruelty too will end, and that peace and tranquility will return again.
Importantly, too, the diarist noted these tensions at a pivotal moment in the war: two months prior, Allied forces had landed in Normandy, and a German defeat now appeared certain, if not imminent.
Days later, the eight Jewish residents of the Annex were sent to the Westerbork transit camp. On September 3, , they were sent to Auschwitz on the last train leaving for this destination. Of the eight, only Otto Frank survived the war. He was liberated at Auschwitz by the Russians on January 27, She admits to fantasizing about him, and she wishes she could marry him.
Peter Schiff becomes the focus for and the embodiment of Anne's sexual and romantic desires. Anne considers how her younger self regarded sexuality, and realizes that she feels like she's now mature enough to understand sexual desire. At the same time, her longing for Peter Schiff can also be seen as an extension of her desire for a real friend.
Active Themes January 12th. Anne reflects on her relationship with her mother — she speculates that Mrs. Frank must think she has a fantastic relationship with her daughters. Anne pauses to consider that sometimes she sees herself as others might see her: as "Anne Frank. In adjusting her attitude toward her mother, Anne is able to see her mother as a human being complete with inner and outer selves.
Anne reflects on how her mother's inability to be a real parent is connected with her feelings of isolation. She believes romantic love is the solution to this isolation. Active Themes January 15th. The Annex dwellers have taken to dividing up all of their food according to separate factions. Frank is getting some extra sugar for her birthday, which has sparked jealousy in Mrs.
Meanwhile, Mr. Dussel often helps himself to more than his fair share of gravy at supper. Anne's journey into adolescence involves questioning and assessing the actions of the adults around her. She wonders if this selfishness is just part of human nature. Of course, to some extent, the adult's actions result form their extreme situation confined in the Annex. At the same time, by being confined with the adults Anne is getting a true glimpse into the adult world, and learning that this world—which children often imagine as being rational, virtuous, and good—is much more complex, and filled with both negative and positive traits and actions.
Active Themes January 19th. Anne feels that her dream of Peter Schiff has changed her. Anne realizes that she no longer feels jealous of Margot's relationship with Mr. She assesses her behavior toward her parents, and wonders if she'll ever be the person she hopes to be. Anne believes that the solution to her loneliness can be found in a romantic relationship.
She continues to assess her own behavior in an effort to shape her outer self. Active Themes January 22nd. Anne feels that she's become more adult since her dream about Peter Schiff. She has a new attitude toward the conflicts in the house — she feels that all the conflicts "might have taken a different turn if we'd remained open…instead of seeing the worst side.
Anne's insights into herself and her relationship to others grow more sophisticated and nuanced by the day. She realizes that all people — not just her — contain inner and outer selves. She reflects on how she only shows her outer self in public, and wonders if she'll ever share her inner self with someone. Her insights into conflicts in the Annex reveal her growing maturity and generosity. Active Themes January 24th. Anne is surprised when she has a frank conversation about sex with Peter after supper — Peter tells her that Mouschi is a tomcat, and this leads to a discussion of male and female genitalia.
Anne is glad to learn that she can talk to a young person of the opposite sex in a normal way about sexual matters. Anne and Peter realize that they can talk to each other about things they never thought they could discuss with another person.
It shows that they're both becoming more mature. Active Themes January 28th. A propos of Jan and Mr. Kleiman's stories about the many resistance groups that have been popping up lately, Anne reflects on how selfless and generous Bep, Miep, Jan, Mr.
Kleiman, and Mr. Kugler have been in assisting her family. Anne's reflection on their generosity offers further evidence of her growing maturity — she is learning to be grateful for the people in her life in a way that she hadn't when she was younger. Active Themes January 30th. Anne goes downstairs in the dark and stares up at the sky. Seeing the German planes, she realizes that she's utterly alone — she doesn't feel afraid, however, given that she suddenly feels strong faith in God.
She reflects that she has a strong desire to be alone.
This is the first time Anne connects gazing up at the sky with her connection to God. This is also the first time Anne has connected her feeling of isolation with a feeling of strength. Active Themes February 3rd. Rumors are flying about a potential Allied invasion of Holland. There's speculation that the Germans might destroy the dams and flood the Netherlands, and the Annex dwellers joke about what they might do to survive such a thing. Anne doesn't pay any heed to their speculations.
Anne's jaded attitude toward the Allied invasion can be seen as part of being a teenager and as part of the effect confinement has had on her psyche.
Active Themes February 12th. The sun is out, and Anne is full of longing for something she can't quite articulate. I feel spring awakening, I feel it in my entire body and soul. I have to force myself to act normally. Anne reveals that her longing is at least partially resolved. Following a small argument with Mr. Dussel, Peter takes Anne aside and confides in her that in the past he used to fly into rages.
Peter admits that he admires how Anne handles confrontations. Anne is pleased to finally feel some of the fellowship with him—with anybody—that she used to experience with her girlfriends. Interestingly, it's only now that Anne feels she has truly connected with Peter — their earlier conversation about sex evidently didn't alleviate her feelings of isolation.
It's clear that Anne seeks an emotional connection, and she feels she's found a way to experience this with Peter. Active Themes February 16th. On Margot's birthday, Anne takes it upon herself to fetch the potatoes from the attic.
Anne runs into Peter on her way to get the potatoes his room just so happens to be en route to the attic and he gives her a look that causes Anne to feel like she's glowing inside. Anne seems to be in denial about wanting to see and spend time with Peter, even though she's clearly going out of her way to run into him. She also seems to be in denial about how she feels about him — in this scene, there's clearly a romantic connection.After the arrival of German forces in May , the situation of these refugees continued to deteriorate, as did the position of all Jews in the German-occupied Netherlands, regardless of their status as citizens or mere residents.
About six months ago a high-ranking officer came to the office. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquillity will return once more. Unlike her younger sister, who dreamed of becoming a famous writer or a Hollywood actor, Margot belonged to a local Zionist youth group and aspired to become a midwife in Palestine.
It seemed so, since he kept knocking, pulling, pushing and jerking on it.
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