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Veneration without Understanding. (Does Rizal deserve to be our national hero?) By Renato Constantino. In the histories of many nations, the national. Renato Constantino-Veneration Without Understanding - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. 1 “Veneration Without Understanding” by Renato Constantino The article Veneration Without Understanding by Renato Constantino is all about doubts and.

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Download of i free can constantino39s where pdf renato a. Veneration without understanding has ratings and 9 reviews. Fran said the. Get this from a library! Veneration without understanding.. [Renato Constantino]. Veneration without understanding without understanding. References · Citations; Metrics; Reprints & Permissions · PDF. Click to increase.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. It depicts how shallow the knowledge of the Filipinos is about Rizal and nationalism. In other countries, to be a national hero, you should be a leader of a revolution. But it was different with the Philippines; Rizal, being the national hero, repudiated the revolution and was completely against it. Rizal had other nationalistic interests such as the reform.

The purpose of the reform is to be a province of Spain and have equality between the Spaniards and Filipinos. Because of this, Constantino was in doubt if Rizal should really be considered as the national hero.

It is us, who Constantino has been talking about in his title, people who are used to adore Rizal until they have understood the true essence of being a national hero. The Philippine Commission was searching for the national hero as someone who has the personality of detesting the idea of revolution and instead, was a governmental reformist who wants liberty to be achieved in a peaceful way. Rizal was the perfect fit for this. He was acknowledged as American-sponsored hero and was labeled as a limited hero by Constantino.

However, separatist movement refused that led to Katipunan revolt. Throughout the years, it was instilled in my mind that Rizal made the greatest contributions to our independence. His works opened the minds, eyes and consciousness of the Filipinos from yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Not just because he was in contradiction of the revolution means that he does not deserve to be the national hero. He was against it because he wanted a revolution that is planned and systematized.

I admire Bonifacio and other men involved in the revolution for their braveness to stand up against the Spaniards to attain our freedom. Many lives have been wasted because of their impatience. Rizal had everything planned out. He was very much aware of the status of the Philippines in terms of education, economics, and governance.

It was very well defined that the Filipino people were not properly educated and so do not stand a chance for opportunities for economics and minimal political publicities. This is why Rizal decided to be a reformist than to be a revolutionist. As a reformist, if the Philippines will be a part of Spain, Filipinos will be given the same rights and opportunities as what the Spaniards were enjoying such as fair education, economic development, and political connections. All Rizal ever wanted is to accomplish stability before attaining independence because with stability, everything else will follow.

But, this never happened. Today, we are becoming slaves again because of the prevailing endless growth of corruption, increasing rate of poverty, crime, and education problems. There are some quotes that Constantino has justified that I disagree upon. As indicated by him, a man must be considered as a hero if he is a revolutionist and participates in bloodshed.

I have to oppose with this one, for me, a hero is somebody who stands on principles, who fights for what he believes and is not persuaded by the moments of passion and spirit. Who shapes a philosophy and stays consistent with it. Who takes the long view and fights and dies for something much better than impermanent grandness.

Bloodshed without viewpoint, death without being sanctified to a higher purpose, is pointless homicide. That is something that Rizal could not disregard. He did not want to see useless death and homicide, when the end result would have been the slaves becoming dictators themselves. Holding these ideas. From Heroic Leadership to Heroic People. I considered myself fortunate if. When later. I cannot do less than condemn.

In fact. And in the manifesto of December Confidence in the People. The Meaning of Greatness. In our case. I opposed it. Sun Yat Sen. Consumption for an Alienated People.

Veneration Without Understanding_Constantino.pdf -...

There is Washington for the United States. From the very beginning. The unity between the venerated mass action and the honored single individual enhances the influence of both. Either the Revolution was wrong. Since they do not dare for themselves. For some Rizalists. This sponsorship took two forms: He was a martyr to oppression.

On the other hand. Rizal repudiated the one act which really synthesized our nationalist aspiration. The Philippine Revolution has always been overshadowed by the omnipresent figure and the towering reputation of Rizal. Viewed superficially. As a matter of fact. By and large. Perhaps they do not perceive the adverse consequences of our refusal to analyze and resolve this contradiction. Other in fact [p. His dramatic death captured the imagination of our people. There is no question that Rizal had the qualities of greatness.

Had someone of lesser stature uttered those words of condemnation. Yet the consequences are manifest in our regard for our Revolution and in our understanding of Rizal. This is a disservice to the event. Because Rizal took no part in that Revolution and in fact repudiated it.

Such an appraisal has dangerous implications because it can be used to exculpate those who actively betrayed the Revolution and may serve to diminish the ardor of those who today may be called upon to support another great nationalist undertaking to complete the anti-colonial movement. To my knowledge. They would probably praise Rizal's stand against the Revolution.

History cannot deny his patriotism. An American-Sponsored Hero We have magnified Rizal's role to such an extent that we have lost our sense of proportion and relegated to a subordinate position our other great men and the historic events in [p. Although Rizal was already a revered figure and became more so after his martyrdom. Rizal's reaction toward the Revolution is unexpected. They have treated Rizal's condemnation of the Katipunan as a skeleton in his closet and have been responsible for the "silent treatment" on his unequivocal position against the Revolution.

The Free Press of December The American administration has lent every assistance to this recognition. The heroes who advocated independence were therefore ignored. They favored a hero who would not run against the grain of American colonial policy. We must take these acts of the Americans in furtherance of a Rizal cult in the light of their initial policies which required the passage of the Sedition Law prohibiting the display of the Filipino flag.

For to have. Mabini unregenerate. And so was history made. Bonifacio too radical. Aguinaldo too militant. Taft to the Filipino members of the civil commission. Underscoring supplied [3] The reason for the enthusiastic American attitude becomes clear in the following appraisal of Rizal by Forbes: Rizal never advocated independence.

Between Two Empires. Cameron Forbes who wrote in his book. He urged reform from within by publicity. And throughout the islands the public schools tech the young Filipinos to revere his memory as the greatest of Filipino patriots.. This early example of American "aid" is summarized by Governor W. Underscoring supplied [4] Taft's appreciation for Rizal has much the same basis. Pardo de Tavera. The Philippine Islands: It is eminently proper that Rizal should have become the acknowledged national hero of the Philippine people.

In the first place. Orthodox historians have presented history as a succession of exploits of eminent personalities. That is why a critical evaluation of Rizal cannot but lead to a revision of our understanding of history and of the role of the individual in history.

It may be argued that. No embarrassing anti-American quotations could ever be attributed to him. By unraveling the past we become confronted with the present already as [p. This was. He could therefore not be invoked on the question of Philippine independence.

Rizal will still occupy a good position in our national pantheon even if we discard hagiolatry and subject him to a more mature historical evaluation. Rizal belonged to the right social class -. At the same time. This need not alarm anyone but the blind worshipper. Such a re-evaluation may result in a down-grading of some heroes and even a discarding of others. He could not be a rallying point in the resistance against the invaders.

The exposure of his weaknesses and limitations will also mean our liberation. It must also be remembered that the Filipino members of the Philippine Commission were conservative ilustrados. Several factors contributed to Rizal's acceptability to the [p. Rizal's dramatic martyrdom had already made him the symbol of Spanish oppression. The Americans regarded Rizal as belonging to this class.

To focus attention on him would serve not only to concentrate Filipino hatred against the erstwhile oppressors. It cannot spare even Rizal. The honors bestowed on Rizal were naturally appreciated by the Filipinos who were proud of him. A proper understanding of our history is very important to us because it will serve to demonstrate how our present has been distorted by a faulty knowledge of our past. The Americans especially emphasized the fact that Rizal was a reformer.

His choice was a master stroke by the Americans. Though such tactics may succeed for a limited period. In the case of Rizal. This tendency is strongly noticeable in those who have tried of late to manufacture new heroes through press releases. It must be admitted however.

Be that as it may. In this connection. The uncritical attitude of his cultists has been greatly responsible for transforming biographers into hagiographers. If there had been no Rizal. The fact is that history is made by men who confront the problems of social progress and try to solve them in accordance with the historical conditions of their epoch. This is likewise true in the case of present-day national liberation movements.

He is a hero in the sense that he was able to see the problems generated by historical forces. He saw more clearly than his contemporaries and felt with more intensity the problems of his country. Was this historical phase of our libertarian struggle due to Rizal? Did the propagandists of the 19th century create the period or were they created by the period. Rizal may have given form and articulation and color to the aspirations of the people.

But he is not a hero in the sense that he could have stopped and altered the course of events. We must therefore not fall into the error of projecting the role of the individual to the extent of denying the play of these forces as well as the creative energies of the people who are the true makers of their own history.

The fundamental cause of mass action is not the utterances of a leader. Without Rizal there may have been a delay in the maturation of our libertarian struggle. That Rizal possessed a particular talent which influenced the style of the period was accidental. Would the course of the Philippine Revolution have been different? This poses the question of the role of the individual in history. They set their tasks in.

Without Rizal there would have developed other talents. His weaknesses and errors have been subtly underplayed and his virtues grossly exaggerated. The truth of this statement is demonstrated by the fact that the Revolution broke out despite his refusal to lead it and continued despite his condemnation of it. That [p. He was the first Filipino but he was only a limited Filipino. Rizal maybe accelerated it.

But even without him. Because Rizal had certain qualities. Rizal served his people by consciously articulating the unconscious course of events. The Role of Heroes With or without these specific individuals the social relations engendered by Spanish colonialism and the subsequent economic development of the country would have produced the nationalist movement.

Though we assert that the general course of history is not directed by the desires or ideas of particular men. Without Del Pilar another propagandist would have emerged.

Material progress set the stage for cultural and social changes. Innovation and Change Rizal lived in a period of great economic changes. Liberalism had invaded the country as a result of the reduction of the Spain-Manila voyage to thirty days after the opening of the Suez canal. The deeper his commitment to the people's cause in his own time as evidence by his life and deeds. The infra-structure program of the Spanish government resulted in a moderately functional road system.

The Chinese received loans for the distribution of European goods and the collection of Philippine produce for shipment abroad. The country was undergoing grave and deep alterations which resulted in a national awakening.

Manila's water system was modernized in These non-Spanish houses practically monopolized the import-export trade.

They attained a new consciousness and hence. The third quarter of the century saw the opening of railroad lines. Merchants gave crop advances to indio and Chinese-mestizo cultivators. The mestizo that developed became the crude ideological framework of the ferment among the affluent indios and mestizos. The English occupation of the country. Hispanization became the conscious. Abaca and sugar became prime exports during this period as a result of these European and American entrepreneurial activities.

The opening of the ports of Sual. Legaspi and Tacloban. The middle of the 19th century saw 51 shipping and commercial houses in Manila. The closer the correspondence between a man's perception of reality and reality itself. The Transformation of the sugar industry due to financing and the in.

The establishment of nonHispanic commercial houses broke the insular belt that had circumscribed Philippine life for almost two centuries and a half. The steamship effected both internal and external linkages. These were inevitably accompanied by cultural and political ferment. He may have had a different and limited goal at the time. This contribution was in the realm of Filipino nationhood. The Concept of Filipino Nationhood This was a victory in the realm of consciousness.

It was a contribution not only in terms of propaganda but in something positive that the present generation of Filipinos will owe to him and for which they will honor him by completing the task which he so nobly began. Though the aims of this class were limited to reformist measures. To a large extent. He had to become a Spaniard first before becoming a Filipino. The drive for Hispanization was transformed into the development of a distinct national consciousness.

Hispanization and assimilation constituted the ideological expression of the economic motivations of affluent indios and mestizos. But they did not realize as yet that real equality must be based on national freedom and independence. Instead of making the Filipinos closer to Spain. His writings were part of the tradition of protest which blossomed into revolution.

Veneration without understanding.

As a consequence. It is their insights that make them conversant with their periods and which enable them to articulate the needs of the people. His original aim of elevating the indio to the level of Hispanization of the peninsular so that the country could be assimilated. Rizal contributed much to the growth of this national consciousness. This is not to say that he was conscious that these were class goals.

A true historical review would prove that great men are those who read the time and have a deeper understanding of reality. The were still in the initial phases of nationalist consciousness. Beguiled by the new colonizer. The lordly friar who had been partly responsible for the isolation of the islands became the target of attacks. Equality with the Spaniard meant equality of opportunity. He was the product of his society and as such could be expected to voice only those aims that were within the competence of his class.

Anti-clericalism became the ideological style of the period. Neither could he have transcended his class limitations.

He did this in good faith. Hispanized and urbanized indios along with Spanish mestizos and sangley [Chinese. La Solidaridad espoused the cause of liberalism and fought for democratic solutions to the problems that beset the Spanish colonies. The natives were called indios.

Differences between the creoles and the "genuine" Filipinos as they called themselves. Recto today. Perhaps it would be useful at this point to discuss in some detail the metamorphosis of the term Filipino not just as a matter of historical information but so that we may realize the importance of Rizal's contribution in this regard. Much less are they aware that today social conditions demand that the true Filipino be one who is consciously striving for de-colonization and independence.

In a letter to Rizal. It was at this time that Rizal and other indios in Paris began to use the term indios bravos. Its leaders were indios. Lopez-Jaena criticized it in these words: From day to day I am becoming convinced that our countrymen. It is important to bear in mind that the term Filipino originally referred to the creoles. Even more valuable are the insights we may gain into the inter-dependence between material conditions and consciousness as manifested in the evolution of the word Filipino in terms of its widening applicability and deeper significance through succeeding periods of our history.

Spanish mestizos and sons of urbanized indios and Chinese mestizos. The Filipino community in Spain during the 's was a conglomerate of creoles. It was "moderate" in tone and failed to win the sympathy of the native elements. Its first issue came out in There are many Filipinos who do not realize they are Fiipinos only in the old cultural. It is fortunate that a street wich was once named for one of them has become Claro M. Towards the last quarter of the 19th century.

The concept of Filipino nationhood is an important tool of analysis as well as a conceptual weapon of struggle. We must also correct the common impression that the Filipinos who were in Spain during the Propaganda Period were all indios. They are not aware of the term Filipino as a developing concept. Spanish mestizos who could pass off for white claimed to be creoles and therefore Filipinos.

The only non-Spaniard in the staff was Baldomero Roxas. From the declaration of aims and policies the class basis of the Propaganda is quite obvious.

His class position. This was an important stage in our appropriation of the term Filipino. As ilustrado he was speaking in behalf of all the indios though he was separated by culture and even by property from the masses.

He condemned the Revolution because as an ilustrado he instinctively underestimated the power and the talents of the people. The de-colonized Filipino is the real goal for our time just as the Hispanized Filipino was once the goal of the reformists. For the users of the term were themselves limited Filipinos based on education and property. Rizal was acting from patriotic motives in both instances. All that we ask is greater attention.

The reformists could not [p. He believed in freedom not so much as a national right but as something to be deserved. Both acts were in character. Since this term was applied to those who spoke in the name of the people but were not really of the people. He died for his people. His hero.

Rizal's intellectual excellence paved the way for the winning of the name for the natives of the land. Though Rizal was able to win for his countrymen the name Filipino. They wanted accommodation within the ruling system. The Spaniards. The "Limited" Filipinos But the appropriation of this term was not the end of the historic struggle for national identity.

But there are only very hazy description of characters who belonged to the masses. There seems to be a contradiction between the two acts. Spain could always win the appreciation of the Filipinos if she were only reasonable! While for Rizal's time this was a signal victory.

It was an unconscious struggle which led to a conscious recognition of the pejorative meaning of indio. His ilustrado orientation manifests itself in his novels.

Rizal's own reformism is evident in this excerpt from his letter to Blumentritt: Fearful of the violence of people's action. A people can be free without being independent. I do not mean to say that our liberty will be secured at the sword's point. Others who testify that I said independence either have put the cart before the horse or they lie. His name was invoked whenever the incapacity of the masses for self-government was pointed out as a justification for American tutelage.

In line with their avowed policy of preparing us for eventual self-government. Rizal did not consider political independence as a prerequisite to freedom.

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I am one most anxious for liberties in our country and I am still desirous of them. Rizal intentionally avoided the use of the term independence. He expressed himself clearly on these points in the following passage from a letter which he wrote in his cell on December A book.

Since his idea of liberty was essentially the demand for those rights which the elite needed in order to prosper economically. Educator and Economist. But I placed as a prior condition the education of the people that by means of instruction and industry our country may have an individuality of its own and make itself worthy of these liberties.

Rizal's preoccupation with education served to further the impression that the majority of the Filipinos were unlettered and therefore needed tutelage before they could be ready for independence.

I have always desired liberties for the Philippines and I have said so. He was their martyr. The early rebellions. People learn and educate themselves in the process of struggling for freedom and liberty. Neither was his generation much different from those who today say they stand for independence but do not want to hurt the feelings of the Americans. The Precursors of Mendicancy In a way.

The Katipunan. This statement not only supports the American line but is also an example of how our admiration for Rizal may be used to beguile us into accepting reactionary beliefs. They proposed an elitist form of leadership. They cannot seem to accept the fact that peasants and workers and the youth have moved without waiting for their word.

Rizal and his generation were the precursors of the present-day mendicants. They attain their highest potential only when they are masters of their own destiny. Rizal's generation is no different from the generation that was engaged in our independence campaigns. In a way. Colonialism is the only agency still trying to sell the idea that freedom is a diploma to be granted by a superior people to an inferior one after years of apprenticeship.

Rizal and the propagandists were the embodiment of a consciousness without a movement. A people have every right to be free. They are not accustomed to the people moving on their own. It was. The elite had a sub-conscious disrespect for the ability of the people to articulate their own demands and to move on their own. It may be shocking to say that Rizal was one of the practitioners of a mendicant policy.

They are no different from the modern-day mendicants who try to prove that they are Americanized.

Veneration Without Understanding

They wanted to be called Filipinos in the creole sense: Filipino-Spaniards as Rizal called Ibarra. They failed to realize that at critical moments of history the people decide on their own. They felt that education gave them the right to speak for the people.

Tutelage in the art of government as an excuse for colonialism is a discredited alibi. This reflects the bifurcation between the educated and the masses.

Faced with the popular determination. That his martyrdom was tainted by his attacks on our independist struggle is not a ground for condemning him entirely. We must see Rizal historically. We must view Rizal as an evolving personality within an evolving historical period. The indio had a more legitimate claim to the title of Filipino because he was truly liberating himself. It is form without content.

But we cannot make him out to be the infallible determinant of our national goals. Every nation is always discovering or rediscovering heroes in the past or its present. Rizal was a necessary moment in our evolution. He provided the model of a form of heroism that culminated in martyrdom.

We must see in his life and in his works the evolution of the Filipino and must realize that the period crowned by his death is only a moment in the totality of our history. Rizal should occupy his proper place in our pantheon of great Filipinos. The role and the contribution of Rizal. To allow hero-worship to be uncritical and unhistorical is to distort the meaning of the heroic individual's life.

We must determine the factors. Each hero's contribution. Today their ideas are orthodox and safe. Though their fight was reformist and may be regarded as tame today. He was a Filipino we can be proud of. But he was only a moment. The ilustrado Filipino was now being surpassed by the indio in revolutionary ardor.

The indio as Filipino rose in arms while the ilustrado was still waiting for Spain to dispense justice and reforms. We must always be conscious of the historical conditions and circumstances that made an individual a hero. The revolutionary masses proclaimed their separatist goal through the Katipunan. Blind Adoration Hero-worship. Though he is secure to be in our hearts and memories as a hero.

Just as a given social system inevitably yields to new and higher forms of social organization. Bonifacio and the Katipunan that embodied the unity of revolutionary consciousness and revolutionary practice. In many areas of our life today.He could not be a rallying point in the resistance against the invaders. The Indolence of the Filipinos by Dr. The fact is that period. Subscribe to view the full document.

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