VELIKOVSKY WORLDS IN COLLISION PDF
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Telescopically, Venus never offers much to see aside from its gradual change in apparent size and an attractive progression of phases. Observers have strained for centuries to glimpse any detail on its cloud-cloaked disk. We sometimes forget that astronomers knew very little about this neighbor world — so like Earth in size and mass — until powerful radar probing and spacecraft visits started to peel back the layers of mystery in the s.
The first artificial satellites were still a decade away when, in , Immanuel Velikovsky finished the manuscript for Worlds in Collision, a book that capitalized on our relative ignorance and put forward a theory of solar-system formation that goes beyond bizarre. Born in and a student variously of history, law, biology, and psychoanalysis, Velikovsky maintained that the inner planets only recently assumed the serene, stable orbits they have today.
Rather, in his scheme Venus took the form of a huge, rogue comet after being ejected by Jupiter not long before BC. It then hurtled sunward, sideswiping Earth twice and colliding with Mars before settling into the almost perfectly circular orbit it now occupies.
What got him started was the biblical story of Joshua commanding the Sun and Moon to stop moving for an entire day and invoking a devastating hail of stones from the sky during his battle with the Amorites. Velikovsky was also seeking a physical reason for the plagues inflicted on the Egyptians in Exodus. Venus provided all the answers.
That long tail it trailed after leaving Jupiter had also created all kinds of havoc for Pharaoh as Earth passed through it not once but twice. The fundamental criticism against this book from the astronomy community was that its celestial mechanics were irreconcilable with Newtonian celestial mechanics , requiring planetary orbits which could not be made to conform to the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum Bauer Velikovsky conceded that the behavior of the planets in his theories is not consistent with Newton's laws of motion and universal gravitation.
He proposed that electromagnetic forces could be the cause of the movement of the planets, although such forces between astronomical bodies are essentially zero. Velikovsky tried to protect himself from criticism of his celestial mechanics by removing the original Appendix on the subject from Worlds in Collision , hoping that the merit of his ideas would be evaluated on the basis of his comparative mythology and use of literary sources alone.
However this strategy did not protect him: Carl Sagan wrote that the high surface temperature of Venus was known prior to Velikovsky, and that Velikovsky misunderstood the mechanism for this heat. He also did not understand the greenhouse effect on Venus, which had earlier been elucidated by astronomer Rupert Wildt.
Ultimately, Venus is hot due to its proximity to the sun; it does not emit more heat than it receives from the sun, and any heat produced by its celestial movements would have long dissipated.
immanual velikovsky’s: world in collision (pdf book)
Sagan concludes: Carl Sagan also noted that "Velikovsky's idea that the clouds of Venus are composed of hydrocarbons or carbohydrates is neither original nor correct. Also, the Mariner 2 probe was erroneously reported in the popular press to have discovered hydrocarbons on Venus.
These errors were subsequently corrected, and Sagan later concluded that "[n]either Mariner 2 nor any subsequent investigation of the Venus atmosphere has found evidence for hydrocarbons or carbohydrates" p. Regarding Jupiter's radio emissions, Sagan noted that "all objects give off radio waves if they are at temperatures above absolute zero.
The essential characteristics of the Jovian radio emission — that it is nonthermal, polarized, intermittent radiation, connected with the vast belts of charged particles which surround Jupiter, trapped by its strong magnetic field — are nowhere predicted by Velikovsky.
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Further, his 'prediction' is clearly not linked in its essentials to the fundamental Velikovskian theses. Merely guessing something right does not necessarily demonstrate prior knowledge or a correct theory.
He also noted that it was Athena and not Venus who was born from the head of Zeus — two utterly different goddesses. Athena was never identified with a planet. Tim Callahan, religion editor of Skeptic , presses the case further in claiming that the composition of the atmosphere of Venus is a complete disproof of Worlds in Collision. Velikovsky's hypothesis stands or falls on Venus having a reducing atmosphere made up mainly of hydrocarbons. In fact, the atmosphere of Venus is made up mainly of carbon dioxide—carbon in its oxidized form—along with clouds of sulfuric acid.
Therefore, it couldn't have carried such an atmosphere with it out of Jupiter and it couldn't be the source of hydrocarbons to react with oxygen in our atmosphere to produce carbohydrates. Velikovsky's hypothesis is falsified by the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Venus. Astronomer Dr Philip Plait has pointed out that Velikovsky's hypothesis is also falsified by the presence of the Moon with its nearly circular orbit for which the length of the month has not changed sensibly in the 5, years the Jews have used their lunar calendar.
At the very least its orbit would have been profoundly changed, made tremendously elliptical Had Venus done any of the things Velikovsky claimed, the Moon's orbit would have changed. By , the controversy surrounding Velikovsky's work had reached the point where the American Association for the Advancement of Science felt obliged to address the situation, as they had previously done in relation to UFOs , and devoted a scientific meeting to Velikovsky. The meeting featured, among others, Velikovsky himself and Carl Sagan.
Sagan gave a critique of Velikovsky's ideas and attacked most of the assumptions made in Worlds in Collision.
His criticism is published in Scientists Confront Velikovsky Ithaca, New York, edited by Donald Goldsmith and presented in a revised and corrected version in his book Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science and is much longer than that given in the talk.
In Cosmos , Sagan also criticizes the scientific community for their attitude toward Velikovsky, stating that while science is a process in which all ideas are subject to a process of extensive scrutiny before any idea can be accepted as fact, the attempt by some scientists to suppress outright Velikovsky's ideas was "the worst aspect of the Velikovsky affair.
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Friedlander, professor of physics at Washington University in St. Louis, confronted Velikovsky in the symposium "Velikovsky and the Politics of Science" with examples of his "substandard scholarship" involving the "distortion of the published scientific literature in quotations that he used to support his theses".
For example, contrary to Velikovsky, R. Lyttleton did not write "the terrestrial planets, Venus included, must [emphasis added] have originated from the giant planets…" Rather, Lyttleton wrote "…it is even possible…" As Friedlander recounts, "When I gave each example, [Velikovsky's] response was 'Where did I write that?
A thorough examination of the original material cited in Velikovsky's publications, and a severe criticism of its use, was published by Bob Forrest.
The first of these is his proclivity to treat all myths as having independent value; the second is the tendency to treat only such material as is consistent with his thesis; and the third is his very unsystematic method.
Leroy Ellenberger , a former senior editor of Kronos a journal to promote Velikovsky's ideas Bauer The storm of controversy that was created by Velikovsky's works, especially Worlds in Collision , may have helped revive the Catastrophist movements in the last half of the 20th century; it is also held by some working in the field that progress has actually been retarded by the negative aspects of the so-called Velikovsky Affair.
This failure to recognize the power of comets and asteroids means that it is reasonable to go back to Velikovsky and delete all the physically impossible text about Venus and Mars passing close to the earth.
More recently, the absence of supporting material in ice core studies such as the Greenland Dye-3 and Vostok cores , bristlecone pine tree ring data , Swedish clay varves , and many hundreds of cores taken from ocean and lake sediments from all over the world has ruled out any basis for the proposition of a global catastrophe of the proposed dimension within the Late Holocene age. The sediments, which were misidentified as a "raise beach", are now attributed to megatsunamis generated by massive landslides created by the periodic collapse of the sides of the islands.
It is referenced in the version of Invasion of the Body Snatchers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Pere Ubu music album, see Worlds in Collision album. Worlds in Collision , Macmillan. The Gordon Atwater Affair.
Review IV 4 , pp. A reading of the manuscript confirmed his view that Worlds in Collision would be a tremendous hit at Hayden. He told Velikovsky that if a publisher for the book was found, the Planetarium would produce a sky show based on Worlds in Collision. Leroy Worlds in Collision in Macmillan's Catalogues.
Kronos , 9 2 , The 20 weeks at the top stated by Juergens in The Velikovsky Affair is incorrect. At the Fringes of Science. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Since all this happened between the third and the first millennia before the present era, the core of the planet Venus must still be hot.
If and as long as Venus is too hot for the liquefaction of petroleum, the hydrocarbons will circulate in gaseous form. The absorption lines of the petroleum spectrum lie far in the infra-red where usual photographs do not reach.
When the technique of photography in the infra-red is perfected so that hydrocarbon bands can be differentiated, the spectrogram of Venus may disclose the presence of hydrocarbon gases in its atmosphere, if these gases lie in the upper part of the atmosphere where the rays of the sun penetrate. The planet is cold, yet its gases are in motion. It appears probable to me that it sends out radio noises as do the sun and the stars.
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Redeeming Culture: In Defence of Science: Science, technology, and, politics in modern society , University of Toronto Press. Velikovsky", section: Problem VIII: The Temperature of Venus.
Problem VII: The Clouds of Venus. Velikovsky", Section: Some Other Problems, p.
Critical reaction and controversy
A New Mythology: Skeptic , 13 4 , Worlds in Derision: Velikovsky vs. Modern Science. Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. New York:Lyttleton did not write "the terrestrial planets, Venus included, must [emphasis added] have originated from the giant planets…" Rather, Lyttleton wrote "…it is even possible…" As Friedlander recounts, "When I gave each example, [Velikovsky's] response was 'Where did I write that?
An Antidote to Velikovskian Delusions. New Falcon Publications, Tempe Arizona. Workshop 6 , 3, February.
Worlds in Collision cover Macmillan Publishing details Author: As further proof, he details how Venus is conspicuously absent from various historical tabulations of planets prior to about BC. More recently, the absence of supporting material in ice core studies such as the Greenland Dye-3 and Vostok cores , bristlecone pine tree ring data , Swedish clay varves , and many hundreds of cores taken from ocean and lake sediments from all over the world has ruled out any basis for the proposition of a global catastrophe of the proposed dimension within the Late Holocene age.
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