resourceone.info Art The Making Of Atomic Bomb Pdf

THE MAKING OF ATOMIC BOMB PDF

Friday, September 6, 2019


“The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic. Bomb” is a short history of the origins and develop- ment of the American atomic bomb program during. World War. Editorial Reviews. resourceone.info Review. If the first pages of this book had been published separately, they would have made up a lively, insightful. [PDF] Download The Making of the Atomic Bomb Epub|PDF Click button below to download or read this book. Description Twenty-five years.


The Making Of Atomic Bomb Pdf

Author:DIXIE PRESTA
Language:English, Spanish, French
Country:Burkina
Genre:Business & Career
Pages:346
Published (Last):15.02.2016
ISBN:723-9-42732-268-1
ePub File Size:23.83 MB
PDF File Size:14.29 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Downloads:21366
Uploaded by: DANNY

Richard Rhodes sets out to describe, in exquisite detail, the background, development and deployment of the first atomic bombs in human. The Making of the Atomic Bomb by Richard Rhodes - Twenty-five years after its initial publication, The Making of the Atomic Bomb remains the definitive history. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | This review gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. research labs was in the making of atomic bombs.

One, the phenomenological, is more abstract and generalized and therefore more useful ; the other, the statistical, is based on an atomic model and corresponds more closely to physical reality. In particular, the statistical theory depicts thermal equilibrium as a state of random motion of atoms. Einstein, for example, had demonstrated in important papers in that Brownian motion -- the continuous, random motion of particles such as pollen suspended in a liquid -- was such a state.

But the more useful phenomenological theory treated thermal equilibrium as if it were static, a state of no change. That was the inconsistency. Szilard went for long walks -- Berlin would have been cold and gray, the grayness sometimes relieved by days of brilliant sunshine -- "and I saw something in the middle of the walk; when I came home I wrote it down; next morning I woke up with a new idea and I went for another walk; this crystallized in my mind and in the evening I wrote it down.

But I didn't dare to take it to von Laue, because it was not what he had asked me to do. Szilard reported his "quite original" idea.

After only a year of university physics, Szilard had worked out a rigorous mathematical proof that the random motion of thermal equilibrium could be fitted within the framework of the phenomenological theory in its original, classical form, without reference to a limiting atomic model -- "and [Einstein] liked this very much.

It was yon Laue. He said, 'Your manuscript has been accepted as your thesis for the Ph. By then he had his advanced degree; he was Dr. Leo Szilard now. He experimented with X-ray effects in crystals, yon Laue's field, at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Dahlem until ; that year the University of Berlin accepted his entropy paper as his Habilitationsschrift, his inaugural dissertation, and he was thereupon appointed a Privatdozent, a position he held until he left for England in One of Szilard's sidelines, then and later, was invention.

Between and he applied to the German patent office individually or jointly with his partner Albert Einstein for twenty-nine patents. Most of the joint applications dealt with home refrigeration. Another, oddly similar invention, also patented, might have won Szilard world acclaim if he had taken it beyond the patent stage.

Independently of the American experimental physicist Ernest O. Lawrence and at least three months earlier, Szilard worked out the basic principle and general design of what came to be called, as Lawrence's invention, the cyclotron, a device for accelerating nuclear particles in a circular magnetic field, a sort of nuclear pump.

Szilard applied for a patent on his device on January 5, ; Lawrence first thought of the cyclotron on about April 1, , producing a small working model a year later -- for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics. Szilard's originality stopped at no waterline. Somewhere along the way from sixteen-year-old prophet of the fate of nations to thirty-one-year-old open conspirer negotiating publishing rights with H. Wells, he conceived an Open Conspiracy of his own.

He dated his social invention from "the mid-twenties in Germany. Snow, the British physicist and novelist, writes of Leo Szilard that he "had a temperament uncommon anywhere, maybe a little less uncommon among major scientists. He had a powerful ego and invulnerable egocentricity: In that sense, he had a family resemblance to Einstein on a reduced scale. Der Bund -- the order, the confederacy, or, more simply, the band.

The Bund, Szilard writes, would be "a closely knit group of people whose inner bond is pervaded by a religious and scientific spirit": If we possessed a magical spell with which to recognize the "best" individuals of the rising generation at an early age Members of this class would not be awarded wealth or personal glory.

To the contrary, they would be required to take on exceptional responsibilities, "burdens" that might "demonstrate their devotion. But there was also the possibility that it might "take over a more direct influence on public affairs as part of the political system, next to government and parliament, or in the place of government and parliament.

It appears as late as , by then suitably disguised, in his popular story "The Voice of the Dolphins": A wild burst of optimism -- or opportunism -- energized Szilard in to organize a group of acquaintances, most of them young physicists, to begin the work of banding together. He was convinced in the mids that "the parliamentary form of democracy would not have a very long life in Germany" but he "thought that it might survive one or two generations.

I was so impressed by this that I wrote a letter to my bank and transferred every single penny I had out of Germany into Switzerland.

That program, set out arrogantly in an autobiographical book -- Mein Kampf -- would achieve a lengthy and bloody trial. Yet Szilard in the years ahead would lead a drive to assemble a Bund of sorts; submerged from view, working to more urgent and more immediate ends than utopia, that "closely knit group of people" would finally influence world events more enormously even than Nazism.

Find a copy online

Sometime during the s, a new field of research caught Szilard's attention: He was familiar with the long record of outstanding work in the general field of radioactivity of the German chemist Otto Hahn and the Austrian physicist Lise Meitner, who made a productive team at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. No doubt he was also alert as always to the peculiar tension in the air that signaled the possibility of new developments.

The nuclei of some light atoms could be shattered by bombarding them with atomic particles; that much the great British experimental physicist Ernest Rutherford had already demonstrated. Rutherford used one nucleus to bombard another, but since both nuclei were strongly positively charged, the bombarded nucleus repelled most attacks. Physicists were therefore looking for ways to accelerate particles to greater velocities, to force them past the nucleus' electrical barrier.

Szilard's design of a cyclotron-like particle accelerator that could serve such a purpose indicates that he was thinking about nuclear physics as early as Until he did no more than think. He had other work and nuclear physics was not yet sufficiently interesting to him. It became compelling in A discovery in physics opened the field to new possibilities while discoveries Szilard made in literature and utopianism opened his mind to new approaches to world salvation.

On February 27, , in a letter to the British journal Nature, physicist James Chadwick of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, Ernest Rutherford's laboratory, announced the possible existence of a neutron. He confirmed the neutron's existence in a longer paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society four months later, but Szilard would no more have doubted it at the time of Chadwick's first cautious announcement than did Chadwick himself; like many scientific discoveries, it was obvious once it was demonstrated, and Szilard could repeat the demonstration in Berlin if he chose.

The neutron, a particle with nearly the same mass as the positively charged proton that until was the sole certain component of the atomic nucleus, had no electric charge, which meant it could pass through the surrounding electrical barrier and enter into the nucleus. The neutron would open the atomic nucleus to examination. It might even be a way to force the nucleus to give up some of its enormous energy. Wells' books that he had failed to discover before: The World Set Free. Despite its title, it was not a tract like The Open Conspiracy.

It was a prophetic novel, published in , before the beginning of the Great War. Wells describes, he says: He places this war in the year , and in this war the major cities of the world are all destroyed by atomic bombs.

More personal discoveries emerged from Wells' visionary novel -- ideas that anticipated or echoed Szilard's utopian plans, responses that may have guided him in the years ahead. Wells writes that his scientist hero, for example, was "oppressed, he was indeed scared, by his sense of the immense consequences of his discovery.

He had a vague idea that night that he ought not to publish his results, that they were premature, that some secret association of wise men should take care of his work and hand it on from generation to generation until the world was riper for its practical application.

It didn't start me thinking of whether or not such things could in fact happen. I had not been working in nuclear physics up to that time.

The friend who had introduced him to H. Wells returned in to the Continent: I met him again in Berlin and there ensued a memorable conversation. Otto Mandl said that now he really thought he knew what it would take to save mankind from a series of ever-recurring wars that could destroy it. He said that Man has a heroic streak in himself. Man is not satisfied with a happy idyllic life: And he concluded that what mankind must do to save itself is to launch an enterprise aimed at leaving the earth.

On this task he thought the energies of mankind could be concentrated and the need for heroism could be satisfied. I remember very well my own reaction. I told him that this was somewhat new to me, and that I really didn't know whether I would agree with him.

The only thing I could say was this: Such must have been Szilard's conclusion; that year he moved to the Harnack House of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes -- a residence for visiting scientists sponsored by German industry, a faculty club of sorts -- and approached Lise Meitner about the possibility of doing experimental work with her in nuclear physics. Thus to save mankind. He always lived out of suitcases, in rented rooms. At the Harnack House he kept the keys to his two suitcases at hand and the suitcases packed.

An older Hungarian friend, Szilard remembers -- Michael Polanyi, a chemist at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes with a family to consider -- viewed the German political scene optimistically, like many others in Germany at the time.

Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany on January 30, On the night of February 27 a Nazi gang directed by the head of the Berlin SA, Hitler's private army, set fire to the imposing chambers of the Reichstag.

The building was totally destroyed. Hitler blamed the arson on the Communists and bullied a stunned Reichstag into awarding him emergency powers. Szilard found Polanyi still unconvinced after the fire. On the weekend of April 1, Julius Streicher directed a national boycott of Jewish businesses and Jews were beaten in the streets. The same train the next day was overcrowded, was stopped at the frontier, the people had to get out, and everybody was interrogated by the Nazis.

This just goes to show that if you want to succeed in this world you don't have to be much cleverer than other people, you just have to be one day earlier. From England, where he landed in early May, Szilard went furiously to work to help them emigrate and to find jobs for them in England, the United States, Palestine, India, China and points between.

If he couldn't yet save all the world, he could at least save some part of it. He came up for air in September. Szilard's funds came from his patent licenses, refrigeration consulting and Privatdozent fees. He was busy finding jobs for others and couldn't be bothered to seek one himself. Wells' book either, until I found myself in London about the time of the British Association [meeting]. He had been too distracted by events and by rescue work to think creatively about nuclear physics.

He had even been considering going into biology, a radical change of field but one that a number of able physicists have managed, in prewar days and since. Such a change is highly significant psychologically and Szilard was to make it in But in September , a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, an annual assembly, intervened.

If on Friday, September 1, lounging in the lobby of the Imperial Hotel, Szilard read The Times' review of The Shape of Things to Come, then he noticed the anonymous critic's opinion that Wells had "attempted something of the sort on earlier occasions -- that rather haphazard work, 'The World Set Free,' comes particularly to mind -- but never with anything like the same continuous abundance and solidity of detail, or indeed, the power to persuade as to the terrifying probability of some of the more immediate and disastrous developments.

Without question Szilard read The Times of September 12, with its provocative sequence of headlines: The leading scientists in Great Britain were meeting and he wasn't there. He was safe, he had money in the bank, but he was only another anonymous Jewish refugee down and out in London, lingering over morning coffee in a hotel lobby, unemployed and unknown. Then, midway along the second column of The Times' summary of Rutherford's speech, he found: High voltages of the order of millions of volts would probably be unnecessary as a means of accelerating the bombarding particles.

Transformations might be effected with 30, or 70, volts He believed that we should be able to transform all the elements ultimately. We might in these processes obtain very much more energy than the proton supplied, but on the average we could not expect to obtain energy in this way. It was a very poor and inefficient way of producing energy, and anyone who looked for a source of power in the transformation of the atoms was talking moonshine.

Did Szilard know what "moonshine" meant -- "foolish or visionary talk"? Did he have to ask the doorman as he threw down the newspaper and stormed out into the street? Pronouncements of experts to the effect that something cannot be done have always irritated me. I was pondering whether Lord Rutherford might not prove to be wrong. But he was the first to imagine a mechanism whereby more energy might be released in the neutron's bombardment of the nucleus than the neutron itself supplied.

There was an analogous process in chemistry. Polanyi had studied it. A comparatively small number of active particles -- oxygen atoms, for example -- admitted into a chemically unstable system, worked like leaven to elicit a chemical reaction at temperatures much lower than the temperature that the reaction normally required.

Chain reaction, the process was called. One center of chemical reaction produces thousands of product molecules. One center occasionally has an especially favorable encounter with a reactant and instead of forming only one new center, it forms two or more, each of which is capable in turn of propagating a reaction chain. Chemical chain reactions are self-limiting. Were they not, they would run away in geometric progression: In certain circumstances it might be possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction, liberate energy on an industrial scale, and construct atomic bombs.

Behind him the light changed to red. About The Author. Photograph by Nancy Warner. Richard Rhodes. Product Details. Related Articles. On Dropping Bombs: Moral Dilemmas in the Atomic Age. Raves and Reviews. Awards and Honors. Resources and Downloads. He believed his clarity of judgment peaked then, never to increase further; it "perhaps even declined. That coincidence -- or catalyst -- by itself could turn a young man messianic.

To the end of his life he made dull men uncomfortable and vain men mad. He was interested in physics but "there was no career in physics in Hungary.

The making of the atomic bomb

He thought of studying chemistry, which might be useful later when he picked up physics, but that wasn't likely either to be a living. He settled on electrical engineering. Economic justifications may not tell all.

Because he had a Gymnasium education he was sent directly to officers' school to train for the cavalry. A leave of absence almost certainly saved his life. He asked for leave ostensibly to give his parents moral support while his brother had a serious operation.

In fact, he was ill. He thought he had pneumonia. He wanted to be treated in Budapest, near his parents, rather than in a frontier Army hospital.

He waited standing at attention for his commanding officer to appear to hear his request while his fever burned at degrees. The captain was reluctant; Szilard characteristically insisted on his leave and got it, found friends to support him to the train, arrived in Vienna with a lower temperature but a bad cough and reached Budapest and a decent hospital.

His illness was diagnosed as Spanish influenza, one of the first cases on the Austro-Hungarian side.

The war was winding down. Using "family connections" he arranged some weeks later to be mustered out. He was twenty-one years old. Just as he arranged for a passport, at the beginning of August, the Kun regime collapsed; he managed another passport from the right-wing regime of Admiral Nicholas Horthy that succeeded it and left Hungary around Christmastime.

Still reluctantly committed to engineering, Szilard enrolled in the Technische Hochschule, the technology institute, in Berlin. But what had seemed necessary in Hungary seemed merely practical in Germany.

Fritz Haber, whose method for fixing nitrogen from the air to make nitrates for gunpowder saved Germany from early defeat in the Great War, was only one among many chemists and physicists of distinction at the several government- and industry-sponsored Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes in the elegant Berlin suburb of Dahlem. The difference in scientific opportunity between Budapest and Berlin left Szilard physically unable to listen to engineering lectures.

Finally the ego gave in, and I left the Technische Hochschule to complete my studies at the University, some time around the middle of ' Universities in Germany were institutions of the state; a professor was a salaried civil servant who also collected fees directly from his students for the courses he chose to give a Privatdozent, by contrast, was a visiting scholar with teaching privileges who received no salary but might collect fees.

Science grew out of the craft tradition in any case; in the first third of the twentieth century it retained -- and to some extent still retains -- an informal system of mastery and apprenticeship over which was laid the more recent system of the European graduate school.

This informal collegiality partly explains the feeling among scientists of Szilard's generation of membership in an exclusive group, almost a guild, of international scope and values. Szilard's good friend and fellow Hungarian, the theoretical physicist Eugene Wigner, who was studying chemical engineering at the Technische Hochschule at the time of Szilard's conversion, watched him take the University of Berlin by storm.

Max Planck was a gaunt, bald elder statesman whose study of radiation emitted by a uniformly heated surface such as the interior of a kiln had led him to discover a universal constant of nature. He followed the canny tradition among leading scientists of accepting only the most promising students for tutelage; Szilard won his attention.

Max von Laue, the handsome director of the university's Institute for Theoretical Physics, who founded the science of X-ray crystallography and created a popular sensation by thus making the atomic lattices of crystals visible for the first time, accepted Szilard into his brilliant course in relativity theory and eventually sponsored his Ph.

The postwar German infection of despair, cynicism and rage at defeat ran a course close to febrile hallucination in Berlin. The university, centrally located between Dorotheenstrasse and Unter den Linden due east of the Brandenburg Gate, was well positioned to observe the bizarre effects.

Szilard missed the November revolution that began among mutinous sailors at Kiel, quickly spread to Berlin and led to the retreat of the Kaiser to Holland, to armistice and eventually to the founding, after bloody riots, of the insecure Weimar Republic. By the time he arrived in Berlin at the end of more than eight months of martial law had been lifted, leaving a city at first starving and bleak but soon restored to intoxicating life. You felt you had arrived somewhere totally strange.

Nowhere else did you fail in such good form, nowhere else could you be knocked on the chin time and again without being counted out. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed his first glass-walled skyscraper in postwar Berlin. Yehudi Menuhin made his precocious debut, with Einstein in the audience to applaud him. George Grosz sorted among his years of savage observation on Berlin's wide boulevards and published Ecce Homo.

Vladimir Nabokov was there, observing "an elderly, rosy-faced beggar woman with legs cut off at the pelvis Hitler was not there until the end, because he was barred from northern Germany after his release from prison in , but he sent rumpelstiltskin Joseph Goebbels to stand in for him; Goebbels learned to break heads and spin propaganda in an open, lusty, jazz-drunk city he slandered in his diary as "a dark and mysterious enigma.

It fell to 7, to the dollar at the beginning of January , the truly terrible year. One hundred sixty thousand in July. One million in August. And 4. Banks advertised for bookkeepers good with zeros and paid out cash withdrawals by weight. Antique stores filled to the ceiling with the pawned treasures of the bankrupt middle class. A theater seat sold for an egg. Only those with hard currency -- mostly foreigners -- thrived at a time when it was possible to cross Germany by first-class railroad carriage for pennies, but they also earned the enmity of starving Germans.

He was no foreigner, but with foreign help he was able to live like one: In order to make me independent of [inflation], my father had appealed to his friend, Kaufmann, the banker from Basle, who had established for me an account in American dollars at a large bank Once a week I took half a day off to go downtown by subway and withdrew my allowance in marks; and it was more each time, of course.

Returning to my rented room, I at once bought enough food staples to last the week, for within three days, all the prices would have risen appreciably, by fifteen percent, say, so that my allowance would have run short and would not have permitted such pleasures as an excursion to Potsdam or to the lake country on Sundays I was too young, much too callous, and too inexperienced to understand what this galloping inflation must have meant -- actual starvation and misery -- to people who had to live on pensions or other fixed incomes, or even to wage earners, especially those with children, whose pay lagged behind the rate of inflation.

He would have understood what inflation meant and some of the reasons for its extremity. But though Szilard was preternaturally observant -- "During a long life among scientists," writes Wigner, "I have met no one with more imagination and originality, with more independence of thought and opinion" -- his recollections and his papers preserve almost nothing of these Berlin days.

Germany's premier city at the height of its postwar social, political and intellectual upheaval earns exactly one sentence from Szilard: "Berlin at that time lived in the heyday of physics. Four years of study usually preceded a German student's thesis work. Then, with a professor's approval, the student solved a problem of his own conception or one his professor supplied.

Szilard had already given a year of his life to the Army and two years to engineering. He wasted no time advancing through physics.

In the summer of he went to Max von Laue and asked for a thesis topic. Von Laue apparently decided to challenge Szilard -- the challenge may have been friendly or it may have been an attempt to put him in his place -- and gave him an obscure problem in relativity theory.

The Making of the Atomic Bomb

As a matter of fact, I was not even convinced that this was a problem that could be solved. There are two thermodynamic theories, both highly successful at predicting heat phenomena. One, the phenomenological, is more abstract and generalized and therefore more useful ; the other, the statistical, is based on an atomic model and corresponds more closely to physical reality.

In particular, the statistical theory depicts thermal equilibrium as a state of random motion of atoms. Einstein, for example, had demonstrated in important papers in that Brownian motion -- the continuous, random motion of particles such as pollen suspended in a liquid -- was such a state.

But the more useful phenomenological theory treated thermal equilibrium as if it were static, a state of no change.

That was the inconsistency. Szilard went for long walks -- Berlin would have been cold and gray, the grayness sometimes relieved by days of brilliant sunshine -- "and I saw something in the middle of the walk; when I came home I wrote it down; next morning I woke up with a new idea and I went for another walk; this crystallized in my mind and in the evening I wrote it down.

But I didn't dare to take it to von Laue, because it was not what he had asked me to do. Szilard reported his "quite original" idea. After only a year of university physics, Szilard had worked out a rigorous mathematical proof that the random motion of thermal equilibrium could be fitted within the framework of the phenomenological theory in its original, classical form, without reference to a limiting atomic model -- "and [Einstein] liked this very much.

It was yon Laue. He said, 'Your manuscript has been accepted as your thesis for the Ph. By then he had his advanced degree; he was Dr.

Leo Szilard now. He experimented with X-ray effects in crystals, yon Laue's field, at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Dahlem until ; that year the University of Berlin accepted his entropy paper as his Habilitationsschrift, his inaugural dissertation, and he was thereupon appointed a Privatdozent, a position he held until he left for England in One of Szilard's sidelines, then and later, was invention.

Between and he applied to the German patent office individually or jointly with his partner Albert Einstein for twenty-nine patents. Most of the joint applications dealt with home refrigeration. Another, oddly similar invention, also patented, might have won Szilard world acclaim if he had taken it beyond the patent stage. Independently of the American experimental physicist Ernest O. Lawrence and at least three months earlier, Szilard worked out the basic principle and general design of what came to be called, as Lawrence's invention, the cyclotron, a device for accelerating nuclear particles in a circular magnetic field, a sort of nuclear pump.

Szilard applied for a patent on his device on January 5, ; Lawrence first thought of the cyclotron on about April 1, , producing a small working model a year later -- for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Szilard's originality stopped at no waterline. Somewhere along the way from sixteen-year-old prophet of the fate of nations to thirty-one-year-old open conspirer negotiating publishing rights with H. Wells, he conceived an Open Conspiracy of his own. He dated his social invention from "the mid-twenties in Germany. Snow, the British physicist and novelist, writes of Leo Szilard that he "had a temperament uncommon anywhere, maybe a little less uncommon among major scientists.

He had a powerful ego and invulnerable egocentricity: but he projected the force of that personality outward, with beneficent intention toward his fellow creatures. In that sense, he had a family resemblance to Einstein on a reduced scale. The Bund, Szilard writes, would be "a closely knit group of people whose inner bond is pervaded by a religious and scientific spirit": If we possessed a magical spell with which to recognize the "best" individuals of the rising generation at an early age Members of this class would not be awarded wealth or personal glory.

To the contrary, they would be required to take on exceptional responsibilities, "burdens" that might "demonstrate their devotion. But there was also the possibility that it might "take over a more direct influence on public affairs as part of the political system, next to government and parliament, or in the place of government and parliament.

It appears as late as , by then suitably disguised, in his popular story "The Voice of the Dolphins": a tankful of dolphins at a "Vienna Institute" begin to impart their compelling wisdom to the world through their keepers and interpreters, who are U.

A wild burst of optimism -- or opportunism -- energized Szilard in to organize a group of acquaintances, most of them young physicists, to begin the work of banding together. He was convinced in the mids that "the parliamentary form of democracy would not have a very long life in Germany" but he "thought that it might survive one or two generations. I was so impressed by this that I wrote a letter to my bank and transferred every single penny I had out of Germany into Switzerland.

That program, set out arrogantly in an autobiographical book -- Mein Kampf -- would achieve a lengthy and bloody trial. Yet Szilard in the years ahead would lead a drive to assemble a Bund of sorts; submerged from view, working to more urgent and more immediate ends than utopia, that "closely knit group of people" would finally influence world events more enormously even than Nazism.

Sometime during the s, a new field of research caught Szilard's attention: nuclear physics, the study of the nucleus of the atom, where most of its mass -- and therefore its energy -- is concentrated. He was familiar with the long record of outstanding work in the general field of radioactivity of the German chemist Otto Hahn and the Austrian physicist Lise Meitner, who made a productive team at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. No doubt he was also alert as always to the peculiar tension in the air that signaled the possibility of new developments.

The nuclei of some light atoms could be shattered by bombarding them with atomic particles; that much the great British experimental physicist Ernest Rutherford had already demonstrated. Rutherford used one nucleus to bombard another, but since both nuclei were strongly positively charged, the bombarded nucleus repelled most attacks. Physicists were therefore looking for ways to accelerate particles to greater velocities, to force them past the nucleus' electrical barrier.

Szilard's design of a cyclotron-like particle accelerator that could serve such a purpose indicates that he was thinking about nuclear physics as early as Until he did no more than think.Yet Szilard in the years ahead would lead a drive to assemble a Bund of sorts; submerged from view, working to more urgent and more immediate ends than utopia, that "closely knit group of people" would finally influence world events more enormously even than Nazism.

To the end of his life he made dull men uncomfortable and vain men mad.

The Making of the Atomic Bomb

He had not yet encountered the most appealing orphan among Wells' Dickensian crowd of tales. The Open Conspiracy was to be a public collusion of science-minded industrialists and financiers to establish a world republic. His mother was loving and he was well provided for. We might in these processes obtain very much more energy than the proton supplied, but on the average we could not expect to obtain energy in this way.

It appears as late as , by then suitably disguised, in his popular story "The Voice of the Dolphins": a tankful of dolphins at a "Vienna Institute" begin to impart their compelling wisdom to the world through their keepers and interpreters, who are U.