THE ART OF PROCRASTINATION JOHN PERRY PDF
Editorial Reviews. Review. “A splendid way to avoid one's work.” —Ben Schott, author of It may sound counterintuitive, but according to philosopher John Perry, you can accomplish a lot by putting things off. He calls it “structured. This is not a book for Bill Gates. Or Hillary Clinton, or Steven Spielberg. Clearly they have no trouble getting stuff done. For the great majority of us, though, what . By John Perry Structured procrastination is the art of ma- If all the procrastinator had left to do was to sharpen some pencils, no force on.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|ePub File Size:||17.73 MB|
|PDF File Size:||15.69 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
See a sample reprint in PDF format. By JOHN PERRY . of philosophy at Stanford University, is the author of "The Art of Procrastination,". It may sound counterintuitive, but according to philosopher John Perry, you can accomplish a lot by putting things off. He calls it “structured. author, Dr. John Perry, an emeritus professor of philosophy at Stanford University , is an admitted The article asks: “Why should I want to be a better procrastinator? . Dr. Perry's book, 'The Art of procrastination' or visit his website;.
A positive mental attitude inspires ongoing action, especially when it includes a strong work ethic. Adopting an uplifting personal philosophy can provide the basis for such an attitude, especially when it emphasizes the importance of virtues. This usually entails pondering the meaning of life to determine what is important in life, and what approach to take.
A positive outlook on life engenders positive emotion in life, which in turn inspires action. Dream envisioning is daring to imagine the desired future. The stronger it is through repetition and the more detailed its outcome is, the more compelling the dream becomes as a road map for action. Making dreams come true is what success is all about, and a well-envisioned dream which remains "in view" at all times is one of the most powerful motivators there is.
That's why visionaries are called visionaries. To live a life's dream is to think about it all the time, to continually think about everything in terms of that dream. Determining self-worth on one's own rather than by the opinions of others makes for a more stable emotional base.
Psychologists are divided between endorsing unconditional self-love, personal potential, and earned self-worth as the best approach through which to evaluate one's self-worthiness. With unconditional self-love personal value is inherent: the individual holds themself in highest regard regardless of their actions, which is believed to provide the best environment to nurture the psyche for personal growth "I am great because I exist".
When personal potential is the benchmark, it is one's personal skills and traits which matter, which focuses value on one's personal inventory including ambition and willpower in preparation for accomplishment "I am capable of great things therefore I am worthy" and "I can accomplish anything I put my mind to, therefore I am worthy". While in the earned self-worth model, self-worth is used as part of a reward structure: one must do great deeds if one is to see themself as great "I have done great things, therefore I am worthy".
But all three of these approaches to self-imaging work better than caving in to the criticisms of others. Maintaining a positive mental voice means refraining from self-criticism, keeping critiques directed upon actions and strategies rather than one's person, and replacing self-putdowns with uplifting self-encouragement. The main character in the children's tale The Little Engine that Could provides a perfect example of this approach.
While everyone else told the Little Engine that he would never make it up the mountain track, the Little Engine kept telling himself "I think I can, I think I can", even in the face of overwhelming odds, until his belief in himself carried him through. Then, on his way down the other side of the mountain he shouted in victory "I knew I could, I knew I could, I knew I could! Rebounding after a defeat, like getting back in the saddle after falling off the horse, is usually better than giving up and not trying anything that big again.
Volitional depression, a fancy term for discouragement, is where a person, after a big failure like losing a fortune on the stock market, a divorce, going bankrupt, or a failed start-up company retreats into themself or into an addiction like drugs, becoming obsessed with the internet , collecting things, or engaging in sex as often as possible instead of taking on another big project to go after success yet again.
The resilience to get back up after a failure and go for "it" again is much more conducive to success, and as a character trait is diametrically opposed to procrastination. The average successful entrepreneur fails six times before making it big. Keeping this in mind makes getting started again a lot easier, because it is a reminder that interim failure is temporary and is just part of the learning process of achievement -- winners keep going.
It is easy to take everpresent things for granted, while complaining about things that are missing. Building on strengths - Make a list of all the things you already master. Ask yourself how you got to be an expert in doing these things - and then, try to explain the differences between your "can't-dos" and "can-dos".
To what feelings and circumstances are they attached? You may be able to apply the same approaches you used on acquiring your current skills to attain the new skills you need. Building self-confidence - The only one source of self-confidence is enjoying success. But, the problem is that often you can only succeed against other people, e.
The problem is that you did procrastinate for such a long time that you are like a child which is learning to walk - but having put off the walking courses, it can only succeed when compared against a much younger baby. Stop comparing yourself with others - set your own goals! Get to know other people who find themselves in a like situation; you can learn from them that they did not fare better by comparing themselves with successful people.
Being progressive helps to put down your old feelings and habits. Remove old things from your room or apartment - they are associated with your old personality. If you possess something that vigorously reminds you of a sad, unlucky era - then get rid of it. Another way to beat procrastination is by leading a healthy lifestyle. An unhealthy lifestyle makes a person much more susceptible to stress, which leads to feelings of being overwhelmed, which can lead to procrastination. By making a few adjustments to their lifestyle, like how much they exercise, a person can greatly increase how much stress they can handle Increasing stress tolerance Some people are more susceptible to stress than others.
In other words, those others are more tolerable to stress than those susceptible. The greater your tolerance, the more stress it takes to get you down. Stress falling below one's tolerance threshold is "no big deal", and is easy to deal with. What many don't realize is that this tolerance level is adjustable -- it can be strengthened Vigorous cardiovascular exercise increases resistance to stress, boosts the immune system, and improves oxygen supply to the brain and general mental performance including intellectual performance, ability to focus, memory, etc.
Such exercise include walking, speed walking, running, swimming, biking, hiking, and aerobics. Good nutrition, including nutrient supplementation, improves cognitive performance, boosts the immune system, and provides the brain with the precursors necessary for it to make the stress-coping neurotransmitters it needs. Abstaining from poor nutrition, such as by cutting down on sweets and sugar drinks, reduces hyperactivity, difficulty focusing, and obesity which hampers the immune system, general performance, and proclivity to exercise.
Relaxation methods such as fractional relaxation , progressive relaxation , trance induction, and meditation reduce the effects of stress: tension and anxiety. The ability to remain calm and worry-free in the face of stressful situational factors is called self-composure.
The ability to stay tension-free during a stressful situation, including using only as much energy and muscle tension required to complete motions, is called relaxed poise. Combined together, these skills are called grace under pressure. Enhancing mood control Emotions, including moods, drive behavior. But our moods are our responsibility, and concerning each of them we can choose to feel that way or not. We can feel like throwing a tantrum and putting things off, or we can feel like doing something useful Being alert to one's own moods is preferable to not paying attention to what one is feeling and consequentially to what one is doing because of these moods.
The first step to changing a mood is to be aware of it.
Here is a simple ABC of bad moods to keep a look out for: angry, bored, cranky, dreadful, easily distracted, frustrated, grumpy, hurt, ill-tempered, justified, kicked, lazy, mean, nosy, obsolete, feeling like putting it off until later, feeling like quitting, robbed, selfish, tired, used, vexed, whipped, feeling like yelling at someone, zeroed in on or zeroed out. When you spot one, you can catch yourself, and change your emotional approach: your mood.
Positive filter is to retain the positive thoughts and actions and ignore or keep out the negative ones.
Negative thoughts tend to build up and often become pervasive in one's life. When we continuously encourage positive thoughts and suppress negative ones, we develop a better outlook towards life and ourselves.
Changing expression such as one's facial expression can change a person's mood. When you feel good, you smile. Conversely, and very useful for lifting one's own spirits is the fact that smiling on purpose generally makes people feel good.
This is referred to in psychology as the 'facial feedback' hypothesis. And smiles are contagious, so others can catch them from you, and in turn, you can catch "smilitis" back from them. It's a synergistic arrangement.
And when we're feeling good, we are much more likely to feel like getting started. Adjusting taste is changing how you feel about something, like learning to love what you hate. This is accomplished by changing how you think about it: dwelling on the benefits and good traits of an activity may lead to actually liking it. Finding fun ways to do it, like turning it into a game, may also make it more enjoyable. Self-psyching, or "psyching yourself up", is the self-administered pep-talk.
You are your own coach delivering the motivational speech before the big game. Managing fear - One way to overcome fear is to face it. Usually, the more exposure one has to a stressful stimulus, the more used to it he gets. This is called desensitization. Improving thinking If you've ever wondered "What was I thinking?!
Or maybe your reasons weren't very good, because you didn't put enough thought into them. These problems are the result of a lack of concentration. The solution to distractions and opportunities competing for attention involves improving concentration and how one concentrates: acquiring better focusing and decision-making abilities.
Here also, there are psychological and physiological approaches. Paying attention Improving attention span can be as easy as taking nutrient supplements called nootropics.
Below are a few nutrients which generally increase a person's ability to concentrate and enhance cognition in other ways as well, such as improving reasoning capacity and memory,[ citation needed ] and which are available for sale at nutrition shops, drug stores and online, and are often available at grocery stores: DMAE dimethylaminoethanol - originally available as a prescription drug called Deaner, used for helping hyperactive children concentrate, DMAE is now available as a nutrient over the counter.
Vitamin B-5 - used as a cofactor in the brain's production of acetylcholine and essential for that process. Also a key component of the Krebs acid cycle , an important step in the aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates into chemical energy in the form of ATP Adenosine triphosphate , and thus capable of increasing energy available to brain cells, improving mental stamina.
Focusing and refocusing - This section is a stub. You can help Wikibooks by expanding it. This section is a stub.
Removing, or getting away from, distractions -- distractions often cause people to procrastinate, by presenting the option to do something else, or by triggering deviations. To prevent this from happening, minimize the chance of distractions occurring: Sometimes the thing causing the distraction can be removed.
If you find yourself turning the TV or video game on and watching or playing when you really shouldn't, then perhaps the most effective approach would be to get rid of the TV and video game console including the game cartridges by giving them away, or taking them to the dump. If it is a computer video game that has you hooked, maybe you can unload the program from your computer, and if that doesn't deter you, perhaps you can break the game disk!
Sometimes removing the source of the distraction isn't an option, usually when other people are involved If the distraction isn't allowed to be removed, or if the distractions are caused by people, such as by family or roommates, maybe you can find somewhere quiet in which to continue your project.
If there isn't anywhere in your home, then consider somewhere outside, in your car, at the library, etc. For some people, renting an office or apartment for a place to escape to, or moving out and living alone are options to consider. Remove distracting thoughts. Perhaps you just can't begin your work because your mind is infested with distracting or energy-consuming thoughts, e. Make a list of all these subjects - written down, you don't forget all your precious ideas and you can concentrate on them later.
Never work on these thoughts first - they are the reason why you are procrastinating! If your hindering thoughts are too strong to have them removed or postponed by yourself, get the help of a clinical psychologist or a psychiatrist.
Thinking rationally Thinking it through -- this is reasoning through an intended course of action, going over why each step needs to be done, and predicting what benefits will likely result if they are completed. Also, making a mental list of the consequences that will be suffered if the tasks are not completed is part of this exercise.
The virtual carrot and the stick. The goal here is to work out one's reservations and talk oneself into doing what needs to be done, taking care not to get stuck in transition such as setting a time limit. Consciously deciding what to do means switching off one's auto-pilot and actively applying intelligence with presence of mind: being aware of what you are doing and why, while remaining alert for opportunities to adapt and improve one's approach.
Don't just go through the motions, actively think about what you are doing. Improving problem solving skills Try one or more of the techniques given in the problem solving article.
Acquiring self-management skills Since the tendency to procrastinate on a project is roughly proportional to the difficulty of the project, and since its difficulty is relative to our skill in handling such projects, it follows that improving our self-management and organizing skills e. Simply put, simple jobs aren't scary. The more skilled you are at handling projects, the easier such jobs become.
Self-management systems provide simple procedures to help focus efforts and may assist you in mastering your projects and your situation. Nobody plans to fail, but many people fail to plan.
Self-management systems help to keep plans in clear focus. Following are some components of a typical self-management system Goal vision This is a form of goal setting, but more involved. It entails choosing the goal and writing down the goal statement as usual. Then the goal is mentally envisioned as vividly as possible, in as much detail as possible, as often as free time allows, and in every spare moment that becomes available.
The more the goal is thought about and the actions for achieving it mentally rehearsed, the more likely the goal will become a driving force of the person's behavior. This method is best suited for important projects and life goals.
Planning Goal setting - write down your goal statement.
Buy for others
Be as detailed as you can. Setting selection criteria - what features must your plan have to be successful? These are the plan's selection criteria.
Generating strategies - figure out as many ways as you can that the goal could be achieved. Research it if needed. These are the action plans to choose from. Selecting a course of action - based on your selection criteria, pick a strategy, your plan of action.
Develop the chosen plan in more detail - detail the plan down to the task level. Putting the plan into action - see below. Also, see the article on managing goals.
Scheduling Schedules help organizing your daily and weekly life. Though some people profit more than others from a scheduled working life, two things are common to good schedules: They are be both feasible and flexible. A feasible schedule allows you, for example, to begin working without forcing yourself to get up early. When studying for an important exam, beginning to study at 9 AM each morning is feasible.
It allows you to stay up until midnight, depending on your sleeping needs, and lets you enjoy the social life in the evening. A typical student is mentally able to learn hours per day for an exam, so he or she should schedule this amount of study time maximally.
A flexible schedule is a schedule which is immune to disturbances. You should schedule your work around such things as mealtime in order not to be interrupted by colleagues which want to have dinner with you or your favorite TV program which you may or may not watch. If you are working and a relative or a neighbor asks for your help, your schedule should allow for catching up with the lost time.
This said, a good schedule meets your abilities and provides enough reserve time. A schedule which you cannot trust is one you should not follow.
In case of failure, you pay with your precious time. Capturing tasks on a general to-do list A general to-do list is a place to store tasks until you are ready to schedule them. It is typically a note pad that you keep handy or a computer file that you keep open for recording tasks as you think of them, to get them down in a central list where they won't be forgotten and can be easily referred to later. Tasks are regularly chosen from the general to-do list for inclusion in a more specific daily task list see below.
Prioritizing tasks Each task has a relative importance cutting the grass is less important than studying for an exam. Tasks also have an expected duration cutting the grass takes less time than studying for an exam. Most tasks are also time-sensitive cutting the grass is flexible whereas studying must be complete before a fixed time.
Prioritizing is the skill of reconciling these often conflicting attributes to determine which task ought to be performed first. In the context of a college exam, you could prioritize items as follows: A: mandatory subjects.
Knowing these certainly gives you a sufficient mark. B: items which improve your understanding of the "A" topics. Studying them gives you probably, but not certainly, a good mark.
John Perry’s Web Page
C: all other things. These will be studied last. In an environment where more than one task is undertaken at once, and completion of some tasks is a prerequisite for starting other tasks, then a Critical path is formed of tasks which have the highest priority. Making and using a daily task list At the end of the day, before you go to bed, or at the very beginning of the day, just after you wake up, prepare a to-do list for the day.
List all the tasks you need or plan to get done that day. Place the tasks in order of priority, or grade their priority in the left-hand column with numbers. Throughout the day, focus on executing each task on the list, one task at a time, highest priority tasks first. When you accomplish one of the items on the list, you check it off or cross it off.
Take a sheet of paper and draw a 2x2 column table so that you have four each corresponding categories. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil , usually on a note pad or clip-board. Loose hole-punched paper is often used to allow such lists to be inserted into loose-leaf binders for record-keeping.
However, numerous software equivalents are now available, and many popular e-mail clients include task list applications, as do most PDAs. This is information about a wiki which one can edit as a personal organiser and store on the computer using just one file A wiki-style possible personal organiser Keeping a journal Making a record of what you have done while you are doing it can help you evaluate your performance and spot trouble-areas in your abilities and behaviors, like procrastinating.
If you keep notes on task completion on your daily task lists, those can serve as your journal. Simply make note of situations that arose that you handled, and any tasks or significant activities that you did that were not on the list. Changing habits In one sense, procrastination is the habit of not getting started. It is not an action, so much as the lack of an action. It is not a habit, so much as the lack of a habit: the habit of getting started. If one acquires the habit of getting started, then not getting started is no longer an issue.
Another word for "get started" is initiate. It is the exact opposite of procrastinate, as long as it is applied to the right task, and not an evasion.
At the same time, an ongoing problem of procrastination is a complex of bad habits. Luckily, old bad ways can be replaced by new good ways. Very few procrastinators do nothing, such as go to sleep. Rather, they do something pleasant, such as surf the web in order to avoid doing an important, but unpleasant, task. This makes them unproductive. Now, returning to me. Imagine my surprise when I learned the philosopher John Perry has been doing the same thing.
In he wrote an essay entitled Structured Procrastination , which garnered quite a bit of attention. In the essay he explained how he used the power of procrastination, as I do, to be productive. In fact, he wrote the essay an item on his list of things to do to avoid working on a more important project. Yes, although writing this book was on his To-Do List, he wrote it to avoid doing a more unpleasant task. The list of tasks one has in mind will be ordered by importance. Tasks that seem most urgent and important are on top.
But there are also worthwhile tasks to perform lower down on the list. Doing these tasks becomes a way of not doing the things higher up on the list. With this sort of appropriate task structure, the procrastinator becomes a useful citizen. Indeed, the procrastinator can even acquire, as I have, a reputation for getting a lot done. While other experts teach about the importance of focusing, organizing, prioritizing, planning, scheduling, and goal-setting, little or nothing is mentioned about the psychological barrier of resistance.Forgive previous mistakes and expect new ones.
Many aspects of the way this environment is organized are intended to facilitate self-control.
Janssen, Tracy, and John S Carton. By structuring one's environment effectively, one can reduce the distractions and temptations behind much procrastination. If our motivation were indifferent to delay, we would not have to play these tricks with ourselves. Leighton and Robert J. Habermas, J. In fact, he wrote the essay an item on his list of things to do to avoid working on a more important project. When personal potential is the benchmark, it is one's personal skills and traits which matter, which focuses value on one's personal inventory including ambition and willpower in preparation for accomplishment "I am capable of great things therefore I am worthy" and "I can accomplish anything I put my mind to, therefore I am worthy".