THE ART OF INTELLIGENCE PDF
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Editorial Reviews. Review. “Crumpton's narrative, especially when chronicling the response to the 9/11 attacks, moves like a thriller, presenting a story of. Get Free Access To | The Art Of Intelligence Audio Cd Henry A Crumpton PDF Now a crumpton, you can download them in pdf format from our resourceone.info This essay represents the views of the author and does not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Air War College or the Department of the Air Force.
His most important conquest was the creation of Aldi-supermarkets. Furthermore, communities used to gather around, talking and investigating around subjects which bothered the average human mind.
Escaping from thoughts is a process that suffers the consequences of reduced rationality and increased sensitivity. This enigma covers only essential aspects that makes the ordinary man feel well-satisfied. Those born with a quick mind reaction must find the perfect balance which will allow them to succeed using only their mind-capabilities. Lucky are those whose intentions are associated with pure heart — has been said previously. In spite of the habit to often interpret life from personhood, you might give it a try to broaden your horizons.
You can start by simply identifying your goals, which are backed by a well-defined vision. The author strongly endorses this theory and furthermore examines all aspects of mind-perception. In the same fashion, he offers various comparatively oriented ideas, which suffocate the notion of better. To justify some of these concepts, a deep understanding of spaciousness must come naturally. Other than saying that people have particular six unique bits of intelligence, he also emphasized the values of each.
No stranger to the world of habit, Howard continued to explore numerous things. This hidden dust on a societal level is merely a reflection of what we have become. Look at it this way — the author challenges you to think about a few close people, which according to your standards are intelligent.
Your judgments that may be right or wrong, but the truth will always be a part of creativity and authenticity. Is it beneficial to spend more effort convincing this source to talk?
What abilities does he have that can be brought into play? Are there social or ethnic barriers to communication? Can his personality adapt to the personality of the source? Cooperative and friendly[ edit ] A cooperative and friendly source offers little resistance to the interrogation and normally speaks freely on almost any topic introduced, other than that which will tend to incriminate or degrade him personally.
To obtain the maximum amount of information from cooperative and friendly sources, the interrogator takes care to establish and to preserve a friendly and cooperative atmosphere by not inquiring into those private affairs which are beyond the scope of the interrogation. At the same time, he must avoid becoming overly friendly and losing control of the interrogation. While Americans might not spend time inquiring about the journey to the place of the interrogation, the health of one another's family, etc.
Not following cultural norms may transform a cooperative subject into a silent one. For example, Arab cultural norms, reasonable to follow in a friendly conversation with a subject of that culture, do, often in ceremonial terms, speak of family.
Handshakes are traditional at the start and end of the meeting. He normally takes the position of answering questions asked directly, but seldom volunteers information. In some cases, he may be afraid to answer for fear of reprisals by the enemy.
This often is the case in low-intensity conflict LIC where the people may be fearful of insurgent reprisals. With the neutral and nonpartisan source, the interrogator may have to ask many specific questions to obtain the information required. Hostile and antagonistic[ edit ] A hostile and antagonistic source is most difficult to interrogate. In many cases, he refuses to talk at all and offers a real challenge to the interrogator. An interrogator must have self-control, patience, and tact when dealing with him.
Practical Intelligence Summary
Inexperienced interrogators may do well to limit their interview, and pass the subject to a more senior interrogator. When handing off the subject, the next interrogator will find it very useful to have any clues why the subject is being hostile.
Each interrogation is thus carefully tailored to the measure of the individual subject. The standard lines of procedure, however, may be divided into four parts: arrest and detention intensive examination exploitation.
Methodologies, Technologies and Applications
The first three steps, which emphatically do not involve torture, can be combined and called the "softening-up" process. If the subject is using a cover story, it may be broken by softening-up.
For these it is necessary to provide loopholes by asking questions which let them correct their stories without any direct admission to lying". In order to achieve the disconcerting effect of alternation among these attitudes it may be necessary to use as many as four different interrogators playing the following roles, although one interrogator may sometimes double in two of them: the cold, unfeeling individual whose questions are shot out as from a machine-gun, whose voice is hard and monotonous, who neither threatens nor shows compassion.
He is most effectively used after a siege with the first and second types, or after a troubled sleep following such a siege. Planning additional interviews[ edit ] The main factor for human intelligence is getam [?
This can be part of softening-up, or part of the exploitation phase. At this stage the interrogation may for example be moved to an office assigned the subject, where he might even be left alone for a few minutes to show that he is being trusted and that there is something constructive for him to do.
This feeling of trust and responsibility can be very important to a broken subject, because he may now have suicidal inclinations; he must be given something to occupy his mind and keep him from too much introspection. Which course is better will depend on the subject's character, the way he was broken, and his present attitude toward those who have been handling him. Sometimes only a fresh interrogator can get real cooperation from him. Sometimes, on the other hand, he is so ashamed of having broken that he is unwilling to expose himself further and wants to talk only to his original questioner.
And sometimes he has built up a trustful and confiding relationship with his interrogator which should not be destroyed by the introduction of another personality. Principles of questioning[ edit ] The HUMINT collector adopts an appropriate persona based on his appraisal of the source but remains alert for verbal and non-verbal clues that indicate the need for a change in the approach techniques.
The amount of time spent on this phase will depend mostly on the probable quantity and value of information the source possesses, the availability of other sources with knowledge on the same topics, and available time.
At the initial contact, a businesslike relationship should be maintained. As the source assumes a cooperative attitude, a more relaxed atmosphere may be advantageous. If a source cooperates, his or her motivations vary. They can range from altruism to personal gain; they may be based on logic or emotion. For example, enemy soldiers who have just been captured have experienced a significant stress-producing episode.
The natural inclination is for people to want to talk about this sort of experience. This is a powerful tool for the collector to use to get the subject talking. The desire to talk may also be manifested in refugees, DPs, and even local civilians when confronted by an unsettled situation. Show deference when confronted by superior authority. This is culturally dependent but in most areas of the world people are used to responding to questions from a variety of government and quasi-government officials.
Operate within a framework of personal and culturally derived values. People tend to respond positively to individuals who display the same value system and negatively when their core values are challenged. Respond to physical and, more importantly, emotional self-interest.
This may be as simple as responding to material rewards such as extresponding to support in rationalizing guilt. Fail to apply or remember lessons they may have been taught regarding security if confronted with a disorganized or strange situation. Be more willing to discuss a topic about which the HUMINT collector demonstrates identical or related experience or knowledge.
Appreciate flattery and exoneration from guilt. Resent having someone or something they respect belittled, especially by someone they dislike. This does not necessarily equate to a friendly atmosphere. It means that a relationship is established and maintained that facilitates the collection of information by the HUMINT collector.
The relationship may be based on friendship, mutual gain, or even fear. If he does introduce himself, normally he will adopt a duty position and rank supportive of the approach strategy selected during the planning and preparation phase. A HUMINT collector may, according to international law, use ruses of war to build rapport with interrogation sources, and this may include posing or "passing himself off" as someone other than a military interrogator.
However, the collector must not pose as— A doctor, medic, or any other type of medical personnel. Such a ruse is a violation of treaty obligations.
A chaplain or clergyman. A journalist.
A member of the civilian government, such as a Member of Parliament. It is imperative that they keep their tempers both now and throughout the interrogation. The prisoner may be given the true reason for his arrest or a false one, or he may be left in doubt, according to the circumstances of the case. The interrogators must try to determine whether his usually vigorous protestations of innocence are genuine or an act, but they should not at this stage give any indication of whether they believe or disbelieve him.
A clever prisoner will try to find out how much the interrogators know; they should at all costs remain poker-faced and non-committal.
Contributing Insights to Future Intelligence
The prisoner should be asked to tell his story in his own words, describe the circumstances of his arrest, give the history of some period of his life, or explain the details of his occupation. The object is to get him to talk without prompting in as much continuous narrative as possible; the more he talks the better the interrogators can assess his personality. Use of recorders[ edit ] "The interview must of course be recorded, either [as audio] or in stenographic notes.
If the interpreter is not a regular member of the interrogator's forces, a recording, which can be reviewed by a staff linguist, can be an important part of quality control. Whether the stenographer or recorder should be concealed or visible depends on the subject's sophistication and the state of his alert. If the recording process is not evident some subjects may become careless of what they say when they see that the interrogators are not taking notes, whereas a visible recording would alert them to be more cautious.
For others, consciousness of a recording going on in full view may be unnerving, and they may betray the weak links in their stories by showing signs of distress at these points. The sound of his own voice repeating his earlier statements, particularly any with intonations of anger or distress, may make a psychological breach in his defenses.
But the interrogation skill is infinitely more important than the language skill, and a good linguist should not be substituted for a good interrogator. In the absence of an interrogator who speaks the language, an interpreter should be used, preferably one with some training in interrogation techniques.
It is very important that the interpreter not only report accurately what both parties say but also reflect as faithfully as he can their inflection, tone, manner, and emphasis. He should try to become part of the furniture in the room rather than a third personality, and the interrogator should act as though he were not there.
There are certain advantages to using an interpreter. The most obvious is that without an interpreter, a HUMINT collector without the proper language or necessary proficiency in that language is severely limited. Furthermore, if properly trained, briefed, and assessed, the interpreter can be a valuable assistant to the HUMINT collector. Interpreters may have more knowledge of the local culture as well as the language, but the HUMINT manager must be cautious that the interpreter is not, for example, a member of a subculture, religion, etc.
Going through an interpreter will slow the process, and also increase the chance of miscommunication. HUMINT collectors also need to be sure that local or third-country nationals are aware of security, and indeed will be loyal to the interpreter's side.
The collector should be aware of potential problems in interpretation. Some warning signs include: Long-to-short. If the interpreter delivers a long statement of yours as a short statement in the subject language, there are several possibilities. The interpreter may be trying to speed the interview, and the collector has to insist on accurate translation. The question may relate to a sensitive subject, perhaps even inducing fear in the interpreter.
If a brief question of the collector turns into a lengthy statement, it must be resolved that the interpreter does not have his own agenda.
It is possible that the interpreter is using honorifics, indirect approach, or other culturally appropriate phrasing. There are times, however, when a translation, to control the relationship, needs to be translated exactly and without indirect language. Body-language shift. If the interpreter seems to change his body language or tone, the collector needs to learn the reason. This may be a justification to suspend the questioning until the interrogator can speak privately with the interpreter and find out if there is a problem.
Sometimes, the change may be due to nothing more than fatigue or physical discomfort, but the interrogator must be sure that the native-language conversation has not gotten into dislike, threats, or personal connection that would bias the translation. See special reconnaissance for details.
Since these are highly trained specialists, they will usually have been communicating clandestinely to the HUMINT organization, and will be systematically prepared for debriefing. The debriefing may be done by HUMINT officers of their own organization, who are most familiar with their information-gathering techniques. Some of those techniques may be extremely sensitive and held on a need-to-know basis within the special reconnaissance organization. They operate significantly farther than the furthest forward friendly scouting and surveillance units; they may be tens to hundreds of kilometers deeper.
They may enter the area of operations in many ways. Their mission is not to engage in direct combat. It may be to observe and report, or it may include directing air or artillery attacks on enemy positions.
If the latter is the case, the patrol still tries to stay covert; the idea is that the enemy obviously knows they are being attacked, but not who is directing fire. Espionage[ edit ] Espionage is the collection of information by people either in a position of trust for the enemy, or with access to people with such access. The process of recruiting such individuals and supporting their operations is the HUMINT discipline of agent handling. It may be possible for an agent handler to meet directly with the agent and debrief him.
More commonly, agents send messages to the organization for which they work, by radio, Internet, or by leaving the messages in a hard-to-find place. The latter technique, called a dead drop , will have either a courier or the agent handler retrieve them in a clandestine manner.
These are examples of espionage tradecraft. Analyzing relationships among HUMINT subjects[ edit ] After interviews, be they debriefings or interrogations, there is likely to be data about other people with whom the subject has had contact or knows about. These data are focused on human relationship networks, not, for example, on military information that the subject knows. Once information is obtained, it is put into an organized form.Sometimes only a fresh interrogator can get real cooperation from him.
Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory.
To the extent that past investigators failed to obtain such robust results, it appears to be because they failed to use the cognitive—theoretical basis that served as the basis for training in Jaeggi et al.
He was born in in Essen — Weimar Republic. No notes for slide. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Perhaps there is irony in Geographic Information Systems into target- that Crumpton directly contributed to, and ing, which in the Intelligence Community is McRaven oversaw, the eventual demise of highly significant, and also his involvement Osama bin Laden.
Additionally, admitting ignorance of a custom, and respectfully asking for explanation, can trigger a flow of information.
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