Art Soviet X Planes Pdf


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Soviet - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Military book. There are a total of 54 Russian / Soviet X-Plane Aircraft in the Military Factory. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Flag images indicative of . Osprey X-Planes 01 - Bell X-1 - dokument [*.pdf] BELL X-1 Peter E. Davies 1BELLX-1XPLANES 16/06/ AUTHOR ILLUSTRATORS MORE FROM .

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Distinctive Features of Russian Airplanes Design. 3. From . Soviet aircraft firms worked under the .. Su - a “response” to X and X experimental. Title: Soviet X plane. Page number ISSUU Downloader is a free to use tool for downloading any book or publication on ISSUU. By using this tool you are. The X-planes are a series of experimental United States aircraft and rockets, used to test and .. American X-Vehicles: An Inventory—X-1 to X (NASA Special Publication; PDF). Monographs in Aerospace History. No. 31 (Centennial of Flight.

He attended Paier School of Art in Hamden, Connecticut, from —78, and since graduating with Honours, he has been working professionally in the field of Fine Art and Illustration.

He has been commissioned to paint for the US Air Force and has aviation paintings on permanent display at the Pentagon. Jim created the three- view, profiles, and cutaway for this book. Gareth Hector is a digital artist of international standing as well as an aviation history enthusiast. Gareth created the Chuck Yeager scene and the cover artwork for this book. All rights reserved You may not copy, distribute, transmit, reproduce or otherwise make available this publication or any part of it in any form, or by any means including without limitation electronic, digital, optical, mechanical, photocopying, printing, recording or otherwise , without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. Between and our donations are being spent on their Centenary Woods project in the UK. Here you will find our full range of publications, as well as exclusive online content, details of forthcoming events and the option to sign up for our newsletters.

You can also sign up for Osprey membership, which entitles you to a discount on purchases made through the Osprey site and access to our extensive online image archive. The first step towards this exciting future, he said, would be the breaking of the so-called sound barrier in the Bell X-1 research aircraft. For Yeager, his selection for the supersonic role was the key moment in a year career that eventually brought lasting international fame and promotion to Brigadier General in The latter organization trained aircrew who would eventually become astronauts and space shuttle pilots.

Boyd completed his training in and was subsequently chief engineer at Hickam Field, Hawaii, during the Pearl Harbor attacks. As a much-lauded pilot, Boyd secured an absolute world speed record of Of all the test programs that Boyd managed, the XS-1 was probably the most memorable. Normally, manufacturers invested in the creation of new types with the ultimate aim of securing extended production as combat aircraft, based on their prototypes.

Their own company test pilots conducted the bulk of the test flying, leaving the potential customers to perform their own acceptance tests. Test pilots, both military and civil, had only been regarded as crucial participants in the evolution of new aircraft for around ten years before the XS-1 first flew.

The following explanations may help: aspect ratio wingspan and chord expressed as a ratio. Low aspect ratio, short, stubby wing; high aspect ratio, long, narrow wing.

For height measurements involving service ceilings and cruise heights, the figure has been 'rounded'. The specific gravity sg of Soviet fuel varied considerably during the War and conversions from volume to weight and vice versa are impossible without knowing the sg of the fuel at the time. Multiply by 0. Multiply by 1. Ib pound - weight, multiply by 0. Also used for the force measurement of turbojet engines, with the same conversion factor, as pounds of static thrust.

Imperial length, multiply by 1. Design and Illustration considerations In this work we have utilised our well-proven format, aiming as always to provide a high level of readability and design. A conscious decision was made to include peripheral details where they appear on the original illustrations; photographs have not been printed across the fold and cropping has been kept to an absolute minimum. Unfortunately, in this work, many of the photographs received were copies of those from official sources and proved to be lacking in definition and tonal range.

Although no effort has been spared to achieve the highest standard of reproduction, priority for inclusion has, of necessity, been given to historical significance over technical perfection. Their power was absolute. They could take giant decisions, and so could make giant mistakes.

They also sometimes found they had to choose between diametrically opposed objectives. While on the one hand aviation was a marvellous instrument for propaganda, trumpeting the achievements of the Soviet Union, the underlying theme of Soviet society was of rigid secrecy.

The knowledge was confined largely to the mass-produced Polikarpov biplane fighters and Tupolev monoplane bombers, and to the ANT monoplane designed to break world distance records. Only very gradually did it become apparent that the austere and sombre Land of the Soviets this was the name of a recordbreaking bomber was home to an incredible diversity of aircraft. Other countries - the USA, France, Britain, Italy and increasingly Germany - had numerous aircraft companies from which flowed many hundreds of different types of aircraft.

They also had individuals who sometimes managed to create aircraft and even form tiny companies, but the aircraft were invariably conventional lightplanes aimed at the private owner. Few people in what became called The West' would have dreamed that in Stalin's realm individuals could even set their sights on high-powered fast aircraft bristling with strange ideas.

At the same time, the Soviet Union was far from being the earthly paradise that was originally intended. It is said that power corrupts, and the record shows that anyone who 'stuck his head above the parapet' was likely to get it cut off. It seems incredible that in Stalin should have been able to unleash what was called The Terror, in which anyone who might have posed the slightest threat - for example, any senior officer in any of the armed forces - was simply put through a show trial on invented charges and shot.

In the aircraft industry, time after time people who made mistakes, or in some way fell foul of someone more senior, were simply dismissed or even imprisoned and in a few cases, executed. It is beyond question that this omnipresent air of repression did much to counter the natural enthusiasm of countless workers who longed for their country to be the greatest on Earth, and a leader in advanced technology.

When one reads what happened it seems remarkable that so many diverse aircraft actually got built. This book is the most comprehensive attempt yet to collect the stories of the more important of these X-Planes experimental aircraft into one volume.

Of course, some of the strange flying machines featured were built after the collapse of the Soviet Union, but we did not want a ponderous title. Translation of the Communist state into an intensely capitalist one has tended to concentrate the mind wonderfully. Whereas 60 years ago Soviet designers could obtain funds for often bizarre ideas which a hard-nosed financial director would have considered an almost certain non-starter, today Ivan at his modern keyboard and screen knows that if he gets it wrong his shaky firm will go out of business.

Ironically, instead of being a closely guarded secret, the experimental aircraft and projects of the Soviet Union are today better documented than those of many Western companies. The process of rationalization has seen almost all the famous names of the aircraft industries of the UK, USA and France disappear. In many cases, and especially in the UK, their irreplaceable archives have been wantonly destroyed, as being of no interest to current business.

We may never know what strange things their designers drew on paper but never saw built. In contrast, the Soviet Union never destroyed anything, unless there was a political reason for doing so. Accordingly, though this book concentrates on hardware, it also includes many projects which were built but never flew, and even a few which never got off the proverbial drawing board. By late he had decided to use conventional twin tail booms. The specification overleaf applies to this revised scheme.

According to one document it was intended that a production version should have had the M engine. This would have been rated at 1,hp, instead of 1,1 00hp. Whether the unconventional configuration, and especially the potentially dangerous slat system, would have shown to advantage will never be known. Dimensions Span Wing area Design speed No other data. Bereznyak-Isayev BI Purpose: Experimental rocket-engined interceptor-fighter.

In Bereznyak was an observer at the static tests of the first reliable rocket engine developed by Leonid Stepanovich Dushkin. In early he watched flight tests of the primitive RP see later under Korolyev. He discussed rocket aircraft with Isayev, who had been a Dushkin engineer involved with the RP In late May they decided to propose a high-speed rocket-engined fighter.

They put the suggestion to Prof Bolkhovitinov see later entry. After discussion with all interested parties Bolkhovitinov sent a letter to GUAP chief administration of aviation industry on 9th July putting forward a detailed proposal.

Soon a reply came from the Kremlin. The order was for five prototypes, with the time to first flight cut from the suggested three months to a mere 35 days. A complete Bolkhovitinov team were confined to the OKB for 40 days, working three shifts round the clock. The first unpowered flight article was built without many drawings, dimensions being drawn directly on the materials and on templates. B M Kudrin made the first flight on 10th September , the tug being a Pe All necessary data were obtained in 15 flights.

The first experimental D-1A engine was installed in late January , but exploded during testing on 20th February, injuring Kudrin sent to hospital in Moscow and a technician. The replacement pilot was Capt G Ya Bakhshivandzhi. He was in the cockpit on the first tied-down firing on 27th April On 15th May he made the world's first flight of a fully engineered rocket interceptor, still fitted with skis. By March seven BI prototypes had been constructed, but the flying was entirely in towed or gliding flight because of serious problems caused by explosions and acid spillages.

Powered flying did not resume until February By this time Kudrin had returned to flight status, and was assigned one of the Bis. On powered flight No 6 on 21st March a height of 3km 9,ft was reached in 30 seconds. On powered flight No7, with aircraft No 3, on 27th March, Bakhshivandzhi made a run at sustained full power; the aircraft suddenly pitched over and. This terminated the delayed plan to build a production series of 50 slightly improved aircraft, but testing of the prototypes continued.

Until the end of the War these tested various later Dushkin engines, some with large thrust chambers for take-off and combat and small chambers to prolong the very short cruise endurance which was the factor resulting in progressive waning of interest.

Other testing attempted to perfect a sealed pressurized cockpit. By the urgency had departed from the programme, and the remaining BI Nol some were scrapped following acid corrosion were used as basic research aircraft. BI No7 was modified with revised wing-root fairings and stronger engine cowl panels, but at high speed tailplane flutter was experienced. In Bereznyak proposed a mixedpower interceptor with a three-chamber rocket engine of 10,kg 22, Ib sealevel thrust, for 'dash' performance, and a Mikulin AM-5 turbojet of 1,kg 4,b sea-level thrust.

Estimated maximum speed was Mach 1. This was not proceeded with. The BI Nol had a small and outstandingly simple all-wood airframe. The straight-tapered wing, 6 per cent thick, had two box spars and multiple stringers supporting skin mainly of 2mm ply. Outboard were fabriccovered ailerons. Inboard were split flaps with light-alloy structure the only major metal parts , with a landing angle of The fuselage was a plywood monocoque with fabric bonded over the outer surface.

It was constructed integral with the upper and lower fins. The rudder and elevators were fabric-covered. On the tailplane were added small circular endplate fins, and the powered aircraft had the tailplane braced to both the upper and lower fins. The engine bay was lined with refractory materials and stainless steel. The standard engine was the Dushkin D-1A, the designation reflecting the sea-level thrust 2, Ib , rising to about 1,kg 2, Ib at high altitude.

The propellants, fed by compressed air, were RFNA red fuming nitric acid and kerosene. These were contained in cylindrical stainless-steel tanks in the centre fuselage. The pneumatic system not only fed the propellants but also charged the guns and operated the flaps and main landing gears. The latter retracted inwards into the wings and normally had wheels with x tyres.

Under the ventral fin was a retracting tail-. In winter these units were replaced by skis, the main skis retracting to lie snugly under the wings. The cockpit had a simple aft-sliding canopy, and a bulletproof windscreen. Certain of the prototypes had armament, comprising two ShVAK 20mm cannon, each with 45 rounds, fired electrically and installed in The nominal weight breakdown for a fully equipped powered aircraft was:. Between the spars under the propellant cylinders was a bay which in some aircraft could house a small bomb load see below.

Structural factor of safety was 9, rising to no less than By any yardstick the BI No 1 was a remark-. It was killed by the time it took to overcome the problems, and - crucially - by the impracticably short flight endurance. BerievS Purpose: To copy the Lockheed U-2B. Parts of the aircraft were put on display in Moscow's Gorkiy Park. What the world was not told was that for months afterwards a vast area was combed by large squads looking for every fragment of the downed aircraft which had broken up at high altitude.

These were primarily to support 'a multidiscipline study of the structural, technical and maintenance aspects of the U-2, and master its technology for use in indigenous aircraft'. It was also expected that the S would be used to collect upper-atmosphere samples, destroy hostile balloons and using the , or AFA, camera undertake reconnaissance missions. Despite inexorable increases in weight over the US original, work attempted to meet the first-flight date of first quarter On 1st April a detailed metal fuselage mock-up was completed, with 'models of its systems'.

Out of the blue, on 12th May Directive ordered the whole S project to be terminated. BICh-3 Purpose: To test previously invented 'parabola wing' in a powered aircraft Design Bureau: Throughout his life he scratched around for funds to build and test his succession of 30 types of gliders and powered aircraft, all of 'tailless' configuration. In Cheranovskii tested his BICh-1 'Parabola' glider and the refined BICh-2, which demonstrated 'normal longitudinal stability and controllability and is considered to have been the world's first successful flying wing'.

Cheranovskii's gliders had been flown at the All-Union meetings at Koktebel, Crimea, but most of the flying of his first aeroplane was done by B N Kudrin later famous in Moscow.

Title: Soviet X plane

The BICh-3 was a basically simple aircraft, constructed of wood with thin ply skin over the leading edge, inboard upper surface and landing-gear trousers, and fabric elsewhere. The BICh-2 had flown without a rudder it was better with one since turning was achieved by the ailerons. With the BICh-3 the addition of an engine required a vestigial fuselage with a fin and rudder.

The main controls remained the trailing-edge elevators and ailerons, operated by rods and bellcranks and hung on inset balanced hinges. The engine was a Blackburne Tomtit, an inverted V-twin of cc rated at 18hp.

Skids were provided under the tail and outer wings. Kudrin described the BICh-3 as 'not very stable, but controllable'. It was sufficiently successful to lead to the many successors.

B I Cheranovskii. In he flew the BICh-7, almost a 1. The problem was that he replaced the central tail by rudders without fixed fins on the wingtips, and the result was almost uncontrollable.

He modified the aircraft into the BICh-7A, but was so busy with the BICh and other projects that the improved aircraft did not fly until Apart from returning to a central fin and rudder he replaced the centreline wheel and wingtip skids by a conventional landing gear. The BICh-7A gradually became an outstanding aircraft.

Testing was done mainly by N P Blagin later infamous for colliding with the monster Maksim Gorkii , and he kept modifying the elevators and ailerons until the aircraft was to his satisfaction. This larger 'parabola-wing' aircraft was again made of wood, veneer and fabric, with various metal parts including the conventional divided rubber-sprung main landing gears and tailskid.

The tandem cockpits were en-. The engine was a l00hp Bristol Lucifer, and one of the unsolvable problems was that the Lucifer was notorious for the violence of the firing strokes from its three cylinders, which in some aircraft so far as we know, not including the BICh-7A caused structural failure of its mountings. This aircraft appears to have become an unqualified success, appearing at many airshows over several years.

BICh-8 Purpose: To test the use of wingtip rudders. Few details of this machine have survived. It was built and tested in Cheranovskii was so distressed by the failure of the BICh-7 that he built this simple glider to see if wingtip rudders could be made to work. The BICh-8 was dubbed Treoogol'nik little triangle. It had an open cockpit and centreline skid. The wing was built as a centre section, integral with the nacelle, and outer panels fitted with inboard elevators, outboard ailerons and wingtip rudders with inset hinges mounted on small fins.

This machine may have flown satisfactorily, because Cheranovskii repeated tip rudders in the BICh No data. Cheranovskii with BICh To test rocket engine in flight. The BICh was designed in as a bungee-launched glider to see if the concept of using wingtip rudders could be made to work.

The glides may have been too brief to be useful, because in Cheranovskii added a small British engine more powerful than the Tomtit used for BICh The aircraft was again modified, with the rocket engine s and their supply and control system and a new wing of increased span. It was then judged that the propulsion system was too dangerous to fly.

The BICh was another wooden aircraft with fabric covering, with a single seat, hinged canopy and trailing-edge elevators and ailerons. It appears to have had no landing gear other than a centreline skid. On the wingtips were rudders, under which were skids. The BlCh11 was given a wing of greater span, and fitted with sprung landing gears and a tailskid. There is confusion over whether one or two OR-2 engines were installed drawings suggest one , fed by a lagged spherical tank of liquid oxygen and a smaller bottle of fuel, all fed by gas pressure.

RP stood for Raketnyi Planer, rocket glider. It is not recorded whether this aircraft flew satisfactorily with wingtip rudders, which with BICh-7 had proved unsatisfactory. BICh Purpose: To test an improved twin-engined 'Parabola'. In Cheranovskii schemed his first design with twin engines, the BICh Later in that year he tested a tunnel model, and by he had made so many mostly minor changes that he redesignated it as the BICh With their assistance the aircraft was built, and the flight-test programme was opened at the end of by Yuri I Piontkovskii.

Having no slipstream, the rudder was ineffective, and it was difficult to equalise propeller thrusts.

On landing, with engines idling, a heavy stick force was needed to get the tail down. Though it was not one of the better BICh designs, having almost no directional stability and being extremely reluctant to respond to pilot inputs, it was submitted for NIlWS testing. Here such famous pilots as Stefanovskii, Petrov and Nyukhtikov flew it, or attempted to.

Various changes made this aircraft marginally acceptable, but attempts to improve it ceased in Again this was a wooden aircraft, with a skin of veneer over the leading edge and fabric. An innovation was to use aluminium to make the embryonic fuselage, which seated up to five, and the integral fin.

The wing had four spars and 60 ribs, and was made as a centre section, of 3. Close together on the leading edge were the two l00hp M-ll engines, with Townend-ring cowls, aluminium nacelles and U-2 type wooden propellers.

As before, virtually all the development effort went into improving the trailing-edge controls, of which there were three on each wing, all hung in the usual Junkers style below the trailing edge. For most of the time the four inner surfaces were elevators and the outers ailerons, but at times the middle surfaces were tested as flaps. The BICh apparently did nothing to enhance its designer's reputation.

To attempt to fly on human muscle power. Ever one to explore fresh ideas, in Cheranovskii obtained financial support from Osoaviakhim the Society of Friends of the Aviation and Chemical industries for his proposal to build a man-powered ornithopter flapping-wing aircraft.

It could not be made to fly. This bird-like machine consisted mainly of a flexible wing. The pilot placed his feet on a rudder bar directly under the rudder and then bent forward between two vestigial fins until he could grasp the spade-grip which, via the two struts seen in the photo, flapped the wings. The two struts and vertical operating rod were pivoted at the bottom to a curved landing skid.

Data not recorded. Two views of BICh Single-seat fighter.

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These operated by firing a projectile down the barrel and a nearly equal mass plus gun gas from a rear nozzle. Cheranovskii completed the design of the BICh in , but in February Kurchevskii was arrested and his design bureau 'liquidated'. By this time the BICh was '60 per cent complete'. No detailed documentation on this fighter survives, but the drawing shows that it was a typical Cheranovskii 'parabola' design.

The structure was wood, with skins of birch shpon multi-ply veneer , the wing having detachable outer panels. The engine was a hp M imported or licence-made Bristol Jupiter driving a two-blade propeller.

The main landing gears retracted, probably inwards, and the elevators were divided into inner and outer sections by the two 80mm APK guns. The pilot sat under a typical Cheranovskii upward-hinged canopy which formed the front part of the fin. Aircraft left incomplete. BICh Muskulyot Purpose: To attempt once more to fly on human muscle power.

Undeterred by the total failure of BICh, Cheranovskii persevered with the idea of flying like a bird and designed the totally different BICh The name meant 'muscle-power'. He then did a pedalling flight, achieving six wing cycles. He reported 'noticeable forward thrust', and flew m 1,ft. Sustained flight was considered impossible. The BICh vaguely resembled a performance sailplane with a cockpit in the nose and conventional tail.

Much of the structure was balsa. There were two wing sets, comprising the lower left and upper right wings forming one unit and the upper left and lower right forming the other. Both sets were mounted on pivots on top of the fuselage and arranged to rock through a 5 angle by cockpit pedals.

As the wings rocked, their tips never quite touching, the portion of each wing aft of the main spar was free to flap up and down to give propulsive thrust. One report states that the outer trailing-edge portions were ailerons. If the evidence is correct this odd machine was one of the few human-powered aircraft to have achieved anything prior to the s.

BICh Pionyer Purpose: To test a small sporting aircraft of tailless design. This attractive little machine was rolled out on skis in late and first flown in Later in that year it was fitted with a more powerful engine, and with wheel landing gear. Extensive testing, which included sustained turns at about 35 bank at different heights, showed that the BICh was stable and controllable, and also could land very slowly.

This aircraft was again a wooden structure, with ply over the leading edge and the vestigial fuselage. The wing marked a further change in aerodynamic form: Trailing-edge controls comprised inboard elevators and outboard ailerons, with prominent operating levers.

To enter the cockpit the pilot hinged over to one side the top of the fuselage and integral Plexiglas canopy which formed the leading edge of the fin. The aircraft was completed with Cheranovskii's ancient British 18hp Blackburne engine, in a metal cowling, and with sprung ski landing gear.

It was later fitted with wheels, including a tailwheel, and a 20hp French Aubier-Dunne engine. All known records suggest that this aircraft was completely successful. To use the tailless concept in a more powerful aircraft for racing. By the late s Cheranovskii was confident that he could apply his unusual configuration, with no separate horizontal tail, to aircraft intended to reach much greater speeds.

For the big All-Union race organised by Osoaviakhim to take place in August he designed a minimalist aircraft broadly like the BICh but with a far more powerful engine. Also designated SG-1, from Samolyot Gonochnyi, aeroplane for racing, it was completed in , but not flown until June The Ger-.

With a configuration almost identical to that of the BICh, the BICh was likewise all-wood, with polished shpon skin except over the metal engine cowl and cockpit canopy.


Unlike the BICh the wing was made as a centre section with anhedral and outer panels. This in turn resulted in a different arrangement of trailing-edge controls, these having reduced chord, with a significant portion ahead of the trailing edge of the wing, with the elevators divided into two. The engine was an MV-6, the Bessonov licence-built Renault with six aircooled cylinders, rated at hp. It drove an imported Ratier two-blade two-pitch fine or coarse propeller.

A small fuel tank was inside each side of the centre section. Immediately outboard of these were the landing gears, which retracted backwards under pneumatic pressure.

No records survive of this aircraft's handling or of its fate.

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BICh, Che Purpose: To investigate a new aerodynamic configuration. This glider was designed in winter , and test flown by IA Petrov at Tushino from 17th July Having progressed from the 'parabola' to a form of delta and then to a wing of normal tapered shape, this glider comprised a broad flat lifting fuselage, to which were attached conventional wings with modest sweepback. A further innovation was to use more conventional trailing-edge controls, mounted on the wing instead of below it.

The original Che22 drawings show no vertical surfaces whatever, but later fixed fins were added on the wingtips. Flight testing appeared to go well, and in late the DOSAV repair shops tooled up to put the Che into production. Unfortunately, while testing the first to come off the assembly line Petrov crashed and was killed, and production was abandoned.

To investigate the tailless delta configuration. With the advent of the jet age Cheranovskii recognized that he should think in terms of much lower aspect ratio. He followed his project by the graceful BICh jet fighter, which he hoped to demonstrate in the Tushino 'parade' of To prove its flying qualities he first tunnel-tested the model depicted.

Few details have been found, but the model picture reproduced here shows the configuration. Curiously, the documents on the BICh call it the Che No air intake is visible on the tunnel model, and it is not known whether the 24 would have been a turbojet or rocket aircraft. It is not known if the full-scale aircraft was built.

Soviet X-Planes.pdf

BICh Che model. Jet fighter. After the War Cheranovskii had an enhanced reputation, and he was able to build up a small team of designers to assist him with projects far more ambitious than those with which he made his name.

Though Cheranovskii lived to the end of this project remained on the drawing board. The BICh was designed to have a single Mikulin later Tumanskii AM-5 turbojet rated at 2,kg 4, Ib thrust, fed by flush inlets in the underside of the flattened forward fuselage. The latter could equally be described as the centre section of the wing, to which the conventional outer wings were attached.

On the trailing edge were inboard elevators and outboard ailerons, and though one report states that these surfaces were fully powered they all had deeply inset hinges for aerodynamic balance. There were also upper and lower rudders, again with inset hinges.

No other details have appeared. Like its various jet predecessors, the BICh26 appears to have been an outstanding design with many features ahead of its time. Performance Maximum speed Mach 1.

BICh jet project Purpose: To design a jet fighter. Again, the three-view drawing of this project was discovered only recently. There is no evidence that construction was even started.

The drawing is dated , at a time before any German turbojets had been captured but after publication of the existence of British and US engines of this type. The only turbojet then running in the Soviet Union was the Lyul'ka VRD-2, a slim axial-compressor engine rated at kg 1, Ib thrust.

This was probably the engine Cheranovskii had in mind. The configuration appears to be an outstanding one, similar to many fighter projects of the present day. The engines were to have been buried inside the broad and flat deltashaped wing, there being no fuselage. The drawing shows the location of the cockpit, two large guns, nosewheel-type landing gear and four fuel tanks. Each wing carried a single control surface with a balancing area.

Clearly each surface acted as a dual-function eleven. There was no vertical tail, just like today's 'stealth' pro-. A truly remarkable project. Bisnovat SK Purpose: Experimental high-speed aircraft.

In he was permitted to organise his own team of design engineers in order to build and test the fastest aircraft possible, for research into wing profiles, structures, flight controls and other problems. This was a time when aircraft technology was making rapid progress. Contracts were signed for two aircraft designated SK and SK The former was to be the research aircraft, while the SK-2 was to have a conventional cockpit canopy and be capable of carrying armament and other military equipment.

Surprisingly no documents appear to have been found recently giving details of this programme. All we have is Shavrov's Vol. There is little doubt the latter date is correct. The SK did not fly in this form until later, and flight testing began on non-retractable skis. Flight testing of the SK-2 began on 10th November , and was completed on 10th January The pilot assigned to the programme was Georgi Mikhailovich Shiyanov.

The SK was a beautiful-looking low-wing monoplane of diminutive proportions making the l,hp M engine occupy nearly half the fuselage , entirely of light-alloy stressed-skin construction except for the fabric-covered ailerons and rudder.

The wing was of NACA Structurally the wing was based on a Spitfire-like box with a heavy leading edge extending back to the single main spar.

The ribs were Duralumin pressings. The outer surface apparently of the wing only was covered with marquisette a fine light fabric and powdered cork, all held by nitrocellulose glue. When fully set the surface was 'polished to the brilliance of a mirror'. The small wing was made in one piece and designed so that it would be simple to fit different wings to the fuselage.

The latter had a cross-section of only 0. The pilot sat in a reclining seat in a cockpit whose canopy was flush with the upper surface. For take-off and landing the roof over the rear half of the canopy could be hinged up and the seat raised to give a forward view.

Drag was further reduced by using an engine cooling system filled with water circulating at a gauge pressure of l. The engine air inlet was underneath, ahead of the radiator, and the oil-cooler inlet on top.

The propeller was a VISh of 2. The tailwheel was steerable and fully retractable. The standard of finish was high, and except for fabric areas the surface was polished, with the spinner, nose and a cheat-line painted red.

In fact, in retractable skis had not yet been developed, and for this reason the SK was initially limited to a modest speed see data. Compared with the SK, the SK-2 differed most obviously in having a normal cockpit, with a fixed more upright seat and conventional canopy, which could be jettisoned, with a sliding window on the left.

The engine installation was modified, with a reprofiled coolant radiator, engine air inlets in the wing roots and the oil cooler under the cowling. This left the area above the engine clear for a neat installation of two The SK This aircraft was painted overall, in a deep colour. In these aircraft were the fastest in the Soviet Union, and probably in the world. Despite their 'hot' nature, and high wing loading, they appear to have been safe and attractive machines.

However, with so many La, MiG and Yak fighters already in production, the SK-2 had little chance of being adopted as a fighter. To investigate high-altitude flight, and if possible set records. It had undergone other transformations, and been relocated at Smolensk, by the time work began on BOK1.

One of the bureau's first assignments was to create an aircraft to explore flight at extreme altitudes, seen as 'Nol priority'. This strongly influenced their thinking, and led to many studies for a Soviet counterpart, but the only hardware built was the balloon SSSR-1, with a pressurized gondola, which in exceeded 18km 59,ft. In a major conference of the Academy of Sciences issued a programme for future research, one requirement being a high-altitude aircraft.

The main task was to design the pressure cabin, but there were many other major modifications. It was repeatedly modified in order to climb higher. It was successfully put. Shavrov speaks of 'a lighter variant' achieving greater heights, but there is no evidence of a second BOK-1 having been built. The span was reduced by fitting new constant-taper outer panels, restressed for significantly reduced gross weight achieved by greatly reducing the fuel capacity. The massive retractable twin-wheel main landing gears were replaced by lighter fixed units with spatted single wheels.

The engine was an AMRN liquid-cooled V, rated at hp, driving a three-blade fixed-pitch propeller. The main new feature was the pressure cabin, seating the pilot and a backseater who acted as observer, navigator and radio operator though no radio was ever installed. This cabin was a sealed drum of oval cross-section, with closely spaced frames to bear the. Design dP pressure differential was 0. The front and rear were sealed by convex bulkheads. The entry hatch was at the rear and an escape hatch was provided in the roof.

One report says there was no room for parachutes, which were stowed in the rear fuselage. There were five small glazed portholes for the pilot and one on each side ahead of the backseater. There were also four small portholes to admit light to the unpressurized rear fuselage. A regenerative system circulated the cabin air and removed carbon dioxide one report says 'and nitrogen'.

A controlled leak through a dump valve was made good by oxygen from bottles to keep oxygen content approximately constant. The engine cooling circuit heated a radiator covering the cabin floor to keep internal temperature at C. Flight testing revealed satisfactory flying characteristics and a lack of vibration. On the other hand, on any prolonged flight the cabin became uncomfortably hot.

Despite this, and electric heating of the portholes, the glazed surfaces quickly misted over. In any case, external vision was judged dangerously inadequate. Shavrov states that the cabin was qualified for flight to '8,m and more'; this is ambiguous, and the original design objective was that the interior should be equivalent to an altitude of 8,m 26,ft at the design ceiling of the aircraft.

The engine cooling circuit was modified, and the portholes were replaced by double-layer sandwiches with not only electric heating but also a dessicant moisture absorber between the panes.

This overcame the condensation, but nothing could be done to improve field of view. This engine was then fitted with two TK-1 turbosuperchargers, designed by VI Dmitriyevskiy so that the combined turbo exhausts also added a thrust of 70kg b. With the new engine installation the altitude performance was much improved see data , but during an attempt to set a record for height reached with and 1,kg payload one of the turbos blew up.

Shavrov says merely 'the attempt failed', but another account says the exploding turbo seriously damaged the forward fuselage and resulted in the BOK-1 being scrapped. The BOK-1 was only the second aeroplane in the world to be designed with a pressure cabin. It achieved most of its objectives, but failed to set any records. BOK-1 pressure cabin. BOK-1 inboard profile. BOK-1 final form.

Category:Soviet and Russian experimental aircraft

Performance Max speed at sea leve at 4,m, 13, ft after engine change Time to climb to 5, m to 9,m Ceiling after engine change Endurance both states. To test designer's experimental wing. Sawa Syemenovich Krichevskii, called 'a talented designer' by historian Shavrov, spent the early s trying to create the most efficient aeroplane wing.

He made many tunnel models, eventually settling on a wing of high aspect ratio constructed in front and rear sections. The rear part was hinged to the front with a small intervening gap acting as a slot. In flight, the intention was that the pilot would select the optimum angle for the rear portion, Shavrov commenting that 'this wing could always be flown in a drag-polar envelope'. Krichevskii secured funding to build a research aircraft, called RK Razreznoye Krylo, slotted wing and designated BOK-2 by the construction bureau.

The BOK-2 was completed in and flew successfully, but Krichevskii died shortly afterwards. Documentation on this aircraft has never been found. Shavrov comments that 'The wing skin was polished to mirror brilliance [suggesting all-metal construction] Despite its apparently excellent performance the RK appears to have had no impact on the Soviet aviation ministry.

No data available. BOK-5 Purpose: To experiment with a tailless socalled 'flying wing' design. Bureau of Special Design, Smolensk. Design team led by V A Chizhevskii. The idea for this small research aircraft came from the BOK-2, though the two aircraft were completely unrelated. In Chizhevskii began studying tailless aircraft, and obtained funding to build a simple research aircraft.

This was completed in early , but was then modified and did not fly until September, the pilot being I F Petrov.The engine air inlet was underneath, ahead of the radiator, and the oil-cooler inlet on top.

The spanish civil war. Jenkins, Dennis R. Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The twinfinned tail was carried on two upswept booms attached at the extremities of the wing centre section. At the same time, the Soviet Union was far from being the earthly paradise that was originally intended.

Proved aerodynamic viability of thin wing sections. No country has as much real estate as the former Soviet Union, and the land surface is at times soft mud, sand, snow and hard frozen. The inboard part of the wing had a chord of 6. We may never know what strange things their designers drew on paper but never saw built.