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PHARMACY CASE STUDIES PDF

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Case studies are increasingly used in pharmacy undergraduate as well as .. resourceone.info [Accessed 7 July ]. Pharmacy case study. There is tremendous scope for pharmacy professionals to practice shared decision making. (SDM) and so help embed and spread better. This series of case studies has been prepared by the faculty of the Department of Clinical. Education and Services at U.S.C. School of Pharmacy as a continuing.


Pharmacy Case Studies Pdf

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patient-pharmacist interactions with a content and form depending on the . Case studies of this book demonstrate typical problems occurring in the http:// resourceone.info?web_i. Page Number Patient Case # 1. TM is an year-old new patient in the pharmacy where you work. He presents a prescription for carbamazepine mg. 9 Management of tuberculosis and its complications " — [continued over]. Contents v. Sample pages from Integrated Pharmacy Case Studies, published by .

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To increase the significance of learning, the guided design process described by Bonwell was used to require the students to formulate, in greater detail, a care plan that included appropriate monitoring and follow-up to ensure the safety and efficacy of the care plan. To ensure fairness among students, faculty members evaluated the cases based on the number of drug-therapy problems present and the complexity of the cases.

Six cases were selected with an average of 4 drug-therapy problems per case.

All were considered by the instructors to be equal in complexity. Before the first case assignment was made, the students were provided with the reasons they would complete the pharmaceutical care cycle in steps rather than simultaneously. As each assignment was given, the feedback construction model was used to create the grading rubrics. In this case, students participated in the process of assigning weight to each criterion in the rubric.

Affording students the responsibility of developing aspects of the course transformed the classroom into a learning community, resulting also in student buy-in. Rubrics are available upon request from the primary author. Table 6 Open in a separate window An additional requirement for the first assignment was a learning journal that documented what the student had referenced to complete the assignment, where they had looked, what additional questions arose, and their plan to find answers.

The learning journal was used with the first assignment to help the instructors determine if their expectations were aligned with the students' abilities.

After the journals were submitted, the instructors reviewed them. Based on the students' completed coursework, the content and amount of information in the learning journals reflected what the instructors had expected.

The learning journal also reflected the principles of a learning agenda and plan of action described by Fink that encourages students to identify knowledge deficiencies and take responsibility for their own learning. The adopted form was to be used to document the subjective and objective data from their case. Students were limited to a single-spaced, 1-page summary for this assignment to emphasize the importance of being thorough yet concise when documenting patient care activities.

The final examination for the course was a poster presentation that required integration of all of the information covered over the course of the semester, demonstrating significant learning.

The poster also included a letter to the patient's physician detailing recommendations and justification for those recommendations. The final component of the poster was a self-assessment reflection essay which included whether their recommendations had been evidence-based and correct as determined by student-specific feedback received from the instructor throughout the semester.

To limit costs, the students were allowed to use a trifold board with printed PowerPoint slides. To emphasize the importance of integrating knowledge from other courses, the instructors wanted the students to reflect on previous and concurrent courses, and identify the knowledge they had that was required to complete each assignment in the pharmaceutical care cycle.

To help them begin to purposefully make those connections, a few examples were provided in class, including relying on pharmacodynamics to understand the mechanism and clinical significance of a drug interaction. Examples of connections provided by the students were: informatics to know where to find information and the validity of resources, pharmaceutics for the effect of dosage forms on the body, and anatomy and physiology for an understanding of neurotransmitters. The posters were presented in sections of 24 students in a room on campus set up with tables to accommodate the event.

Students were encouraged to wear their white coats, and other faculty members were invited to see the students' work completed over the semester. The posters were graded with a rubric weighted most heavily in the areas on which the students had not been evaluated throughout the semester, such as presentation style, connections among coursework, and the reflective self-assessment. Both instructors for the course were present at all 3 sections' presentations, and each graded half of the posters.

Peer teaching as an active-learning strategy is thought to enhance individual student performance. By the end of the semester, each student had completed 2 self-assessments and 2 peer-assessments.

A Course Introducing the Principles of Pharmaceutical Care

For these activities, the following performance expectations were stated: 1 objectively evaluate the work based on the performance criteria provided for the assignment; 2 provide evidence for your evaluation; 3 approach the activity in good faith; and 4 be clear and concise. During the self-assessment activity, students were asked to reflect and complete a rubric that addressed thoroughness, accuracy, and professionalism.

The rankings were distinguished, proficient, intermediate, or novice. When providing peer feedback, students commented on what was successful and why; what could be improved and how to make those improvements; and whether the assignment was coherent, complete, concise, and correct.

After completion of each of these activities, the students were given feedback from the instructors about their self- or peer-assessment. The feedback included how valuable the self- or peer-assessment was to making improvements in the future, if evidence was provided, and if it was constructive.

Cooperative learning as an active-learning strategy is a useful tool because it promotes the development of social skills. Case studies for each concentration area were developed suggesting problems or conflicting opinions on various topics.

Pharmacist Case Studies

As a group assignment, students were asked to choose from a set of problems to work on as an in-class activity. The group's objective was to evaluate the problem and formulate a solution based on evidence from the literature. Each group presented their unique case stating reasons for the problem and what they proposed as a solution. The instructor facilitated class discussion on the validity of the solution and its application to current pharmacy practice.

In addition, the instructor led a discussion on opportunities available in each area of concentration and what professional development planning students should perform prior to seeking employment in that field. For example, for the pharmacotherapy concentration, various residency programs were presented that offered postgraduate experience in clinical practice. To further develop the concept of lifelong learning, students were given the names and contact information of several organizations that support pharmacists who specialize in each of the concentrations to investigate further.

The National Community Pharmacists Association was acknowledged for their independent pharmacy ownership materials, and Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International was acknowledged for their handbook for pharmacists on short-term missions. Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society was discussed for those interested in informatics, and Christian Medical and Dental Associations was mentioned for health care workers who wish to pursue mission work.

Four students volunteered to serve on the course's learn team, with the responsibility of identifying components of the course that were working well and those that were not. For the areas determined to need improvement, the learn team had to identify potential solutions.

The learn team also developed a survey instrument that was sent to the class. Because this course was offered early in the 4-year curriculum and simultaneously with the first therapeutics course, the instructors believed the in-class preparation consisting of discussions and demonstrations contributed to the students' ability to perform the assignments, particularly collecting and evaluating data. The poster presentations were considered the capstone project of the semester.

The mean grade of the poster presentations was Student performance data was collected from graded assignments after the conclusion of the course.

Table 7 Open in a separate window Regarding the concentration case studies, informal peer evaluation of the group presentations and comments accompanying the assignments were positive and demonstrated more detailed understanding of the career opportunities in the 4 concentration areas.

Several students declared their concentration in the semester following completion of the course and started elective study in those areas. Sixty-five percent of the students felt they had adequate time to complete each of the assignments. When each assignment was given, the assignment sheet contained how the assignment mapped to the CAPE Competencies. Fifty-nine percent of the students felt this was helpful. The other forty-one percent felt that the assignment sheet was overly complicated.

After completion of each of these activities, the students were given feedback from the instructors about their self- or peer-assessment.

The feedback included how valuable the self- or peer-assessment was to making improvements in the future, if evidence was provided, and if it was constructive. Cooperative learning as an active-learning strategy is a useful tool because it promotes the development of social skills.

Case studies for each concentration area were developed suggesting problems or conflicting opinions on various topics. As a group assignment, students were asked to choose from a set of problems to work on as an in-class activity.

The group's objective was to evaluate the problem and formulate a solution based on evidence from the literature. Each group presented their unique case stating reasons for the problem and what they proposed as a solution. The instructor facilitated class discussion on the validity of the solution and its application to current pharmacy practice.

In addition, the instructor led a discussion on opportunities available in each area of concentration and what professional development planning students should perform prior to seeking employment in that field. For example, for the pharmacotherapy concentration, various residency programs were presented that offered postgraduate experience in clinical practice.

To further develop the concept of lifelong learning, students were given the names and contact information of several organizations that support pharmacists who specialize in each of the concentrations to investigate further. The National Community Pharmacists Association was acknowledged for their independent pharmacy ownership materials, and Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International was acknowledged for their handbook for pharmacists on short-term missions.

Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society was discussed for those interested in informatics, and Christian Medical and Dental Associations was mentioned for health care workers who wish to pursue mission work. Four students volunteered to serve on the course's learn team, with the responsibility of identifying components of the course that were working well and those that were not. For the areas determined to need improvement, the learn team had to identify potential solutions.

The learn team also developed a survey instrument that was sent to the class. Because this course was offered early in the 4-year curriculum and simultaneously with the first therapeutics course, the instructors believed the in-class preparation consisting of discussions and demonstrations contributed to the students' ability to perform the assignments, particularly collecting and evaluating data.

The poster presentations were considered the capstone project of the semester. The mean grade of the poster presentations was Student performance data was collected from graded assignments after the conclusion of the course. Table 7 Open in a separate window Regarding the concentration case studies, informal peer evaluation of the group presentations and comments accompanying the assignments were positive and demonstrated more detailed understanding of the career opportunities in the 4 concentration areas.

Several students declared their concentration in the semester following completion of the course and started elective study in those areas.

Sixty-five percent of the students felt they had adequate time to complete each of the assignments. When each assignment was given, the assignment sheet contained how the assignment mapped to the CAPE Competencies.

Fifty-nine percent of the students felt this was helpful. The other forty-one percent felt that the assignment sheet was overly complicated. Seventy-one percent of the students preferred to complete additional case studies during in-class activities.

Eighty-five percent of the students understood how this class related to the other classes they were taking. The instructors were accessible and willing to give me feedback on my assignments before I submitted them. This helped me develop as a professional. This course was an important learning process and will be helpful on rotations.

Completing the pharmaceutical care cycle gave me an idea of how I am going to have to think when I am a pharmacist. I learned a lot about my patient and their case, but I would have rather worked on at least 2 cases throughout the semester so I could have had more practice.

Completing the entire pharmaceutical care cycle in class on a case would have been helpful to do before we were given our assigned cases. First, during the design phase the instructors spent substantial time ensuring that the course was developed to meet ability outcomes. A second important component was teaching the course in sections. Addressing a group of 24 students allowed each section to be more involved and interactive, and the instructors believe this made the in-class activities more meaningful.

For example, the in-class activities surrounding the assignment to collect and evaluate data proved useful to the students based on their feedback.

The 3 components of the course that did not meet this goal were identifying drug-therapy problems, creating compound goals, and creating a care plan. The struggles with identifying drug-therapy problems seemed to stem from the differentiation of active versus potential problems, and identifying what could become a problem.

Creating compound goals presented a challenge because it required the students to think beyond the implementation of their care plan to those drug-therapy problems that could arise because of that plan. The most common reasons students did not perform well creating care plans were the monitoring and follow-up methods they chose.

During class, methods to use for monitoring and follow-up were stressed to include both subjective and objective data to ensure safety and efficacy. This course was instrumental in developing the thought processes for identifying and resolving drug-therapy problems.

Clinical Pharmacology: Current Topics and Case Studies

Due to its placement in the curriculum, the course facilitated early development of the skills and habits necessary for designing an effective care plan.

Conversely, the students had limited exposure to therapeutics and evidence-based medicine.

This obstacle was overcome by selecting patient cases that pertained to disease states covered in the current semester's Pathophysiology and Therapeutics course and performing in-class activities to identify primary literature and guidelines to common disease states. In the future, the instructors plan to incorporate additional practice opportunities by increasing the number of cases.

A case will be completed in class as a group to demonstrate the application of material and the thought processes students must develop as future pharmacists. The students will then complete individually up to 2 patient cases over the semester. In-class activity time will be allocated for students to work on these assignments so they can ask questions as they progress.

This also affords the opportunity to use the active-learning activity of student-generated questions with the instructor providing recurrent feedback. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. A vision of pharmacy's future roles, responsibilities, and manpower needs in the United States.

Changing pharmacy practice: the leadership challenge.

Zellmer WA. Doing what needs to be done in pharmacy practice leadership: a message for residents. Am J Health-Syst Pharm.Medication therapy management in pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service model version 2. Because this course was offered early in the 4-year curriculum and simultaneously with the first therapeutics course, the instructors believed the in-class preparation consisting of discussions and demonstrations contributed to the students' ability to perform the assignments, particularly collecting and evaluating data.

The moral foundation of the prohibition on killing is not always clear, however. One principle that is sometimes thought to restrain the production of overall good is the principle of justice. However, Dr. Fowler owes it to Mr. Travis was surprised when she received a phone order from Dr. Unlike obvious signs and symptoms, such as a rise in partial thromboplastin time or a drop in hemoglobin level, there are no objective signs that one is involved in an ethical problem.

They appeal to standards that can be taken by their proponents to be ultimate standards of action.