O QUE E ARTE JORGE COLI PDF
O que é arte by Jorge Coli is Art & Architecture Da harmonia grega ao kitsh de todos os Afinal, quem adjudge o que é e o que não é arte?. O que é arte - Ebook written by Jorge Coli. reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read O que é arte. Flowing text, Google Generated PDF. Download as PPTX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for Primeira Missa no Brasil e a invenção da Descoberta – Jorge Coli (In O pintor Pedro Américo () já era um artista renomado quando pintou “Tiradentes.
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Modernists officially launched the Brazilian Modernist Movement through the Week of Modern Art of , and from that point on they started to exercise a fundamental role in Brazilian arts: their philosophies challenged the established modus operandi of Brazilian society, which was firmly rooted in European traditions. In other words, these manifestos advocated that although Brazilian modernist artists should draw upon European modern aesthetics, they should do so to reveal the idiosyncrasies of their country, not to simply emulate European art as most of their fellow Brazilian predecessors had done in the past.
Villa-Lobos was well acquainted with Brazilian modernists and even participated in the Week of Modern Art. Thus his ongoing personal search for a synthesis of Brazilian and European music received a major intellectual boost from modernists.
An analysis of Choros no. As I argue, the Choros series as a whole can be interpreted as a musical index of social and cultural dilemmas intrinsic to the formation of Brazilian people, and in that sense, con- tributed to the intellectual search for brasilidade. Unless indicated otherwise, all translations in this article are mine. The harmonic procedures are, similarly, a complete stylization of the original. In fact, Villa-Lobos once confessed his admiration for Stravinsky to his friend poet Manuel Bandeira, affirming that listening to the Rite of the Spring in Paris was the most emotional moment of his life.
Table one provides information about Choros that show some of their individual charac- teristics, permitting a better understanding of the variety found in these pieces, understood here by cataloging media and durations. This variety is reflected in the musical structure of each Choro as well: although grouped as a series, they each have unique musical structures.
I use them for the devel- opment of atmosphere as I feel the need. I do not use ready-made folk songs and dances. My themes often suggest folk themes, that is they have the aspect of folk themes. In my music there are no so-called influences. It is thoroughly American—of our continent—belonging to no school or special trend […] I [also] do not know what the word inspiration means.
When I write, it is according to the style of Villa-Lobos. In some, both evocations appear. Some scholars have criticized Villa-Lobos for having allegedly exaggerated brasilidade in his compositions of that period to achieve success in Paris. Lisa M. They helped to make their composers suc- cessful.
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Villa-Lobos approached this problem intellectually. It became his turning point as a composer. Indeed, other scho- lars have agreed with Peppercorn.
Among other pieces, Choros no. These composers engaged in a sort of musical archaeology, collecting folk material that supposedly represented some remote Golden Age of their respective cultures, a time devoid of foreign influence. The idea was to find the apparently best local traditions and mod- ernize them via cosmopolitan compositional techniques to create the best national art.
This art in turn would then serve to represent the nation both locally and internationally given its simultaneously traditional and cosmopolitan character. Herder , who was concerned with the loss of German identity due to foreign mostly French in- fluence. In this text Dahlhaus expounds upon musical nationalism and national identity in 19th century Europe. Some of his ideas also apply to musical nationalism in the early 20th century, especially with respect to former colonies such as Brazil.
In these countries, the establishment of national identity became an important matter, and artists tried to capture the essence of their nationality in their production, presenting it to European countries as a demonstration of cultural independence. It is interesting to note which elements Andrade considered important in the making of national art: This [the fact that national music should contain aboriginal elements] is a puerility that includes ignorance about the sociology, ethnicity, psychology, and aesthetics [of Brazil].
National art is not made through discretionary and dilettante elements: a national art is already made in the unconscious of a people. The artist has only to confer to the pre- existing elements a sophisticated transposition that transforms popular music into art music, what means: completely disinterested. Andrade also suggested that […] the actual period of Brazil, especially in the arts, is of nationalization.
We are at- tempting to conform the human production of the country to national reality. It is a mistake to imagine that Brazilian primitivism is aesthetic. It is [actually] social. This work has the tone of a nationalistic manifesto.
Andrade asserts that a composer that did not write nationalistic music in that time should be considered useless. Andrade conceptualizes disinterested music as music that has no clear social function, which means music performed in the concert hall, as opposed to interested music, which has a much more evident social function popular and folk music.
In this process, the incorporation of elements related to the roots of Brazilian people and references to modern European aesthetics became common themes for modernist artists. They used French words in their poetry and prose to make allusion to the French cultural influence in Brazil. Plastic artists used European techniques such as cubism and surrealism to portray themes related to Brazil. In music, Villa-Lobos worked toward the same goals of other modernist artists and developed this aesthetic of assimilation as well.
In this sense, taking into account the obvious disparities between the racial and cultural formation in Brazil and European countries , these ethnicities held, in their own ways, the cultural elements of the Brazilian Golden Age that modernists were aiming to portray in their art.
Choros no. According to Villa-Lobos, Choros no. COLI, Jorge. A descoberta do homem e do mundo. HALL, Stuart. Compreender arte. Victor Meirelles: sua vida e sua obra. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, As barbas do Imperador: D. It should be emphasized, however, that the creation of the Indians to adorn the pedestal of the equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I were part of a sculptural project that represented, in bronze, the history of the affirmation of the Nation State in Brazil.
The sculptural assembly is organized based on a series of columns that surround the artistic work, with each of the columns bearing a date in the history of the national Independence up until the granting of the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil. The pedestal is composed of allegorical representations of the geography of national unity, representing the rivers of territorial integration, worked into the sculpture with the figures of the Indians and elements of the regional fauna.
Part of the sculptural whole, the Indigenous images take on civic significance, which justifies their inclusion in the work characterized by the logic of the monument, which combines the civic sculpture of Europe with that of Brazil. National Iconography And so it is that the Indians of the pedestal of the equestrian statue of the Emperor Dom Pedro I became consecrated as a landmark in the national iconography of Brazil.
Even today, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the pedestal, cast in broze, draws attention due to the Indigenous figures that guard the sculpture assembly. For the first time in Brazil, the image of Indians from the land gained a prominent place in the public square in the capital of the Empire of Brazil, at the time of its inauguration in March Those who passed by the monument could not resist walking round the whole sculpture, to see all its different elements.
It was the presence of the figures of the Indians that most attracted attention, not only due to their position, closer to the viewer than the image of the emperor, but also for the fact that the direction of their gaze leads the viewer's attention.
Each Indian is gazing in a different direction. These sculptural allegories gained special significance at that time of affirmation of Indianist thought, which established a reading of the history of Brazil, with the Indigenous peoples being idealized as a symbol of national construction. In the context of the Second Brazilian Kingdom, the work of Louis Rochet opened up the field of sculpture to Indianism, with the allegories on the pedestal of the statue of the first Brazilian emperor.
Later, the sculptural creations of Francisco Manuel Chaves Pinheiro, Almeida Reis and Rodolfo Bernardelli would also make their artistic contributions to this universe of promoting the image of the Brazilian Indian.
Although the allegorical image of the Indians had been used since this colonial period to identify America, is was in the second half of the nineteenth century that the plastic arts became part of this movement of promoting the Indian as an icon of the Brazilian empire, treating his history of resistance as a measure of affirmation of the nation and national culture, defining what was unique and peculiar to Brazil. The artistic versions, however, are not the same, as the different trends distinguished the works of art mentioned.
One cannot deny that the indigenous theme was part of the repertoire of the cultural universe of Romanticism in nineteenth-century Brazil. The comparison, however, shows marked differences in the artist's sculptures. In Rochet's work, the bodies of the indigenous statues on the pedestal of the work have expressive gestures, reinforced by faces that communicate with the viewer. A result of the artist's close study, the ethic features characterize the indigenous faces according to their origin.
The bodily expressiveness does not carry the ethnic features of the composition, although it is crucial in the appreciation of the sculptural whole. However, while the face and the elements of dress distinguish the indigenous figures, the body is not carved in a way that would distinguish the figures from an ethnic perspective, with the carved musculature and gestural movements being predominant.
Study Materials that Rochet possessed also indicate the artist's dedication to the search for facial features that could distinguish the Indians, while also avoiding over-generalization. In the catalog of his collection, there are indications of lithographs of portraits of Indians from the work of Spix and Martius.
The return to the theme of a river is clearly related to the allegories on the equestrian statue, which had the same thematic inspiration. The head, with its descriptive features, and the body, with its expressive outlines, also identify this affiliation. The dimensions of the work x x 97 cm are also close to the creation of the master and the disciple.
Also, as the project was designed while he was in France studying with Louis Rochet, it can be assumed that Almeida Reis favored the models of the Indian's heads gathered by the French sculptor after his trip to Rio de Janeiro in the s.
The stiff pose of the body also contrasts with the sculpture of the French artist. The scepter and the shield, with the imperial weapons carried by the figure, certainly do not correspond to any of the native cultures of the land of Brazil, but rather, are related to the characterization of a soldier from classical times.
There is, therefore, an evident classicizing exercise in the construction of the image of the indigenous people by the Brazilian artist Chaves Pinheiro, which suggests an intention to create a national emblem. Its concept differs from the work of Rochet, constituting another model for the representation of the Indian in sculpture.
In the case of Rodolfo Bernadelli, although his production around the image of the indigenous people presented variations throughout his career, his preference for the female form is emphasized, emphasizing the psychological dimension of each sculpted figure.
Thus, it is not the ethnic characteristics that are emphasized in the indigenous figures of Bernardelli, but rather, the personalities of the characters represented. One might also say that the bodily expression inherent to Bernadelli's figures is also promoted, but in a different way, in the work of Louis Rochet. Indianism, in the field of sculpture, did not claim to be a formal model in same way that was claimed for the representation of the indigenous figure, which suggests that it is, rather, the theme that ended up becoming consolidated in the artistic trends of Brazil.
In any case, Indianism was established as a program of the arts in Brazil, and was fundamental for defining a direction for local art.
However, considering that Indianism was a trend of ideas and tastes in nineteenth-century Brazil, the images of Indians on the pedestal of Louis Rochet's equestrian statue of the Emperor are surprising because they indicate that the work of a Frenchman was capable of anticipating this trend in the field of sculpture.
Considering, however, the place of his work in the movement of French ethnographic sculpture of his time, one can understand how the French sculptor was able to absorb so well the Brazilian sculptural program representing figures of Indians from Brazil in sculpture. The pioneering sense of Brazilian Indianism that can attributed to his pieces of ethnographic mark combined perfectly with the European way of representing the diversity of cultures in sculpture.
Certainly, the fact that his work tied in with the discussions of the European art of his time was what enabled Rochet to integrate so well into the universe of art of Indianism in Brazil. One should not forget, however, that Louis Rochet only developed the project of the Brazilian Wolfgang Mafra, who was the original winner of the competition.
Thus, the idea of exploring the indigenous image in association with the image of the emperor did not exactly originate with the French sculptor, and his insertion in the order of Indianism can be attributed not to a personal movement, but to his encounter with the world of the arts in Brazil.
However, to develop the project, Rochet redefined the original proposal with the support of the commission that accompanied and approved his final solution, presenting, on the wider sides of the pedestal, a pair of indigenous figures, rather than an individual figure, which was maintained on the narrower sides. The fact is that based on the commission he received, the European repertoire of Rochet's artistic creation became part of the universe of nineteenth century Indianism, enabling his indigenous figures in bronze to be characterized as a product of the process of construction of Brazilian art.
Image of Brazil The maquettes of the equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I are part of the collection of the Museu Trocadero, the first public ethnographic museum in France.
On the occasion of the closing of the Museu Trocadero, the French government sold off parts of its collections, including Rochet's maquettes.
The pedestal of the public monument is composed of four indigenous images, but it is not known whether there was a forth maquette that would complement the monumental version of the work, as only three survive today.
Put on the market and purchased by a French antiquarian, the three maquettes were then purchased by Brazilian collector Djalma da Fonseca Hermes. Information about his purchase is available to us today in documented form, thanks to the auction of the Fonseca Hermes collection, which listed the pieces in its catalog, as well as gathering texts that enable the collection to be conceptualized.
In the introductory text, the auctioneer, Antonio de Paula Affonso states that the collection "reveals not only a great culture of art but also a strong love for our land". In truth, this comment emphasizes the fact that the Djalma Fonseca Hermes' collection was of great prominence in the history of art collecting in Brazil, as it was one of the most important collections to focus on objects of artistic value, but that were representative for the history of Brazil. Its importance is even more significant when we take into account that the previous generation of collectors devoted itself more to European art than to objects of interest for the history of Brazil.
The catalogs are organized in Spanish and English, and experts and knowledgeable persons have been invited from Argentina and North America to bid at the auction, which to every indication, will exceed the pecuniary limit of the national collectors.
The article emphasized the specialized foreign interest, pointing out the risk to the world of national art represented by the dispersion of valuable works. Throughout the Article, Macedo Soares reiterated the importance of the pieces in the collection that were related mainly to the artists of the Dutch period in Northeastern Brazil, and that formed part of the so-called French Artistic Mission of , emphasizing a certain reading of art in Brazil that the collection represented, for which painting was the center of interpretation of the history of art, and which promoted the participation of artists, whose work was enshrined in the European environment with works that gave rise to representations of the land and the people of Brazil.
This prominence of European art did not prevent the Auctioneer from emphasizing, in his text in the auction catalog, "the Brazilian aspect of the collection". Thus, he mentioned, as the high point of the collection, seven paintings by Franz Post, and also the works of Taunay and Debret, members of a group of French artists who came to Brazil, described in the catalog as the Lebreton mission. Clearly, it was of interest to emphasize how artistic merit and historical importance were combined in the pieces of the collection.
For the rest, the Auctioneer also noted the importance of the works of European masters such as Murillo and Rosa Bonheur as part of the collection, in addition to promoting pieces of furniture, especially from the time of Dom John VI. The auctioneer's opinion, expressed in the catalog, is surprising, as he made a point of recording his recognition of the value of the collection, arguing that its pieces should remain in Brazil and inviting all Brazilians to collaborate in the acquisition of pieces of the collection.
This is your opportunity! The commercial act of purchasing pieces by auction, in turn, became transformed into a civic act in the auctioneer's discourse.
In a letter dated April , Taunay commented that the news of the commercial dispersion of the collection left him feeling "desolate", emphasizing that the collection was built, among other motivations, with a "patriotic sense ". In his reply dated May of the same year, the collector confirmed the "nationalist and patriotic" sense by which he was moved by more than twenty years of so-called "conscientious" research in Brazil, and particularly in Paris, France, where he states that he found "many new things", in his own words, mentioning the European engravings and paintings of Franz Post and Nicolau Antoine Taunay, attributing them a connotation of national collective asset, even though they were produced for the European artistic world.
Its acquisition by a private collector at the end of the s becomes legitimate as an act of defense of the national historical and artistic patrimony, anticipating the attitude that the state should take in relation to cause of art as a public asset. In the Auctioneer's text in the collection catalog, the maquettes are described as "one of the greatest gems". This emphasis given to the exceptionality of these scale models justifies the inclusion of their photographs in the opening pages of the book of images of the catalog, all in black and white, preceded only by the image of a Franz Post, the only image in color in the publication.
Listing and describing the maquettes in item nos. There is a clear marketing strategy of promoting the value of the work through the use of the association with the name of the French sculptor, whose fame would supersede that of his master, becoming famous in his own right, long after Rochet. There is no indicated source that confirms the data, but the link between the sculptural work and the world of European art is thus strengthened.
It is a case of the national making use of the foreign to lend itself artistic legitimacy. Paula Affonso, the Auctioneer, ends with the statement that "besides their artistic value, one must also consider their exceptional, almost unparalleled historic value".
Thus, it is clear that artistic value can be international, but it is the historical value that distinguishes the piece in Brazil, and gives it national importance.
And so, the maquettes of the French artist Rochet were defined as works of art in Brazil. The work in bronze is signed by L. Rochet and dated , and is situated next to the colored maquettes of the indigenous heads from Brazil, also housed in that museum.
Apresentação - Primeira Missa e a Invenção Da Descoberta
The catalog also lists a plaster model of the same bust. We can hypothesize that this piece was the same model as the one mentioned in the catalog, bearing in mind that according to this reference from the Anthropology Society of Paris, Charles Rochet claimed that the model was designed by his brother Louis Rochet, during his visit to Rio de Janeiro in , the year in which he was in Brazil to carry out studies and finalize the conditions of his contract to create the equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I.
The same comment also states that it was the image of a slave and cook of French traders, who was forty years of age and was called Horacio. Born in the region of Cassange, in what was then Guinea, now part of the territory of Angola, Horacio had been bought five years previously by Senhor Desmarais.
Thus, if Horacio was 40 years old in , it can be assumed that he was born in and that in he was bought as a slave. It would not be possible to say precisely when he traveled to Brazil, but it can be assumed that in was probably around the same time. According to the reference, the figure had small ears and a mouth with fleshy lips that competed with the nose, a characteristic that is not attributed to a kind of muscular hypertrophy or prognathism.
In addition, it indicates that the hair had the common characteristic of the Negro, while the straight beard hair resembled that of the Europeans. Finally, the record states: "The characteristics that he has can be attributed both to individual characteristics and to characteristics of race". Like other foreign travelers of the nineteenth century, Louis Rochet's interest was aroused by the ethnic diversity of the local society, and his first sculptures in bronze were of Indians and a Negro slave girl from Brazil.
Through these images, the sculptor definitively marked his presence in the European artistic trend of the time in ethnographic sculpture, which combined the love of science and the love of the arts.
Standing before the sculpture bust of Horacio, the good workmanship in bronze and the sculpted beauty of the piece, the attention is drawn to the figure's sculpted gaze, which exerts a power of attraction over the viewer.
It is worth noting that in the collection catalog, the bust is described as an "anthropological study executed in Rio". The text therefore describes the descriptive nature of the work as the product of anthropological study, but does not emphasize the artistic creation or the expressive power of the piece.
Although the display of the bust of Horacio did not attract much attention from the critics, its presence at the art exhibition confirms its artistic nature.It is violence exposed as if in an organized shop window, frozen by a cold laboratory, enlarged, brought to the first plan eliminating spatial references.
Ethnographic Sculpture It is notable that the bust of Horacio circulated in France, and that until today, it has not attracted much interest from the Brazilian point of view. Although it is well-known that Escherichia coli is a common member of the intestine microbiota of warm-blooded vertebrates, recovery of E.
Charles Rochet therefore established a link between anthropometric research and sculptural research, based on the bodily form. Standing before the sculpture bust of Horacio, the good workmanship in bronze and the sculpted beauty of the piece, the attention is drawn to the figure's sculpted gaze, which exerts a power of attraction over the viewer.
Some scholars have criticized Villa-Lobos for having allegedly exaggerated brasilidade in his compositions of that period to achieve success in Paris. One might also say that the bodily expression inherent to Bernadelli's figures is also promoted, but in a different way, in the work of Louis Rochet.
Everything gets a solution in pure painting, full of very anguishing contrasts.
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