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NHK 2010 PDF

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Nhk 2010 Pdf

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In March , the NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute conducted. “The Japanese and Television ” survey, a nationwide public opinion poll. ~. 80 years of NHK WORLD. Heisei 2. Heisei Showa Showa INTERNATIONAL . From the NHK Japanese Time Use Survey. Toshiyuki KOBAYASHI, Emi MOROFUJI, and Yoko WATANABE. NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute.

Milestones:First Direct Broadcast Satellite Service, 1984

Secondly, they were also considered in terms of the standard, traditional shot-size categories discussed in 2. It should be noted that due to the method used, measurements greater than one, that where the screen height was taken up entirely by face, are estimates, either the forehead or chin or sometimes both not being visible, and are thus not considered in any detail here.

NHK uses a greater proportion of closer-up shots than does the BBC, using more than double the number of CUs while counts for other framing sizes are roughly similar. To summarise, each image can be considered to represent, perhaps rather roughly, two seconds in time, thus the news viewer in Japan spends almost double the amount of time viewing human faces which take up more than half of the screen height than does the viewer in the UK; images for which the facial height to screen ratio is greater than 0.

The social distance implied by the typical NHK image is in the region of 0. The value for NHK falls more or less in the centre 16 0. Figures show proportion of screen occupied by height of face. These individuals are unlikely to be typical representatives of their national populations being in general young, highly educated and possibly members of an economically privileged elite. Direct vs. In which case the second objection would be true.

For the producer of the image there is the actual relationship between themselves and the subject, in most cases here a news source, and the version of this relationship they wish to project to the viewer. To distinguish between these on the basis of the produced texts is impossible and perhaps near impossible even with access to the image producers. On top of this is the question of whether or not the two broadcasters are using the camera framing resource in the same manner.

Are the broadcasters equally conscious of the way this resource plays a role in constructing relationships between producer, source and viewer? Is one more pro-active in the use of camera framing to project its own self-image to its viewers? Unfortunately, answers to these very fundamental questions fall outside the limitations of this study. What is possible Given the preponderance of doubts that seem to accompany the results of this study it seems only wise to severely limit the conclusions drawn to those which have been demonstrated.

To restate, NHK, the national broadcaster of Japan, prefers to use comparatively fewer image of social actors, but the images it does use tend to present these social actors using tighter camera shots.

Test collection event at AEON Shopping Mall Imabari

On the other hand the BBC while using more images of social actors typically uses wider camera framings in their presentation. The following sections look at factors which may account for some of this variation. I will sidestep attempting an answer to this question and instead refer to known facts which illustrate the penetration of various media in Japan.

On top of this may well be a layer of aural appeals, safety and commercial announcements from the station, shop workers with megaphones, estate agents playing endless loops of their advertising jingle.

Whether one chooses to see this as urban vitality or sensory vandalism the informational density of urban Japan is hard to deny. Is it a surprise that these attempts should be made through an attempt to engage the emotions more than the intellect?

Shock, amazement, surprise, grab the attention more immediately than dry, factual explanation ever could. Has NHK news, however minimally, become involved in this clamour of emotional appeals? And to thereby better hold viewer attention? Should this not be a factor is favour of shooting looser rather than tighter shots?

Looser shots of speakers would leave more space around the face for extras like captions, bugs and subtitles. Areas outlined in black show the size of the screen, the additional grey-outlined areas the screen size.

On the other hand, BBC news uses relatively more purely graphical elements, using graphics full-screen perhaps with a background of generic still video.

When video and graphics are combined on-screen they are more often integrated. The methodology summarised here attempts to minimise the intervention of subjective 23 judgements by the observer. Thus it relies on actual measurement rather than estimations. The straightforward methodology is open to all who would seek to perform research on televi- sual images.

This makes the area of objective research into visual expression open to a broader spectrum of participants and may lead to insights into more and more varied types and sources of images, this can only enrich our understanding of human visual expression. A broader and methodologically consistent treatment of visual material which results in data sets which can be meaningfully compared should also lead to advances in theoretical understanding.

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Further to the methodological problems already outlined see 3 there are more fundamental theoretical problems which arise in the context of comparative work such as this. Firstly, there is the assumption that shot-size is meaningful, that it acts as a semiotic resource, on top of this is the assumption that this semiotic resource is utilised similarly in both cultures.

Until such problems can be resolved satisfactorily analysis must remain speculative. As such it contributes to understanding how terms like those mentioned above might be usefully unpacked for analysis. It may be the case that the distances resulting from this study should be considered as marking the same social distance. Without further experimentation it is impossible to know which might be closer to the truth but both possibilities must be entertained. There remains the task then of deciding how, and indeed if, CVD is related to typical social distances within a culture.

Any comparison between countries has to be contextualised by this knowledge as it is only in relation to the cultural norms that representations can be interpreted as close or distant. Further research Further work on social distance falls within the remit of other disciplines, anthropology, social psychology or certain areas of linguistics. Such intra-cultural comparisons, while necessarily circumscribed would avoid relying on SD data that may or may not exist. It may also be possible to carry out experiments which use linguistically deculturated news stories as stimuli in an attempt to get at how, for example, Japanese viewers assess the portrayals of social actors presented by the BBC, or UK viewers those of NHK.

This would provide a subjective account of perceptions of CVD if nothing else. Tuchman , Gitlin 4 The software used was SketchUp7 which is freely available for download online.

Torigoe suggests that one per cent of ratings is roughly equivalent to one million viewers.

Backhaus, P. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Beaulieu, C. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 4 — Bennett, W. News: The Politics of Illusion. New York: Longman. Brown, K. Caballero, J.

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 6 1 — Ferguson, S. Canadian Journal of Communication, 4 4 — Fujii, A.

Media Archive Japanese

Gibson, J. Leonardo, 4 1 — Gitlin, T. Grabe, M. Oxford: Focal Press. Hagiwara, S. Tokyo: Maruzen. The Hidden Dimension. New York: Anchor Books. Hardy, A. Hjarvard, S. Nordicom Review, 21 2 — Hodge, B. Social Semiotics. Cambridge: Polity.

Kawabata, M. Mejiro University General Science Research, — Koga-Browes, S. Krauss, E. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kress, G. Reading Images: the Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge. Matanle, P. Organization, 15 5 — Unfortunately, answers to these very fundamental questions fall outside the limitations of this study. What is possible Given the preponderance of doubts that seem to accompany the results of this study it seems only wise to severely limit the conclusions drawn to those which have been demonstrated.

To restate, NHK, the national broadcaster of Japan, prefers to use comparatively fewer image of social actors, but the images it does use tend to present these social actors using tighter camera shots. On the other hand the BBC while using more images of social actors typically uses wider camera framings in their presentation. The following sections look at factors which may account for some of this variation.

Index of /sakura

I will sidestep attempting an answer to this question and instead refer to known facts which illustrate the penetration of various media in Japan. On top of this may well be a layer of aural appeals, safety and commercial announcements from the station, shop workers with megaphones, estate agents playing endless loops of their advertising jingle.

Whether one chooses to see this as urban vitality or sensory vandalism the informational density of urban Japan is hard to deny.

Is it a surprise that these attempts should be made through an attempt to engage the emotions more than the intellect? Shock, amazement, surprise, grab the attention more immediately than dry, factual explanation ever could. Has NHK news, however minimally, become involved in this clamour of emotional appeals? And to thereby better hold viewer attention? Should this not be a factor is favour of shooting looser rather than tighter shots?

Looser shots of speakers would leave more space around the face for extras like captions, bugs and subtitles. Areas outlined in black show the size of the screen, the additional grey-outlined areas the screen size. On the other hand, BBC news uses relatively more purely graphical elements, using graphics full-screen perhaps with a background of generic still video. When video and graphics are combined on-screen they are more often integrated. The methodology summarised here attempts to minimise the intervention of subjective 23 judgements by the observer.

Thus it relies on actual measurement rather than estimations. The straightforward methodology is open to all who would seek to perform research on televi- sual images. This makes the area of objective research into visual expression open to a broader spectrum of participants and may lead to insights into more and more varied types and sources of images, this can only enrich our understanding of human visual expression.

A broader and methodologically consistent treatment of visual material which results in data sets which can be meaningfully compared should also lead to advances in theoretical understanding. Further to the methodological problems already outlined see 3 there are more fundamental theoretical problems which arise in the context of comparative work such as this. Firstly, there is the assumption that shot-size is meaningful, that it acts as a semiotic resource, on top of this is the assumption that this semiotic resource is utilised similarly in both cultures.

Until such problems can be resolved satisfactorily analysis must remain speculative. As such it contributes to understanding how terms like those mentioned above might be usefully unpacked for analysis. It may be the case that the distances resulting from this study should be considered as marking the same social distance. Without further experimentation it is impossible to know which might be closer to the truth but both possibilities must be entertained.

There remains the task then of deciding how, and indeed if, CVD is related to typical social distances within a culture. Any comparison between countries has to be contextualised by this knowledge as it is only in relation to the cultural norms that representations can be interpreted as close or distant.

Further research Further work on social distance falls within the remit of other disciplines, anthropology, social psychology or certain areas of linguistics. Such intra-cultural comparisons, while necessarily circumscribed would avoid relying on SD data that may or may not exist.

It may also be possible to carry out experiments which use linguistically deculturated news stories as stimuli in an attempt to get at how, for example, Japanese viewers assess the portrayals of social actors presented by the BBC, or UK viewers those of NHK.

This would provide a subjective account of perceptions of CVD if nothing else.

Tuchman , Gitlin 4 The software used was SketchUp7 which is freely available for download online. Torigoe suggests that one per cent of ratings is roughly equivalent to one million viewers. Backhaus, P. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Beaulieu, C. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 4 — Bennett, W. News: The Politics of Illusion.

New York: Longman. Brown, K. Caballero, J. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 6 1 — Ferguson, S. Canadian Journal of Communication, 4 4 — Fujii, A.

Gibson, J. Leonardo, 4 1 — Gitlin, T. Grabe, M. Oxford: Focal Press.

Hagiwara, S. Tokyo: Maruzen. The Hidden Dimension. New York: Anchor Books. Hardy, A. Hjarvard, S. Nordicom Review, 21 2 — Hodge, B. Social Semiotics. Cambridge: Polity. Kawabata, M. Mejiro University General Science Research, — Koga-Browes, S. Krauss, E. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kress, G. Reading Images: the Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge. Matanle, P. Organization, 15 5 — Tokyo: MIC. Millerson, G. Video Production Handbook. Tokyo: Nikkei BP-sha. Revised edition. Musburger, R. Single-camera Video Production. Woburn MA: Focal Press. Painter, A. In Contemporary Japan and Popular Culture.

Richmond: Curzon. Pharr, S. Media and Politics in Japan. Rebick, M. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42 1 —It should be noted that due to the method used, measurements greater than one, that where the screen height was taken up entirely by face, are estimates, either the forehead or chin or sometimes both not being visible, and are thus not considered in any detail here.

The measurements derived were also graphed for examination. Direct broadcasting from a satellite in geostationary orbit to inexpensive home receivers equipped with a small antenna was not the usual form of satellite communication at that time, which was between large-scale ground stations equipped with very large antennas and very expensive receivers cooled with liquid helium.

How close or distant do we seem to be when viewing the image? Grabe, M. In the absence of any such necessity, placing the edge of the image at a natural joint such as the neck is avoided, for obvious reasons. Oxford: Oxford University Press. There remains the task then of deciding how, and indeed if, CVD is related to typical social distances within a culture. Tuchman , Gitlin 4 The software used was SketchUp7 which is freely available for download online.