MARITIME METEOROLOGY PDF
Kenn has taught Marine Meteorology to sailors for more than 15 years in The study of meteorology whether in the marine scene or ashore, is very much a. This book gives a complete picture of the Maritime Transport Industry. Now in . Nautical Studies in , she has lectured in meteorology and marine. are described in the Manual on Marine Meteorological Services (WMO-No. ), Volume I. The purpose of this Guide is to complement the.
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The thermometer is placed in a Marine Screen, also known as a Stevenson Screen. This has a solid top For meteorological purposes the sea surface temperature is required. resourceone.info resourceone.info marine meteorology. Since that time, humanity has been simultaneously fascinated and awed by the powers of the air and sea, as well as anxious to understand. Keywords: marine meteorology; marine environmental conditions; maritime navigation objects of study for marine meteorology and oceanography. They have.
They are the nuclei onto which water vapour condenses, forming visible water droplets cloud or fog. Without their presence any condensation would be highly improbable. They are most abundant in the levels near the surface, from whence they are carried upwards to higher levels by convection. In those industrial areas where there is a very high degree of smoke pollution, fog can sometimes form in falling temperatures a little before the dew point has been reached.
Explain why this is so. Explain why.
Solar radiation and temperature 8 Describe the greenhouse effect on the Earths atmosphere. It is important that a seafarer should be able to recognise the main cloud types because of their bearing upon existing and future weather; he or she does not need to be a weather forecaster but the arrival of a particular type of cloud may confirm the timing of a particular forecast or may give warning of an unexpected weather change.
This can be particularly useful when weather forecasts are for any reason unobtainable. A seafarer also needs to be able to recognise and name cloud types for inclusion in weather reports which are transmitted to a meteorological service. The cloud formation in any locality is an important feature of most weather situations and provides the meteorologist with valuable information when preparing a forecast. Summary of cloud types The names and descriptions of the various cloud types have been agreed internationally by the World Meteorological Organisation.
The earliest cloud classification, prepared in , contained five types derived from Latin words cirrus meaning thread , cumulus heap , stratus layer , nimbus grey rain cloud and fractus broken.
The present classification is an amplification and combination of these. Briefly, cirrus clouds are of a feathery or fibrous appear- ance; cumulus are cauliflower shaped above with a flattish base; stratus clouds form a more or less shapeless or homogenous layer or sheet; nimbus clouds have a uniform dark grey and threatening appearance, often with precipitation or virga trailing beneath.
Cloud types are further divided into three groups based upon their height above the observer: high, medium and low. Description of cloud types see photos 1 to 16 Stratus St A more or less continuous layer or sheet of cloud, similar in appearance to fog but rarely touching the ground except in the case of high land.
When it does touch the ground it is indistinguishable from fog. When broken up into patches by the wind it is called fractostratus Fs. Height of base generally between metres feet and metres 2, feet. Nimbostratus Ns A low, dark grey, shapeless and somewhat ragged cloud, of rainy appearance, often having below it pieces of scud termed Fractostratus Fs from which precipitation may often fall; when it does it is usually continuous.
Height of base is usually between metres feet and metres 2, feet but may be either very close to the surface or is sometimes as high as 1, metres 4, feet. They are often arranged in lines or groups orientated in one or two directions. When covering the whole sky they give it a wavy appearance. Height of base is usually between about metres 1, feet and 1, metres 4, feet.
See also altocumulus and cirrocumulus. Cumulus Cu Whitish cauliflower shaped clouds with a more or less flat base and appreciable vertical thickness. They vary in size and vertical extent and can develop up to great heights see Cb.
These clouds are a feature of the trade wind area but can occur anywhere. In certain conditions of light, parts of these look dark.
Base height is usually between about metres 1, feet and 1, metres 5, feet. The thundercloud, a cumulus type of cloud but of great vertical extent. The top, instead of being rounded like a cauliflower, looks more mountainous or may grow into the shape of a fibrous looking anvil. The base is generally flattish and often has fractostratus Fs clouds below it from which precipitation falls.
If cumulonimbus cloud is very extensive it may resemble nimbostratus Ns. Height of base is usually between metres 1, feet and 1, metres 5, feet. A layer or patches of flattish, globular shaped, fairly small clouds, white or grey in colour, often arranged in lines, very similar in appearance to stratocumulus but at a greater height and the individual cloudlets look smaller.
Base height above 2, metres 6, feet and not easy to estimate.
See also strato- cumulus and cirrocumulus. A thin and apparently formless veil or sheet of cloud, usually grey in colour. When present it often covers the whole sky, giving it a watery appearance; sun or moon shows through it with blurred outline. Sometimes it is thick enough to obscure sun or moon, in which case it is dark in colour.
See also cirrostratus. Cirrus Ci Nicknamed mares tails, feathery, fibrous or hairy clouds of delicate texture, high in the sky, usually coloured white and in various formations. Height of base above about 5, metres 1, feet. Popularly known as mackerel sky, the cloudlets are arranged usually in lines and somewhat resemble flocks of sheep. Base height above about 5, metres 18, feet. See also altocumulus and stratocumulus.
Cirrostratus Cs A diffuse and thin veil of cloud, whitish in colour somewhat similar to altostratus, but more diffuse. Aspendale, Victoria, Australia. Simultaneous measurements of turbulence over land and water.
The effects of roughness and surface elevation change on turbulence and mean flow variables under unstable conditions are investigated. Andreev and A. Budnikov, On temperature inversion in a thin near-water atmospheric layer. Okeanologiia, 19 1: Methods are presented for recording temperature profiles in the 0. Observational data obtained in the Black Sea show the presence of a temperature inversion in the 0. Schaller, Steady-state characteristics of inversions capping a well-mixed planetary boundary layer.
The influences of horizontal wind field divergence, advection, surface temperature excess, wind speed and surface temperature on the characteristics of an inversion are analyzed. Different profiles of the state parameters and the energy fluxes are reported for the Trade Wind region, the cold water area off California, the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean.
The influence of sea waves on the wind profile. Waves are shown to distort the wind profile up to about three wave heights. Sonderforschungsbereich 94 Meeresforschung, Hamburg, F. Skripnik and A. Rabinovich, On the relation of the atmospheric pressure to the water level of the north-west Pacific.
Meteorolog va Gidrol. On the rate of oxygen exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. In RussianA Okeanologiia, 18 6: Constants of the rate of oxygen exchange were determined experimentally.
The rates of oxygen exchange in the central part of the northern tropical Atlantic were estimated. Chalikov, The numerical simulation Of the airflow above waves. Navier-Stokes equations for two laver flow are averaged over an ensemble of similar wave surfaces and assumed to describe the evolution of a large-scale velocity field.
Laboratory measurements are simulated by numerical integration and the calculated results appear to agree with measured results. Davison, [ Differences in kilometre-seale wind and humidity boundarylayer structure at GATE. Ocean, 17 1: The variability of the tropical marine boundary layer was investigated by comparing tethersonde profiles extending up to m above two ships with a 4 km crosswind separation. Correlation analyses revealed a cellular pattern in the wind field, but yielded different results for the temperature and humidity fields.
Implications for the interpretation of meteorological observations were discussed.
S, Dvoryaninov and A. Prusov, Generation of stationary temperature boundary layers by surface waves. In Russian: English abstract.
Okeana, 15 3: OLR 26 11 D. Marine Meteorology Application of a viscous quasi-linear model to the problem of stationary temperature boundary layers at the air-water interface indicates short surface waves as the largest contributors to the formation of the surface thermal film. Interactions of surface and thermal waves in the averaged heat transfer are discussed. Friehe and C. Gibson, Sea surface stress measurements. It is suggested that the inertial dissipation estimates are less reliable due to an enhancement of local isotropv in the wind velocity field by the presence of surface waves.
Structure of marine surface layer turbulence. In spite of errors induced bv platform motion in velocity measurements, and errors induced bv sensor salt contamination in temperature measurements. Khain and Ye. Agrenich, Interaction of oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers in a tropical cyclone. Meteorologiva Gidrol. The tropical cyclone is assumed to be non-moving and axisymmetric.
The rates of parameter variations in the near-water atmospheric layer and the oceanic boundary layer are assessed for tropical cyclones of various intensities. Kagoshima Univ. Relevant mean values of vertical fluxes of momentum and sensible and latent heat correspond quite well to synoptic expectations.
On relation of circulation patterns over the north-west Pacific to weather conditions over the southern Far East. Meteorologiya Gidrol.. The variability of weather conditions over the southern Far Fast is explained in terms of meandering and vortex forming dynamics in the Kuroshio Current system. Prognostic relations are derived.
The need for incorporating satellite data into long-range hvdrometeorological forecasting is stressed. Hawaiian winter rainfall related to Pacific sea surface temperature. Although a highly significant relationship between Hawaiian winter rainfall and North Pacific sea surface temperature was found for the period , predictability for was very low, possibly due to 'artificial predictability' or changes in physical influences.
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii , U. Chemistry of the atmosphere Neuling, G. Ketseridis, J. Hahn, R. Jaenicke and C. Junge, Gas and particulate concentrations in North Atlantic air.
A trnos. Simultaneous measurements of C9-C2, n-alkanes in clean air at the west coast of Ireland are reported. Continental air showed higher concentrations. The carbon preference index is generally close to 1.
Marine Meteorology OLR 26 11 4. Climate and climatology 8. Radiation Schneider, A seasonal zonal energy balance climate model with an interactive lower layer. Griffith, The GaI-Chen and Schneider climate model is modified into a more general model which includes an interactive lower laver, and the seasonal cycle is simulated in terms of seasonally varying insolation.
Determinations of cloud-top distributions, cloud-clear thresholds, cloud-top heights, cloud-base distributions, and temperature and moisture distributions are described. Areally averaged radiative divergence profiles are produced by computational algorithms. Clouds and fog Larson, The history of air forming various marine fogs off Nova Scotia in August Combining radon, chemical and cloud condensation nuclei CCN data provides more complete descriptions of air mass histories and a better understanding of marine aerosol chemistry.
Magnitudes and gradients of monitored variables radon levels, elemental ratios, overall salt loading and CCN counts appear to be practical realtime indicators of the meteorological regime. A fog sampler is described. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. Precipitation Geotis, Raindrop sizes and related parameters for GATE. Sets of drop size observations arc analyzed to shov, correlations between radar reflectivitv and meteorological quantities.
The size data indicate that tropical oceanic showers include very large numbers of medium-sized drops, but relatively few large drops. Analysis of Phase Ill results.
Analyses of the GATE Phase Ill radiative divergence estimates are discussed and the profiles indicate less upper tropospheric radiative divergence but more middle level divergence than expected from climatological estimates.
Reeds Maritime Meteorology.pdf
The remarkably stable daytime total tropospheric divergence can be used to infer maritime tropical surface energy budgets from satellite data. Uboegbulam, Parameterization of surface incoming radiation in tropical cloudy conditions. Three models solar radiation model, flux-emissivity approach, Paltridge's empirical procedure for calculating incoming short- and long-wave radiation are evaluated based on data from the 3 phases of GATE.
The latter 2 methods produce estimates in favorable agreement with measurements even during dominant cumulonimbus. Estimation of net radiation at sea.
Hourly Canadian GATE data are utilized in an investigation of relationships between net radiation, global solar radiation and total downward radiation. OLR 26 1 I D. Marine Meteorology A derived empirical expression is capable of estimating net radiation from the other, more easily measured, radiation values.
The accuracy of the method is comparable to that of direct measurement. Storms Cyclogeneses du bassin mediterraneen occidental.
Figures include 17 Mediterranean sea state maps. Atlantic hurricane season of Figures include 13 satellite photos. Activity of the North Atlantic hurricane season . Meteorologiya Gidrol.
Intensity coefficients, mean seasonal velocities and total internal energies of tropical cyclones are found to characterize the hurricane season activity and are calculated for the years Mean values and variabilities of these parameters are compared with climatic fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric dust, nuclei, aerosols, pollutants, etc.
On the amount of sea-salt particles at the seashore.
Kagoshirna Univ.. Number concentrations and salt-mass distributions of airborne sea-salt particles are compared with those of the sea surface obtained by Chaen The production rate of sea-sah particles is estimated. Natural and artificially altered patterns of salt spray across a forested barrier island.
A traps. Using impingement collectors, the distribution of salt spray across undisturbed and disturbed sections of a forested barrier island was assessed. Abnormal intensities of salt were found concentrated at the windward side of the disturbed sites.Meteorologiva Gidrol. Journals Atmospheric Science Letters Open access. Relevant mean values of vertical fluxes of momentum and sensible and latent heat correspond quite well to synoptic expectations.
Request Username Can't sign in? Most of these particles are hygroscopic that is, they tend to attract and absorb moisture. Forgot your username? The history of air forming various marine fogs off Nova Scotia in August Budnikov,
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