FOUR CHAPTERS ON FREEDOM PDF
It is divided into four chapters: 1. Samadhi Pada Chapter on samadhi consisting of 51 verses. This chapter is concerned with the following subjects: Definition of. Four Chapters on Freedom: Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali [Swami applied numerical methods 3rd solution manual pdf download, chemical and. Four Chapters on Freedom contains the full Sanskrit text of Rishi Patanjali's Yoga Sutras as well as transliteration, translation and an extensive commentary.
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Jesus Christ is the stable principle and fixed centre of the mission that God himself has entrusted to man. We must all share in this mission and concentrate all our forces on it, since it is more necessary than ever for modern mankind. If this mission seems to encounter greater opposition nowadays than ever before, this shows that today it is more necessary than ever and, in spite of the opposition, more awaited than ever. Here we touch indirectly on the mystery of the divine "economy" which linked salvation and grace with the Cross.
It was not without reason that Christ said that "the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence, and men of violence take it by force" 70 and moreover that "the children of this world are more astute We gladly accept this rebuke, that we may be like those "violent people of God "that we have so often seen in the history of the Church and still see today, and that we may consciously join in the great mission of revealing Christ to the world, helping each person to find himself in Christ, and helping the contemporary generations of our brothers and sisters, the peoples, nations, States, mankind, developing countries and countries of opulence-in short, helping everyone to get to know "the unsearchable riches of Christ" 72 , since these riches are for every individual and are everybody's property.
The Church's mission and human freedom In this unity in mission, which is decided principally by Christ himself, all Christians must find what already unites them, even before their full communion is achieved. This is apostolic and missionary unity, missionary and apostolic unity. Thanks to this unity we can together come close to the magnificent heritage of the human spirit that has been manifested in all religions, as the Second Vatican Council's Declaration Nostra Aetate says It also enables us to approach all cultures, all ideological concepts, all people of good will.
We approach them with the esteem, respect and discernment that since the time of the Apostles has marked the missionary attitude, the attitude of the missionary. Suffice it to mention Saint Paul and, for instance, his address in the Areopagus at Athens The missionary attitude always begins with a feeling of deep esteem for "what is in man" 75 , for what man has himself. It is a question of respecting everything that has been brought about in him by the Spirit, which "blows where it wills" The mission is never destruction, but instead is a taking up and fresh building, even if in practice there has not always been full correspondence with this high ideal.
And we know well that the conversion that is begun by the mission is a work of grace, in which man must fully find himself again. For this reason the Church in our time attaches great importance to all that is stated by the Second Vatican Council in its Declaration on Religious Freedom, both the first and the second part of the document We perceive intimately that the truth revealed to us by God imposes on us an obligation. We have, in particular, a great sense of responsibility for this truth.
By Christ's institution the Church is its guardian and teacher, having been endowed with a unique assistance of the Holy Spirit in order to guard and teach it in its most exact integrity In fulfilling this mission, we look towards Christ himself, the first evangelizer 79 , and also towards his Apostles, martyrs and confessors. The Declaration on Religious Freedom shows us convincingly that, when Christ and, after him, his Apostles proclaimed the truth that comes not from men but from God "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me" 80 , that is the Father's , they preserved, while acting with their full force of spirit, a deep esteem for man, for his intellect, his will, his conscience and his freedom Thus the human person's dignity itself becomes part of the content of that proclamation, being included not necessarily in words but by an attitude towards it.
This attitude seems to fit the special needs of our times. Since man's true freedom is not found in everything that the various systems and individuals see and propagate as freedom, the Church, because of her divine mission, becomes all the more the guardian of this freedom, which is the condition and basis for the human person's true dignity.
Jesus Christ meets the man of every age, including our own, with the same words: "You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free" These words contain both a fundamental requirement and a warning: the requirement of an honest relationship with regard to truth as a condition for authentic freedom, and the warning to avoid every kind of illusory freedom, every superficial unilateral freedom, every freedom that fails to enter into the whole truth about man and the world.
Today also, even after two thousand years, we see Christ as the one who brings man freedom based on truth, frees man from what curtails, diminishes and as it were breaks off this freedom at its root, in man's soul, his heart and his conscience.
What a stupendous confirmation of this has been given and is still being given by those who, thanks to Christ and in Christ, have reached true freedom and have manifested it even in situations of external constraint! When Jesus Christ himself appeared as a prisoner before Pilate's tribunal and was interrogated by him about the accusation made against him by the representatives of the Sanhedrin, did he not answer: "For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth" 83?
It was as if with these words spoken before the judge at the decisive moment he was once more confirming what he had said earlier: "You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free". In the course of so many centuries, of so many generations, from the time of the Apostles on, is it not often Jesus Christ himself that has made an appearance at the side of people judged for the sake of the truth?
And has he not gone to death with people condemned for the sake of the truth? Does he ever cease to be the continuous spokesman and advocate for the person who lives "in spirit and truth" 84?
Just as he does not cease to be it before the Father, he is it also with regard to the history of man. And in her turn the Church, in spite of all the weaknesses that are part of her human history, does not cease to follow him who said: "The hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth" Christ united himself with each man When we penetrate by means of the continually and rapidly increasing experience of the human family into the mystery of Jesus Christ, we understand with greater clarity that there is at the basis of all these ways that the Church of our time must follow, in accordance with the wisdom of Pope Paul VI 86 , one single way: it is the way that has stood the test of centuries and it is also the way of the future.
Christ the Lord indicated this way especially, when, as the Council teaches, "by his Incarnation, he, the Son of God, in a certain way united himself with each man" The Church therefore sees its fundamental task in enabling that union to be brought about and renewed continually. The Church wishes to serve this single end: that each person may be able to find Christ, in order that Christ may walk with each person the path of life, with the power of the truth about man and the world that is contained in the mystery of the Incarnation and the Redemption and with the power of the love that is radiated by that truth.
Against a background of the ever increasing historical processes, which seem at the present time to have results especially within the spheres of various systems, ideological concepts of the world and regimes, Jesus Christ becomes, in a way, newly present, in spite of all his apparent absences, in spite of all the limitations of the presence and of the institutional activity of the Church.
Jesus Christ becomes present with the power of the truth and the love that are expressed in him with unique unrepeatable fullness in spite of the shortness of his life on earth and the even greater shortness of his public activity. Jesus Christ is the chief way for the Church. He himself is our way "to the Father's house" 88 and is the way to each man. On this way leading from Christ to man, on this way on which Christ unites himself with each man, nobody can halt the Church.
This is an exigency of man's temporal welfare and of his eternal welfare. Out of regard for Christ and in view of the mystery that constitutes the Church's own life, the Church cannot remain insensible to whatever serves man's true welfare, any more than she can remain indifferent to what threatens it.
In various passages in its documents the Second Vatican Council has expressed the Church's fundamental solicitude that life in "the world should conform more to man's surpassing dignity" 89 in all its aspects, so as to make that life "ever more human" This is the solicitude of Christ himself, the good Shepherd of all men. In the name of this solicitude, as we read in the Council's Pastoral Constitution, "the Church must in no way be confused with the political community, nor bound to any political system.
She is at once a sign and a safeguard of the transcendence of the human person" Accordingly, what is in question here is man in all his truth, in his full magnitude. We are not dealing with the "abstract" man, but the real, "concrete", "historical" man.
We are dealing with "each" man, for each one is included in the mystery of the Redemption and with each one Christ has united himself for ever through this mystery. Every man comes into the world through being conceived in his mother's womb and being born of his mother, and precisely on account of the mystery of the Redemption is entrusted to the solicitude of the Church.
Her solicitude is about the whole man and is focussed on him in an altogether special manner.
The object of her care is man in his unique unrepeatable human reality, which keeps intact the image and likeness of God himself The Council points out this very fact when, speaking of that likeness, it recalls that "man is the only creature on earth that God willed for itself" Man as "willed" by God, as "chosen" by him from eternity and called, destined for grace and glory-this is "each" man, "the most concrete" man, "the most real"; this is man in all the fullness of the mystery in which he has become a sharer in Jesus Christ, the mystery in which each one of the four thousand million human beings living on our planet has become a sharer from the moment he is conceived beneath the heart of his mother.
For the Church all ways lead to man The Church cannot abandon man, for his "destiny", that is to say his election, calling, birth and death, salvation or perdition, is so closely and unbreakably linked with Christ. We are speaking precisely of each man on this planet, this earth that the Creator gave to the first man, saying to the man and the women: "subdue it and have dominion" Each man in all the unrepeatable reality of what he is and what he does, of his intellect and will, of his conscience and heart.
Man who in his reality has, because he is a "person", a history of his life that is his own and, most important, a history of his soul that is his own. Man who, in keeping with the openness of his spirit within and also with the many diverse needs of his body and his existence in time, writes this personal history of his through numerous bonds, contacts, situations, and social structures linking him with other men, beginning to do so from the first moment of his existence on earth, from the moment of his conception and birth.
Four Chapters on Freedom: Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Man in the full truth of his existence, of his personal being and also of his community and social being-in the sphere of his own family, in the sphere of society and very diverse contexts, in the sphere of his own nation or people perhaps still only that of his clan or tribe , and in the sphere of the whole of mankind-this man is the primary route that the Church must travel in fulfilling her mission: he is the primary and fundamental way for the Church, the way traced out by Christ himself, the way that leads invariably through the mystery of the Incarnation and the Redemption.
It was precisely this man in all the truth of his life, in his conscience, in his continual inclination to sin and at the same time in his continual aspiration to truth, the good, the beautiful, justice and love that the Second Vatican Council had before its eyes when, in outlining his situation in the modern world, it always passed from the external elements of this situation to the truth within humanity: "In man himself many elements wrestle with one another.
Thus, on the one hand, as a creature he experiences his limitations in a multitude of ways. On the other, he feels himself to be boundless in his desires and summoned to a higher life. Pulled by manifold attractions, he is constantly forced to choose among them and to renounce some. Indeed, as a weak and sinful being, he often does what he would not, and fails to do what he would.
Hence he suffers from internal divisions, and from these flow so many and such great discords in society" This man is the way for the Church-a way that, in a sense, is the basis of all the other ways that the Church must walk-because man-every man without any exception whatever-has been redeemed by Christ, and because with man-with each man without any exception whatever-Christ is in a way united, even when man is unaware of it: "Christ, who died and was raised up for all, provides man"-each man and every man- "with the light and the strength to measure up to his supreme calling" Since this man is the way for the Church, the way for her daily life and experience, for her mission and toil, the Church of today must be aware in an always new manner of man's "situation".
That means that she must be aware of his possibilities, which keep returning to their proper bearings and thus revealing themselves. She must likewise be aware of the threats to man and of all that seems to oppose the endeavour "to make human life ever more human" 97 and make every element of this life correspond to man's true dignity-in a word, she must be aware of all that is opposed to that process.
What modern man is afraid of Accordingly, while keeping alive in our memory the picture that was so perspicaciously and authoritatively traced by the Second Vatican Council, we shall try once more to adapt it to the "signs of the times" and to the demands of the situation, which is continually changing and evolving in certain directions. All too soon, and often in an unforeseeable way, what this manifold activity of man yields is not only subjected to "alienation", in the sense that it is simply taken away from the person who produces it, but rather it turns against man himself, at least in part, through the indirect consequences of its effects returning on himself.
It is or can be directed against him. This seems to make up the main chapter of the drama of present-day human existence in its broadest and universal dimension.
Man therefore lives increasingly in fear. He is afraid that what he produces-not all of it, of course, or even most of it, but part of it and precisely that part that contains a special share of his genius and initiative-can radically turn against himself; he is afraid that it can become the means and instrument for an unimaginable self-destruction, compared with which all the cataclysms and catastrophes of history known to us seem to fade away.
This gives rise to a question: Why is it that the power given to man from the beginning by which he was to subdue the earth 98 turns against himself, producing an understandable state of disquiet, of conscious or unconscious fear and of menace, which in various ways is being communicated to the whole of the present-day human family and is manifesting itself under various aspects? This state of menace for man from what he produces shows itself in various directions and various degrees of intensity.
We seem to be increasingly aware of the fact that the exploitation of the earth, the planet on which we are living, demands rational and honest planning. At the same time, exploitation of the earth not only for industrial but also for military purposes and the uncontrolled development of technology outside the framework of a long-range authentically humanistic plan often bring with them a threat to man's natural environment, alienate him in his relations with nature and remove him from nature.
Man often seems to see no other meaning in his natural environment than what serves for immediate use and consumption. Yet it was the Creator's will that man should communicate with nature as an intelligent and noble "master" and "guardian", and not as a heedless "exploiter" and "destroyer".
The development of technology and the development of contemporary civilization, which is marked by the ascendancy of technology, demand a proportional development of morals and ethics.
For the present, this last development seems unfortunately to be always left behind. Accordingly, in spite of the marvel of this progress, in which it is difficult not to see also authentic signs of man's greatness, signs that in their creative seeds were revealed to us in the pages of the Book of Genesis, as early as where it describes man's creation 99 , this progress cannot fail to give rise to disquiet on many counts. The first reason for disquiet concerns the essential and fundamental question: Does this progress, which has man for its author and promoter, make human life on earth "more human" in every aspect of that life?
Does it make it more "worthy of man"?
There can be no doubt that in various aspects it does. But the question keeps coming back with regard to what is most essential -whether in the context of this progress man, as man, is becoming truly better, that is to say more mature spiritually, more aware of the dignity of his humanity, more responsible, more open to others, especially the neediest and the weakest, and readier to give and to aid all.
This question must be put by Christians, precisely because Jesus Christ has made them so universally sensitive about the problem of man. The same question must be asked by all men, especially those belonging to the social groups that are dedicating themselves actively to development and progress today.
As we observe and take part in these processes we cannot let ourselves be taken over merely by euphoria or be carried away by one-sided enthusiasm for our conquests, but we must all ask ourselves, with absolute honesty, objectivity and a sense of moral responsibility, the essential questions concerning man's situation today and in the future.
Do all the conquests attained until now and those projected for the future for technology accord with man's moral and spiritual progress?
In this context is man, as man, developing and progressing or is he regressing and being degraded in his humanity? In men and "in man's world", which in itself is a world of moral good and evil, does good prevail over evil? In men and among men is there a growth of social love, of respect for the rights of others-for every man, nation and people-or on the contrary is there an increase of various degrees of selfishness, exaggerated nationalism instead of authentic love of country, and also the propensity to dominate others beyond the limits of one's legitimate rights and merits and the propensity to exploit the whole of material progress and that in the technology of production for the exclusive purpose of dominating others or of favouring this or that imperialism?
These are the essential questions that the Church is bound to ask herself, since they are being asked with greater or less explicitness by the thousands of millions of people now living in the world. The subject of development and progress is on everybody's lips and appears in the columns of all the newspapers and other publications in all the languages of the modern world.
Let us not forget however that this subject contains not only affirmations and certainties but also questions and points of anguished disquiet. The latter are no less important than the former. They fit in with the dialectical nature of human knowledge and even more with the fundamental need for solicitude by man for man, for his humanity, and for the future of people on earth.
Inspired by eschatological faith, the Church considers an essential, unbreakably united element of her mission this solicitude for man, for his humanity, for the future of men on earth and therefore also for the course set for the whole of development and progress. She finds the principle of this solicitude in Jesus Christ himself, as the Gospels witness. This is why she wishes to make it grow continually through her relationship with Christ, reading man's situation in the modern world in accordance with the most important signs of our time.
Progress or threat If therefore our time, the time of our generation, the time that is approaching the end of the second millennium of the Christian era, shows itself a time of great progress, it is also seen as a time of threat in many forms for man. The Church must speak of this threat to all people of good will and must always carry on a dialogue with them about it. Man's situation in the modern world seems indeed to be far removed from the objective demands of the moral order, from the requirements of justice, and even more of social love.
Four Chapters on Freedom: Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
We are dealing here only with that which found expression in the Creator's first message to man at the moment in which he was giving him the earth, to "subdue" it This first message was confirmed by Christ the Lord in the mystery of the Redemption. This is expressed by the Second Vatican Council in these beautiful chapters of its teaching that concern man's "kingship"; that is to say his call to share in the kingly function-the munus regaleof Christ himself The essential meaning of this "kingship" and "dominion" of man over the visible world, which the Creator himself gave man for his task, consists in the priority of ethics over technology, in the primacy of the person over things, and in the superiority of spirit over matter.
This is why all phases of present-day progress must be followed attentively. Each stage of that progress must, so to speak, be x-rayed from this point of view.
What is in question is the advancement of persons, not just the multiplying of things that people can use. It is a matter-as a contemporary philosopher has said and as the Council has stated-not so much of "having more" as of "being more" Indeed there is already a real perceptible danger that, while man's dominion over the world of things is making enormous advances, he should lose the essential threads of his dominion and in various ways let his humanity be subjected to the world and become himself something subject to manipulation in many ways-even if the manipulation is often not perceptible directly-through the whole of the organization of community life, through the production system and through pressure from the means of social communication.
Man cannot relinquish himself or the place in the visible world that belongs to him; he cannot become the slave of things, the slave of economic systems, the slave of production, the slave of his own products. A civilization purely materialistic in outline condemns man to such slavery, even if at times, no doubt, this occurs contrary to the intentions and the very premises of its pioneers.
The present solicitude for man certainly has at its root this problem. It is not a matter here merely of giving an abstract answer to the question: Who is man? It is a matter of the whole of the dynamism of life and civilization.
It is a matter of the meaningfulness of the various initiatives of everyday life and also of the premises for many civilization programmes, political programmes, eco nomic ones, social ones, state ones, and many others. If we make bold to describe man's situation in the modern world as far removed from the objective demands of the moral order, from the exigencies of justice, and still more from social love, we do so because this is confirmed by the well-known facts and comparisons that have already on various occasions found an echo in the pages of statements by the Popes, the Council and the Synod Man's situation today is certainly not uniform but marked with numerous differences.
These differences have causes in history, but they also have strong ethical effects. Indeed everyone is familiar with the picture of the consumer civilization, which consists in a certain surplus of goods necessary for man and for entire societies-and we are dealing precisely with the rich highly developed societies-while the remaining societies-at least broad sectors of them-are suffering from hunger, with many people dying each day of starvation and malnutrition.
Hand in hand go a certain abuse of freedom by one group-an abuse linked precisely with a consumer attitude uncontrolled by ethics -and a limitation by it of the freedom of the others, that is to say those suffering marked shortages and being driven to conditions of even worse misery and destitution.
This pattern, which is familiar to all, and the contrast referred to, in the documents giving their teaching, by the Popes of this century, most recently by John XXIII and by Paul VI, represent, as it were, the gigantic development of the parable in the Bible of the rich banqueter and the poor man Lazarus Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani 5 He further advises us to cultivate Pratipaksha Bhavanam, the contrary view when one is faced with negative thoughts of the devolutionary nature that cause suffering 2.
The concept of Pratipaksha Bhavanam is an amazing teaching and must be inculcated in our Sadhana of day-to-day living as we face it so many times each day. Even if we cannot replace negative thoughts with emotion-laden positive reinforcements, we must at least make an attempt to stop them in their troublesome track!
Four Chapters on Freedom
This is the best definition of Asana as a state that radiates stability and ease. Such a state may be attained only through regular, disciplined and determined practice. The key to attaining this state is given in 2. Through the practice of Asana, one attains the state of balanced equanimity described in the Bhagavad Gita as Samatvam that enables one to overcome the dualities dwandwa anabighata that normally torment us into imbalance 2. At the next level Patanjali details the concept of Pranayama and its benefits in 2.
This is similar to the Hatha Yoga concept of Kevala Kumbhaka, which is a spontaneous cessation of respiration itself. Having described Pranayama that is a bridge between the external and internal worlds, he goes on to define Pratyahara in 2.
Just as a tortoise withdraws its limbs into its shell, the senses cease to function as soon as the mind the main energy source for sensory function starts the journey inwards. No wonder the mind is called the super-sense or the Ekendriya the one sense. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani 6 suspense about the fore-coming Vibhuti Pada that will deal with attainment of powers though practice of the inner, Antaranga Yoga. He defines Dharana as the process of binding consciousness to a point, place, region or object desha bandhah chittasya dharana He further defines Dhyana as the state when there is a steady and continuous flow of attention and concentration on a point, place, region or object tatra pratyaya ekatanata dhyanam The state of absorptive super-consciousness Samadhi is expressed by Patanjali as an omnipresent state when the mind loses itself and the object alone shines without differentiation tadeva arthamatra nirbhasyam swarupa shunyamiva samadhi These three internal limbs comprise the practice of Antaranga Yoga and are known together as Samyama flowing together seamlessly in 3.
He then goes on to describe in 3. These include mind reading 3. We find so many Sadhakas who have lost their way after getting caught up in the magic of the Siddhis, thus ensuing the absolute loss of their spiritual progress for many a lifetime to come.
It is with regards to Sutra 3. Sutra 3. In fact this also shows us that Patanjali was an excellent physicist who understood the laws of light too! In the versions of the Yoga Sutras that do not include this verse, Sutra 3. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani 7 For this overview, I am using the version with sutras so that we can understand this discrepancy between the difference versions a bit better.
He strongly tells us that we must give up even the desire for that highest state, if that state is to occur. This idea has a cross reference in the very beginning of the Samadhi Pada where he says that one must develop dispassionate objectivity towards even the highest state Para Vairagya if one is to attain it 1. The importance of this Para Vairagya that destroys the very seed of the impurities, thus blessing us with liberation, is described in 3. He concludes the Vibhuti Pada by telling us that it is only the equality between Buddhi and Purusha that brings about liberation sattvapurusayoh suddhisamye kaivalyam Such a state can only happen if we ourselves become a pure medium for the crystal-clear transmission of the Divine universal impulses.
Purity of thought, word and deed is of paramount importance if we are to become the purest vehicles of the Divine Grace. At the very beginning he explains how Siddhis that are mere milestones of progress on the spiritual path may be obtained by different methods 4. He deals with the concept of Karma and describes the relationship between action — reaction in Sutras 4.
He says that for the common person, Karma may be either white pure or black impure or of the third nature but for the Yogis it is neither white nor black ashukla akrishnam yoginah He discusses the concept of reincarnation in Sutra 4. He gives us an excellent concept of the three fold nature of time Trikala when he says that the past and future both exist in the present reality but appear different only because of their different characteristics and forms.
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani 8 knowledge of the past and future thus becoming a Trikala Jnani one who knows all three aspects of time He helps us understand the Gunas by explaining that they are the backbone of all that manifests Vyakta as well as that which is at subtle planes Sukshma of existence 4.
He tells us how the same object may be perceived differently by the different minds because the minds themselves manifest differently 4.
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Return to Book Page. Four Chapters on Freedom: Four Chapters on Freedom contains the full Sanskrit text of Rishi Patanjali's Yoga Sutras as well as transliteration, translation and an extensive commentary. The Yoga Sutras, containing epithets or threads of Yoga, is the most respected treatise on Yoga.
In his commentary on each verse, Swami Satyananda Saraswati fully explains the text and the path of raja yoga.
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Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order.Yannis rated it really liked it Apr 06, In fulfilling this mission, we look towards Christ himself, the first evangelizer 79 , and also towards his Apostles, martyrs and confessors. And for that reason, the Redemption was accomplished in the paschal mystery, leading through the Cross and death to Resurrection.
Without wishing to give a detailed reply, we can say that we have made real and important advances. Paul VI left us a witness of such an extremely acute consciousness of the Church.