ECONOMICS MIND THE GAP TEXT BOOK 2015
The Department of Basic Education has pleasure in releasing the second edition of Mind the Gap study guides for Grade 12 learners. These study guides. Mind the Gap study guides for Accounting, Economics, Geography and Life to the series in , including the CAPS Grade 12 Mind the Gap study guide for .. the curriculum using other textbooks and your class notes. Gap study guides for Accounting, Economics, Geography and Life Sciences; the second edition, in , including the CAPS Grade 12 Mind the Gap study guide for Mathematics. curriculum using other textbooks and your class notes .
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The first subjects in the series include Life Sciences, Accounting, Economics, Geography and Geography Maps. Recently two Afrikaans titles. Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) Mind the Gap Grade 12 Study. remaining parts of the curriculum using other textbooks and your class notes. Data response (middle order): Study the following graph/cartoon/ table/ text, .. Economics Summer Answers to Homework #5 Due Wednesday. MIND THE GAP STUDY GUIDED AND OTHER STUDY. MATERIAL copies per school), Accounting, Economics, Geography Paper 1 and Paper 2 with Maps, been printed and delivered to all districts from 26 September is applicable to the retrieval of textbooks and all other revision material.
Further, the most successful learners are born into families that have access to a baseline of resources, including physical security, health care, adequate nutrition, attentive caregiving, and opportunities to learn. Most African American children have positive adult relationships and achieve their basic developmental potential.
That is, at the appropriate ages, they master the complexities of language, process sensory information, manage their bodies, and even use symbols such as a wooden block to represent a piece of toast. However, some do not have a learning environment that includes opportunities to develop school-related language, knowledge, and skills such as literacy in Standard English, mathematics, or science.
Others, given continued racial exclusion, do not think the work of education will pay off for them. And some are growing up in circumstances that are too stressful for healthy development. These students do not get the extra doses of emotional stability and guidance needed to face the adversity they are exposed to, including adapting to the demands of school. African Americans have been exposed to generations of legal and illegal measures to deny them basic rights.
To believe that these insults have not left a cultural residue—for Whites as well as for African Americans—is to deny what we know about power relationships. As parents adapt to different challenges, they develop different child-rearing strategies, many of which are misunderstood. While poverty has declined for White, Hispanic, and Asian families in recent years, it has not for African Americans.
In , some 38 percent of Black children lived below the poverty line—a percentage four times greater than that of White or Asian children Alter Families struggling to make ends meet are more likely to be stressed and to have less time for their children than those from more economically advantaged groups. Some families and communities have adapted to the harsh realities they face with aggression.
Living with Toxic Stress Exposure to extremes of violence and neglect, inconsistent and unreliable care, and unloving adults can be so stressful for children that their developmental potential is compromised or distorted.
The results of such exposure can range from stunted emotional and intellectual development to death. The longer children live in a toxic environment, the more difficult and expensive it is to help them return to more typical developmental and learning trajectories Shonkoff et al.
Too many African American children live in toxic environments. Given this, it is a testament to African American families that despite the challenges they face, so many find the resources to help their children avoid the more serious developmental and learning problems. However, early recognition of and support for children being affected by a toxic environment is essential if children are to avoid the pitfalls of failed development and a compromised future; exposure to severe neglect and abuse is increasingly difficult to treat.
The role of culture and tradition Culture is what groups create over time to adapt to their environment; it determines to a large extent how adults interact with children.
For instance, as a result of transatlantic enslavement, Black people mixed the remnants of their home languages with English to create a dialect, or patois, to communicate with one another since they did not share a common language.
The remnants continue today as Black English.
Among those with limited knowledge of Black culture and linguistics, Black English is mistakenly assumed to be a product of ignorance rather than a creative form of verbal communication as complex as Standard English Labov Other behaviors that were fashioned to help African Americans cope with the dangers of slavery continue today because life is still perceived as dangerous.
For instance, African American children are often criticized for passivity, limited oral responsiveness, and disengagement Labov Yet many Black parents teach this behavior as the best way for children to be safe in a hostile world. Even though these strategies tend not to be advantageous in the school environment, they have lingered because they keep children emotionally safe in the segregated society in which most of them live.
The systemic challenges of poverty and racism continue today for African American parents and children W.
Economics STUDY GUIDE
Some experience self-doubt and powerlessness, others deny their culture and language to avoid rejection, and still others respond with rage or detachment. While many of these responses may seem nonfunctional, they are designed to protect children from the prejudice and discrimination encountered by most African Americans with appalling frequency. Unaware of the culturally adaptive reasons for behavior, many people—even many African Americans—are unaware of the strengths that have enabled African American communities to survive and thrive despite deep hardships.
In the past, tight-knit family networks and communities of teachers and leaders were better able to support children and buffer the negative messages children received from the larger society.
Today, the lack of knowledge about and appreciation for Black culture creates social distance between African Americans and White Americans and is a deterrent to change. The African American culture transmitted from generation to generation needs to be understood as rich and noteworthy, and needs to be used as the entry to new skills and knowledge.
While culture carries with it the past, it also constantly adapts to new conditions, new challenges. As people adapt, they integrate the old with the new, often using the old to help transition to the new.
The traditional African American interest in music has led to innovations, such as jazz and rap, and to newer music forms; the traditional physicality in the African American community has led to high performance in athletics; the interest in language is reflected in the contributions Black people have made to the imaginative use of words slang, for example.
Many of the rules and concepts of school overlap with much of what children already know—but often children need teachers and school system leaders to help them see the overlap.
For example, many Black children have strong interests in and knowledge about sports and entertainment. They need supportive teachers to help them see how academics are related to these interests and will enhance what they already know.
Building on strengths, achievement can soar. Exposure to poverty and prejudice are not uniform across the African American population; not all African Americans are poor or failing in school. Yet disproportionately their achievement and life circumstances are constrained by race and class.
The systemic challenges of the Black experience continue today for parents and children W.
We should mind the gap, not the graduation stats
The ultimate solution to the education gap is the elimination of race and class prejudice and oppression. This means providing supports for families and education for children, and promoting understanding among teachers and administrators. The challenges of school If most African American families typically provide the experiences necessary for healthy growth and development, why do so many African American children have trouble learning in school?
One reason is the differing expectations for children between home and school.
Home cultures do not prevent African American children from learning in school, but some home practices are not similar to or synchronous with school culture.
Returning to language, children who learn Black English at home, as opposed to learning Standard English, have a steeper learning curve for school reading and writing because Standard English is very similar to academic English.
For Black children, particularly those from low-income families in highly segregated communities, there is more likely to be a poor fit between their language experiences and what schools require. This misalignment becomes a barrier to school learning unless it is addressed early. Mechanical Technology Technology Technology: Topic Topic Life at molecular, cellular, and tissue level Life processes in plants and animals Diversity, change and continuity Environmental studies.
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By Department of Basic Education. Share this content. Resource URL. Curriculum Alignment:. CAPS aligned. Publication Date:. Photo: Without repair the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage in education will continue.
Jonathan Beal, file photo: ABC It sounds alarming that a quarter of our youths are dropping out of school, but the reality is more kids than ever are graduating. The real concern is the education gap across socio-economic lines that is opening up, writes Greg Jericho.
A report released on Monday by the Mitchell Institute somewhat challenges the notion that our education system is egalitarian. While the study finds that nearly 75 per cent of students complete year 12 or its equivalent, only 56 per cent of young people gain an Australian Tertiary Admission Rank ATAR that allows competitive access to university.
The study also finds that ATAR attainment and scores, as well as study of science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM is strongly linked with students' socio-economic background. The landmark study "Educational opportunity in Australia Who succeeds and who misses out" measurers students' performance across a range of categories in primary and secondary schooling.
It takes into account regions, socio-economic background, language, non-English speaking background and Indigenous status. It found that "over three-quarters 78 per cent of Australians children are developmentally ready for school".
Girls are generally more ready - And being ready to go at school entry is important, because while some students will catch up, for others there is a constant case throughout schooling of their being behind key indicators at various age levels.Take these mobile notes with you wherever you go and look at them whenever you can.
View more. Health financing pattern tended to make relief to state-owned health insurance funds toward ever larger share of the out-of-pocket spending by the ordinary citizens Do you have an educational app, video, ebook, course or eResource? Hart, B. Solution 2 — Strengthening the testing framework The problems with the NEDC test have been exacerbated by a number of serious failings in the overall framework by which vehicles are tested.
This is represented by the solid blue line in Figure 3.
These study guides continue the innovative and committed attempt by the Department of Basic Education to improve the academic performance of Grade 12 candidates in the National Senior Certificate NSC examination. Polls reflect widespread concern about income and wage inequalities and associated trends and the desire for policies to address these inequalities New York Times Macroeconomics, Spring , Exam 3, several versions Read these Instructions carefully!