A ARTE DE PONTEAR VIOLA PDF
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Viola. Violão. Luso-Brazilian Chordophones. Nineteenth Century Rio de Janeiro. Artefatos musicais CORRÊA, R. A Arte de pontear Viola. Brasilia, Curitiba. many measurements of different and excellent violas caipiras. Thank you for all the  R. Corrêa, “A arte de pontear viola”, 2a ed., Brasília. PDF | The Brazilian guitar is a countryside musical instrument and presents different  R. Corrêa, “A arte de pontear viola”, 2a ed., Brasília.
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Prince John instituted important reforms that had a profound effect on Brazilian cultural life. However, it was only after World War I that a collective sense of patriotism among Brazilian artists resulted in a nationalist movement, leading to the celebrated Week of Modern Art. In order to learn more about Brazilian folk and popular music, Villa- Lobos traveled to many rural areas of Brazil to collect folk songs.
His research and musical experiences inspired Villa-Lobos, a mostly self-taught composer, to create an original compositional approach based on folk and popular elements of Brazilian music. Another such example is the Cirandas , a collection of piano pieces in which a different Brazilian folk melody is employed in each movement. Villa-Lobos career was an inspiration to subsequent generations of Brazilian composers. He also worked towards the establishment of a national school of composition.
This letter emphasized the responsibility of composers for the development of a national musical language, the dangers of formalism in music, and the anti-national character of dodecaphonism. One month after the publication of the Open Letter, Koellreutter responded to Guarnieri s attack on his aesthetic principles with a strong public statement of his own, eventually leading to a rift between the students of the two composers.
Interestingly, Guarnieri eventually came to use quasi-serial techniques during the s, in both his fourth and fifth piano concertos. Some years after the exchange between Guarnieri and Koellreutter, several musical movements, inspired by the ideas of Koellreutter, appeared in Brazil with the purpose of searching for new aesthetics and techniques.
Though these groups dominated musical life in Brazil, the nationalist composers, led by Camargo Guarnieri, continued their own path. From to , he studied harmony and counterpoint with Ernesto Kierski and, in the late s, he studied vocal technique with Olga Urbany de Ivanow, a singer exiled from Russia. In , after studying independently for three years, Lacerda began private composition lessons with Guarnieri. Lacerda worked with Guarnieri from to , achieving the mastery of several compositional techniques, such as theme and variations, invention, and fugue.
Through Guarnieri, Lacerda maintained a deep and constant contact with Brazilian folk music, because Guarnieri was a researcher in this field and thus collected many folk melodies. In the late s, Lacerda studied orchestration with Roberto Schnorrenberg. Lacerda also played an important role in Brazilian musical pedagogy, and his music theory books are well known and widely used.
Both composers, like many Brazilian artists, were influenced by the ideas of the Brazilian writer and musicologist Andrade. According to Andrade, Brazilian national music should reflect ethnic musical characteristics found in popular music. Guarnieri taught his students that folk elements should exist in the composer s mind to be used naturally, not directly, as a strange element in the music, but blended and transformed by the composer.
According to Guarnieri, The folk element must be integrated in the composition as well as in the composer s mind. Lacerda also incorporated atonality and contemporary treatment of harmony and rhythm within his musical language.
One important characteristic of Lacerda s music is the use of the Brazilian northeastern mode, which consists of the Mixolydian mode with a raised fourth scale degree. The Brasilianas , a collection of twelve piano suites in which Lacerda uses Brazilian nationalistic elements, will be discussed in the next chapter.
Three of the suites are for piano four hands and nine for piano solo. For each Brasiliana Lacerda employs four genres with a variety of characters and moods. Lacerda collected folk songs and dances from different parts of Brazil, and presented those elements in a sophisticated manner.
Table 3. The dobrado is a type of military march in moderate tempo. Each one of these elements is associated with a specific group of instruments shown in Table 3.
Dobrado das Pastorinhas Lacerda s Dobrado does not have an introduction and a trio, and it is constructed in ABA form. Figure 3. It can have dramatic representation or not. The dobrado belongs to the latter. Opening of Lacerda s Dobrado The ensuing B section in E minor , in which the left hand takes the melodic role and is accompanied by the right hand s staccato upbeats, corresponds both texturally and formally with the aforementioned forte section. Section A is recapitulated almost literally in measure The two differences between A and A are the anacrusis compare Figures 3.
The end of section A and beginning of section B of the Dobrado Figure 3. It has the following distinctive rhythmic characteristics, which are also found in Lacerda s Dobrado: 1 a sporadic dotted-eighth-plus-sixteenth figure usually followed by eighth notes see third measure of Figure 3. A passage in section B showing the use of triplets and sixteenth notes in the accompaniment The second movement of Lacerda s Brasiliana No.
The modinha is a romantic song whose country of origin is the subject of controversy. Opening measures of Lacerda s Modinha Figure 3. Formal scheme of Lacerda s Modinha Figure 3. The circled T, in this figure, indicates the theme.
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The formal scheme, the key areas, and the theme s entrances are shown in Figure 3. The melodic line is mostly descending, which, according to Souza, is a characteristic of Brazilian folk music see how the left hand melodic line moves down an octave in Fig. The third movement of Lacerda s Brasiliana No. The word mazurca is the Portuguese spelling for mazurka, a folk dance in triple time from the province of Mazovia, in Poland.
Performed by dancers in couples, named mazurs, the mazurkas were originally accompanied by a dudy, a type of bagpipe. Although common traits are found in all folk mazurkas rhythm in triple time, accent shifted to the weak beats of the bar, rubato, pentatonic and modal scales, etc. Chopin s Mazurkas usually consist of three or four contrasting sections, with irregular accents on the second or third beat, sometimes using modal elements c.
Form of Chopin s Mazurka Op. The two mazurkas also share harmonic features.
Both pieces are in B major and modulate to G major, although the form of Chopin s Mazurka is more extended and features a larger section in the dominant area see Table 3. Opening of Lacerda s Mazurca Figure 3. Opening of Chopin s Mazurka Op.
The oldest example of marcha de rancho also known as marcha-rancho is probably Moreninha by Eduardo Souto , first recorded in The melodic line of the marcha de rancho is cantabile in character, with many appoggiaturas and syncopations.
The A section is in the minor mode and the B section in the parallel major key. Both sections have two subsections a, a 1, b, and b 1 , and the piece ends with a short coda. The melody is embellished with appoggiaturas and syncopations, and receives a varied treatment. Marcondes, Ibid. In the b 1 section, the texture becomes contrapuntal. This section presents a performance challenge in measure the stretch of a tenth, as it appears in the third measure of the right hand of Figure 3.
One solution here would be to use the pedal for the first G right hand and then untie and play the second G without pedal allowing the staccato articulation of the left hand. The romance, also known as ballad, is a strophic narrative song, usually in four rhymed eight-syllable lines, derived from the epic poems of the Middle Ages in France and Spain. Tempo, meter, melody, and harmony are varied throughout the piece. Noteworthy are the extensive use of the Neapolitan chord in the variations and the uneven phrase-lengths.
Boi means ox. It retains the meter, though the tempo is faster and the variation is two measures longer than the theme. The second variation is even faster, and its main feature is the use of different meters that result in a shift of the downbeat. This variation is seven measures longer than the theme. The third variation is a little slower than the second, is mostly in triple meter, and includes rubato. The fourth variation varies the theme by melodic fragmentation.
Saloia was a term used to refer to a rustic person or peasant, who was unsophisticated, uncultured, sly or a rogue. The contrast between the viola and a sonorous harp played respectively by a saloia and a beautiful maiden, shows explicit prejudice between musical instruments and social groups.
The little brunette.
His collections of modinhas became popular in the city in the nineteenth century. It is interesting to observe that while Augusto praises the lundu originating from the black population when played on the piano, he criticizes viola music. However, in the plot created by Joaquim Manuel de Macedo the young protagonist Rosa, sings different songs showing the diversity of musical genres that would be heard and performed in the elite social environment of Rio de Janeiro in the nineteenth century.
In an excerpt, Rosa tries to persuade her father to give her money to buy some adornments. Macedo wrote the song lyrics but did not try to classify the genre. In the same story, Rosa sang an allegro from an Italian aria, which suggests the levels of musical diversity that existed among the Rio elite. A stroll across the city of Rio de Janeiro It highlights the following passage: Brazilian modinhas and lundus, almost no longer exist except in the memory of the elderly; they were banned from elegant salons and with all primitive customs [ O canto da vaidosa.
Um passeio pela cidade do Rio de Janeiro.
This commentary about music in Rio de Janeiro in the second half of the nineteenth century shows that the modinha and the lundu were being consolidated as Brazilian genres, while the influence of foreign music was also changing the musical taste of the Carioca population. I contend that not only music, but also some musical instruments followed the same trajectory, if not entirely vanishing, perhaps losing the importance they once had. The viola would be one of those instruments that was once popular in the capital of the Empire and later became strongly associated with rural culture.
The blonde young man However, the little that is revealed can be useful for understanding local practices surrounding chordophones as song accompaniment in Rio de Janeiro, as exemplified in the following excerpt: In the novel The Moreninha of , previously mentioned, Macedo associated the viola with the saloias exemplifying the rural and old.
In the novel The Women of Mantilla, Macedo would once more write about life in Rio de Janeiro giving musical examples where his characters played chordophones.
The women of Mantilla Revealing the point of view of the elite of the era, Macedo , commented on Bishop D. As mulheres de mantilha. His real name was D. Knowing the criticizm came from the bishop, the population responded by creating another lundu that Macedo cites: It is through this type of song that the population protested against attempts of government control by Conde da Cunha.
Macedo continues saying that: The church was one of the hegemonic institutions in Carioca society. Its objection to forms of popular music such as the lundu and the explicit resistance of the populous in directing another lundu against the bishop, indicates that, already in the second half of the eighteenth century, there was a clash of religious and secular discourse in Rio in which musical choice played an important social role.
For now, I want to draw attention to another excerpt from the Women of Mantilla that provides other insights into the lundu and the types of instruments used at that time. Cried a beautiful young lady, standing up and taking the viola. The connection between the lundu and the viola in this passage shows that a new cultural and musical identity of instruments and musical genres was already being created in Rio de Janeiro in the eighteenth century.
The passage indicates that both the viola and the lundu, were seen as popular in opposition to other musical practices. It is important to understand how the viola was used later in Rio, and why the instrument declined in the city. Not all the lundus were like this, rather, some bore the special grace of this genre without offending the decency of a maiden in the slightest, and had the great merit of possessing a certain national character, although they very much wanted to, rightly or not, in imitation of the Spanish zarzuela35 MACEDO, CASTRO Macedo acknowledges lundu as having a certain national character, even identifying two types suited to distinctive environments.
After their presentation, however, they were warmly applauded by the viceroy and all present. What becomes apparent in the scene is the adoption of a musical genre of popular origin by other social strata. The following excerpts permit a more focused view of chordophones of the epoch: In the first quote the author states that the girls learned to play the guitar; in the second excerpt he tells the reader that Isidora sang a ballad and a lundu accompanied by the guitarra.
In the third passage, women challenged authorities by singing with the harpsichord, guitarra, or the viola. The information about the existence of an instrument called the guitarra in the eighteenth century, creates a problem in the study of chordophones in Rio de Janeiro, because Macedo mentioned the guitarra and the viola together, indicating that they were different instruments, and not just, guitarras guitars a generic term to refer to any plucked chordophone.
A similar nomenclature, referring to chordophones in the nineteenth century, is mentioned by Debret in one of his lithographs in Rio. Debret referred to the guitarra that is an unknown instrument in the organology of chordophones in Brazil.
Memoirs of a Militia Sergeant This novel has been praised by scholars from different disciplines for its consistency and richness of detail in describing the Brazilian past.
The historian Thomas Holloway, for instance, states that Memoirs of a Militia Sergeant—a work that literary scholars generally do not consider as a major novel in the grand tradition--is an important literary and historical document in the development of Brazilian culture. The type, frames, scenes, stains and small notes mark the pages of the narrative, which unfolds quite naturally, sometimes not without a certain amount of malice.
The design is usually firm and precise, and the 40 I used two editions of the book, the Brazilian version: The plot is a sequence of adventures of the Brazilian boy Leonardo from infancy until adulthood.
Son of Portuguese parents who met on a ship from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, Leonardo was abandoned first by his mother Maria and then by his father Leonardo Pataca. The plot, however, is humorous rather than tragic. Brought up and spoiled by his godfather, Leonardo explores the city of Rio de Janeiro allowing the reader a glimpse of the cultural richness of the city in the early nineteenth century.
The guests of the master of the house [the godfather], all of whom were likewise from the old country [Portugal], sang a desafio42, as was their custom. The godfather brought his fiddle with him, which, as everyone knows, is the preferred instrument of the people of his trade [barbers].
The idea won general acceptance This caused the godfather to miss the beat over and over again and have to start anew each time. Some young men arrived with violas43 and machetes44, Leonardo, urged on by the ladies, launched into a lyric portion of the program. This is a common error when the term viola is translated into other languages.
The Portuguese sang the desafio, Brazilians danced the fado, then both groups danced the minuet, an aristocratic dance from France usually performed in court. This baptism party provides a small but significant sample of how such a varied repertoire could circulate at a popular celebration in the beginning of nineteenth- century in Rio, and furthermore, could be seen as a metaphor of Carioca society.
The baby Leonardo represents the new establishment. The guests who were Brazilian and Portuguese, denote the two countries involved in the foundation of the new state with the arrival of the Portuguese royal family in Rio.
The desafio and the fado stood for the cultural heritage from both sides of the Atlantic.
Chegaram uns rapazes de viola e machete: Sentou-se num tamborete, em um lugar isolado da sala, e tomou uma viola. In another scene, Almeida describes in detail a gypsy party where the fado47 was played and danced: Everybody knows what the fado is, that dance so voluptuous, so varied, that it seems the offspring of the most comprehensive study of the art. A simple viola serves better as its accompaniment than any other instrument [ The music is different for each one, though it is always played on the viola.
Almeida also states that these gypsy celebrations continued on until the time in which the novel was written, that is, at least, until the early s. Gypsy parties were also described by the memorialist Melo Morais Filho in who described how a marriage was celebrated: In one, just a single person, a man or woman, dances in the middle of the floor for some time, performing the most difficult steps, assuming the haughtiest positions, accompanying all of this with the snapping of the fingers.
Paul Gilroy, A Crise Da Raca e Da Raciologia
Then, he or she slowly begins approaching someone else of his or her choice. After a few turns and movements in front of that person, final hand claps announce that the other has been chosen to go next. In that way the entire circle is called in until everyone has danced.
The same quotation from the Brazilian edition: In Memories of a Militia Sergeant, a gypsy girl, the lover of Leonardo Pataca, was celebrating her birthday, which provided the pretext for a party. Almeida says: A chordophone called viola was documented by the author as an instrument widely used in many social contexts, in popular festivities on the streets or at home, at the time of the empire.
In the following excerpt, Almeida describes the Feast of the Holy Ghost, and in addition to other instruments, the machete appears as a chordophone played by the population. He writes: As everyone knows, the Feast of the Holy Ghost is one of the favorite celebrations of the people of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Even today [, ] when certain habits are being lost, some of them good, others, bad, that feast day is still the occasion of great activity; however, what happens today is far from what used to take place back in the era to which we have taken our readers [from to ].
The celebrations did not begin on the Sunday marked on the liturgical calendar; they started much earlier, nine days we believe, so that the novenae could take place. The first announcement of the festival were the Folias. This excerpt is particularly important because Almeida identifies the decline of the Feast of the Holy Ghost in Rio de Janeiro in the nineteenth century, and with it, the ancient tradition of the folias.
It is possible that the violas which were traditionally used in the folias, declined along with the tradition. Following the descriptions of the Feast of the Holy Ghost, the author presents another instrument used in the celebrations, this time in Campo de Santana, a part of the city where people gathered to see the fireworks that were part of the the event: A great part of the grounds of the Campo was already covered with groups seated on mats, eating, talking, and singing modinhas to the accompaniment of the guitarras and violas.
It was a delight to stroll through them; and hear, here, an anecdote being told by someone well spoken, and there, a modinha being sung in that passionately poetic tone that is one of our originalities, and to witness the movement and animation that reigned overall ALMEIDA, Fazia gosto passear por entre eles, e ouvir aqui a anedota que contava um conviva de bom gosto, opus.
The accounts of modinhas accompanied by guitarra and the viola give important clues as to the use of both instruments at the time. When Almeida mentions the viola and the guitarra side-by-side, he documents the existence of two different chordophones. What should be noted though, is how the English edition translated the word viola in the passage mentioned above. The translator, Ronald Sousa, writes: When Almeida used the term guitarras this was repeated by the translator, but the term viola is referred to as guitar by the translator.
This demonstrates ambiguity around the instrument, since in other environments the viola was naturally accepted. The Agulha family In English these would be close to but not exactly translated as trickster, rogue, rascal, or scoundrel.
In this comic-realist and often surrealist tragedy, the author describes the adventures of the family, allowing the reader to indulge a little in the popular music scene of the period. I like it! What do you ladies like? Quininha Ciciosa [female character], removing the little ribbons, lengthened her lip with wonderful disdain: For we had to dance the?Conf, Both pieces are in B major and modulate to G major, although the form of Chopin s Mazurka is more extended and features a larger section in the dominant area see Table 3.
Figure Reduction of the subject of Lacerda s Desafio Fig Starting pitches of the subject of Lacerda s Desafio Figure Opening of Lacerda s Desafio 95 Interval class is the smallest distance in semitones between two pitch classes a group of pitches with the same name, for example, the pitch class C includes:,c 0,C 1,C 2,C 3,.
The first announcement of the festival were the Folias. Some years after the exchange between Guarnieri and Koellreutter, several musical movements, inspired by the ideas of Koellreutter, appeared in Brazil with the purpose of searching for new aesthetics and techniques.
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